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Full text of "The diary of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, wife of the first lieutenant-governor of the province of Upper Canada, 1792-6 : with notes and a biography by J. Ross Robertson, and two hundred and thirty-seven illustrations, including ninety reproductions of interesting sketches made by Mrs. Simcoe"

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(From a Crayon Drawing at Woltord, Devon ) 














Copyright, Canada, 1911, by 


The writer gratefully acknowledges Ms debt to the many persons in 
Canada and elsewhere who have shown a kindly and personal interest in 
the collection of data and of illustrations for this volume. It would not 
have been possible to present so much in the line of information and of 
illustrations in tJie volume without the aid of these friends. 

Many portraits connected with the early history of Canada, and much 
of the information, have been generously supplied by His Excellency the 
Governor-General, Earl Grey; Mrs. .John Kennaway Simcoe, of Wolford, 
Devon; Dr. Arthur Doughty, Archivist of the Dominion of Canada; Mr. 
L. P. Sylvain, Assistant Librarian of the Library of Parliament, Ottawa; 
Mr. Avern Pardoe, Librarian of the Legislative Assembly, Toronto; Dr. 
G. H. Locke, Chief Librarian of the Public Library, Toronto; Mr. T- 
O'Leary, Curator of the Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal; and Miss Janet 
Carnochan, President of the Niagara Historical Society. 

Grateful acknowledgment for many portraits connected with the earlier 
history of Canada, and much of the information presented, is extended to 
Messrs. J. Ashbridge, J. 8. Carstairs, J. E. Featherstonhaugh, ^Emilius Jar- 
vis, E. M. Playter, S. H. Townsend, J. 8. Cartwright, K.C., A. Olaude Mac- 
donell, M.P., A. McLean Macdonell, K.C., Walter Read, K.C., H. Crawford 
Scadding, M.D., Col. George Shaw, C. C. James (Deputy Minister of Agricul- 
ture, Ontario) , Mrs. Stephen Heward and Mrs. Robert Sullivan, of Toronto ; 
Messrs. J. S. Brierley, Hertel La Rocque, H. Ryland Low, J. W. Molson, 
W. H. Whyte, Sir Edward Gordon Johnson, Bart., W. D. Lighthall, E.G., 
David Ross McCord, K.C., Miss Gertrude Coffln and Mrs. Henry J. Lows 
of Montreal; Dr. H. J. Morgan, and Mr. Errol Bouchette, F.R.S.C., of 
Ottawa; Philippe B. Casgrain, K.C., and Mr. L. Lemieux, of Quebec; 
Messrs. J. G. Elliott, Olark Hamilton, Abraham Shaw and Mrs. J. Maule 
Machar, of Kingston; Messrs. Charles E. Britton and Charles Macdonald, 
of Gananoque; His Honor Judge Herbert S. Macdonald, of Brockville; 
Messrs. W. E. McKeough and Sydney Stephenson, of Chatham; Messrs. 
William Johnson McKee and Francis Cleary, of Windsor; Prof. A. Mac- 
mechan and Rev. C. W. Ternon, of Halifax; F. J. French, K.C., and Mr. 
Edward Jessup, of Prescott; Andrew F. McCallum, C.E., Hamilton; Mrs. 
George Macbeth, London; Miss Mary Servos, of Niagara-on-the-Lake ; 
Messrs. James H. Coyne, St. Thomas; James B. Sheehan, Dunnville; 
K. G. Thomson, Norwood; A. F. Hunter, Barrie; C. H. Hale, Orillia; 
William Forbes, Grimsby; W. R. Hickey, Bothwell; A. Courtney King- 
stone, St. Catharines; A. C. Casselman, North Bay; Robert C. Givins, 
Chicago; Peter A. Porter, Niagara Falls, N.Y.; Basil Hamilton, Wilmer, 
B.C.; A. H. Askin, Walkerville; C. M. Burton, Detroit; J. A. Macdonell, 
K.C., Alexandria; A. E. Holland, St. Eleanor's, P.E.I.; A. E. C. Holland, 
Wallace Bridge, N.S.; Mrs. E. Vosburgh, niece of the late Reverend 
Prebendary Sadler, of Honiton, Devon; Miss H. E. Macaulay, Exmouth, 
Eng.; Hector Sinclair Fraser, Inverness; Mrs. Arklay Fergusson, 
Ethiebeaton, Scotland; Mr. A. M. Broadley, Bridport, Eng.; Mr. 
B. 0. Pearce, Portland, Dorset, Eng.; Prof. Rushton Fairclough, Stan- 
ford University, and Mr. Thos. H. Gwillim, San Francisco, California; 
Ian Robert James Murray Grant, of Glenmoriston, Inverness-shire, Scot- 
land; Mme. Falret de Tuite, Pau, France; the British Museum and College 
of Arms, London, Eng.; Miss Maude Givins, Toronto. 



THE early history of Upper Canada has been usually sought for 
in constitutional documents and State papers. The social life of 
the period is recorded principally in the few private letters which 
have survived a century. To this scanty fund of information it is 
to be hoped that the diary of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, the wife of 
the first Governor, will make an interesting addition. 

This record is the simple recital of her daily life in the pioneer 
days when Niagara was the centre of military, civil and social life 
in the new province, and York, the future capital, could scarcely 
count a score of habitable dwellings outside the primitive barracks 
that the Governor had erected within the few acres of ground where 
still stands the Fort the Old Fort as it is familiarly called in 
these modern days. Yes, when Navy Hall, on the banks of the 
Niagara River, was the first Government house of the province and 
an attractive home, full of welcome for visitors, official and unofficial. 

The original manuscript of the diary, of which this volume 
embodies the only copy, has been carefully transcribed by the kind 
permission of Mrs. Simcoe, of Wolford, the Simcoe estate, near the 
old town of Honiton in Devon, so well known to womankind for its 
manufacture of exquisite lace. Mrs. Simcoe is the present lady of 
the manor, and widow of the late Captain John Kennaway Simcoe, 
R.N., Justice of the Peace for the County of Devon. He was the 
only son of the late Rev. Henry Addington Simcoe (1800-1868) 
of Penheale in Cornwall, who was the third son of General Simcoe. 
Captain Simcoe died at Wblford in March, 1891. 

As a general rule entries were made in this record day by day 
and the writings mailed every week to Mrs. Hunt, a lady who had 
undertaken the charge of Mrs. Simcoe's four daughters, Eliza, 
Charlotte, Henrietta, and Caroline, all under seven years of age, who 
remained at Wolford. Sophia, born in 1789, and Francis Gwillim, 
born in 1791, accompanied the Governor and his wife to Canada. 

The diary was commenced on the 17th September, 1791, nine 
days prior to Mrs. Simcoe's departure from Weymouth for Quebec, 
on the "Triton," man-of-war. The last entries are on the 16th 
October, 1796, when Governor Simcoe and his wife again arrived in 

My annotations, instead of being arranged and placed in the 
.conventional form as footnotes, are incorporated with the text of 
the diary following the entries to which they belong. The notes 
are so voluminous that, if given at the foot of each page, they would 
be pages in advance of the text. The reader will, therefore, have 


the advantage of reading first the text and then the note which 
accompanies it. The few brief notes that appear in parenthesis 
throughout the actual text are principally from memoranda made 
by Mrs. Simcoe in connection with the small maps that form part 
of the diary. 

The illustrations, except where otherwise stated, are reproductions 
of water-colors, pen sketches and pencil drawings made by Mrs. 
Simcoe on her outward-bound voyage, and during her residence in 
Canada and after her return in 1796 to her old home in Devon. 

The originals of these drawings are nearly all at Wolford. But 
thirty-two, in sepia, are in a portfolio in the Royal Library in the 
British Museum. This library was given by George II. to the 
Museum, and with the gift the Royal privilege of receiving gratui- 
tously a copy of every book copyrighted in the British dominions 
passed to the Museum. After his return to England, Governor Simcoe 
presented these drawings to His Majesty King George III. Some 
of them are copies of sketches made by Lieutenant Robert Pilldngton 
(afterwards Major-General ), one of the staff, while on various excur- 
sions with the Governor. The inscription on the title page of the 
portfolio which contains these pictures reads: "Thirty-two views in 
Upper Canada by Mrs. Simcoe, presented to His Majesty by Governor 
Simcoe, with a sketch of Upper Canada, drawn on bark." These have 
been carefully reproduced. Other water-colors of the collection which 
have so faded that they could not be satisfactorily reproduced have 
been redrawn, while the original pen-and-ink sketches and pencil 
drawings are in facsimile. 

Notwithstanding its excellence, the value of the art work of Mrs. 
Simcoe lies not so much in its merit as an exemplification of good 
color and pencil work, but in the fact that it gives to present readers 
of Canadian history faithful pictures of places and scenes in Upper 
and Lower Canada from 1791-6, which we would have lost absolutely 
had it not been for the gifted hand of the wife of the first Governor. 

"Were it not for her work, we would not have views of Toronto 
Harbor at the end of the eighteenth century. We would not be able 
to contrast the quiet of the harbor and its surroundings in 1793, 
when it was the home of the aborigine and the haunt of the wild 
fowl, with the commercial activities of to-day. We would not have 
a picture of the Mohawk Village on the Grand River near Brantford, 
which, with the exception of the Mohawk Church, has passed away ; 
nor of the early days of the Niagara and Kingston settlements that 
were then and are now important places in the history of the Province 
of Upper Canada. 

Her sketches of places on the route from Quebec to York, in and 
about Niagara, and her copies of Lieutenant Pilkington's sketches in 
the Georgian Bay district, must also add much to the interest of the 
reader. One of Mrs. Simcoe's best efforts is a large water-color of 
the Falls of Niagara, made during her many visits to this favored 
spot. It adorns the walls of Wolford. 



To the diary I have appended the journal of John Bailey, who 
for over thirty-seven years was in the service of the Simcoe family 
at Wolford. He entered the Simcoe household in the autumn of 
1802, when a lad twelve years of age, and after the death of General 
Simcoe in 1806 he continued in the service of Mrs. Simcoe for about 
two years. He then went to sea for a short time, but once more 
wore the Simcoe livery from 1818 to 1850, when his mistress died. 

In her travels in different parts of England and Wales never 
once did she neglect to have Bailey look after all arrangements for 
her comfort, and act when desired as her coachman. His opinions, 
his reverence for Mrs. Simcoe, his devotion to the family, mark him 
as a man of more than ordinary intelligence. It is most refreshing 
to read his narrative. 

The writing of the biography of Mrs. Simcoe entailed much 
research. Every facility was courteously afforded me by Mrs. John 
Kennaway Simcoe. I can never sufficiently thank her for her 
unwearying efforts to help me in my quest concerning not only the 
life of Mrs. Simcoe, but also that of General Simcoe, whose biography 
will appear in another volume. 

Nothing has ever been published concerning the esteemed and 
talented wife of the first Governor of Upper Canada. In presenting 
this record of her life my hope is that it not only may be read with 
pleasure, but also find a place on the bookshelf of all who take in- 
terest in the pioneer days of the province that started its pace in 
the making of history one hundred and twenty years ago. 

Toronto, August, 1911. 




The early days of Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim The home at Old 
Court Her father a distinguished officer The Gwillims of noble 
lineage Arms and genealogy of the family 1 


Origin of Simcoe family Capt. John Simcoe, R.N. His marriage 
Simcoe arms granted Death of Capt. Simcoe Brief sketch of 
John Graves Simcoe in American Revolutionary War and as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada 12 


Colonel Simcoe meets Miss Gwillim Engagement Marriage Sim- 
coe-Gwillim arms Removal to Wolford Appointed Lieutenant- 
Governor of Upper Canada 29 


Arrival at Weymouth Pleasant days before setting sail for Canada 
First entry in Mrs. Simcoe's diary Mrs. Simcoe meets Lady 
Collier George III. Visit to the island of Portland Story of 
the custom of gavel-kind The records kept by a reeve staff 
Something about the reeve Lady de la Pole Capt. Murray of 
the " Triton " Mrs. Simcoe meets a number of distinguished 
officers 35 


Captain Stevenson and Lieutenant Grey The Azores The " Deal 
Castle " A gale Mother Carey's chickens Off Sable Island 
Cape Breton sighted In the Gulf of St. Lawrence Communica- 
tion with the " Liberty " Heavy seas Signalling a pilot - - 43 


Sir Alured Clarke Prince Edward Regrets at leaving the " Triton " 
First impressions of Quebec Capt. Murray sails for Halifax 
House in St. John Street Recollet Church Mrs. Simcoe 
meets Quebec notables Colonel Simcoe sets out for Montreal 
The Chateau St. Louis Lieut. Talbot returns with Colonel 
Simcoe from Montreal - - 53 




Feast of the Epiphany A visit to Falls of Montmorency Mrs. Simcoe 
meets Prince Edward Canoe travel in winter An ice bridge 
Social functions Removal from St. John Street house A 
journey from Frederickstown, N.B., to Quebec The Heights of 
Abraham Cape Diamond A catastrophe 73 


Governor Simcoe and suite leave for Upper Canada The Bishop of 
Caps Letters from England A night at Cap Sante with habit- 
ants A drive to Grondines Impressions of places en route to 
Montreal Capt. Stevenson meets the party at Pointe aux 
Trembles (en haut) In Government House, Montreal Joseph 
Frobisher extends hospitality La Baronne de Longueuil From 
Montreal to Lachine A Highland welcome Courtesy of settlers 
along the St. Lawrence Sojourn at Gananoque Arrival at 
Kingston Its unfitness as a seat of Government 89 



Early Kingston The shipyard The lake fleet Simcoe takes oaths 
as Governor Entertained by Indians Mrs. Macaulay calls on 
Mrs. Simcoe Method of clearing land Rev. John Stuart 
The Governor determines to proceed to Niagara On board the 
" Onondaga " Ill 



Navy Hall and environments Freemasons' Hall An early call at 
Hon. Robert Hamilton's Mrs. Simcoe spends a day sightseeing 
Making friends A thunderstorm The visit of H.R.H. Prince 
Edward Mr. Littlehales goes to Philadelphia to see the British 
Ambassador Commodore Bouchette surveys Toronto harbor 
Thayendanegea Evening pastimes 121 


Mr. Littlehales returns from Philadelphia The Governor and party 
set out for Detroit Different stages of the journey Home again 
An account of the trip Governor Simcoe indisposed A fort- 
night at Queenstown The " Upper Canada Gazette " Captain 
yEneas Shaw's family arrives at Niagara The Governor's first 
visit to Toronto 146 



Their arrival The King's birthday celebrated Sir William Johnson 
Mrs. Simcoe ill at Fort Niagara Queen's Rangers in camp 
The Commissioners leave for Fort Erie Illness of Francis 
Gwillim Simcoe Recuperates at the camp on the mountain An 
Indian council Mrs. Simcoe's first visit to Toronto Picturesque 
scenes Ojibways pay their respects Envoys of the Government 
Governor's trip to Lake Huron Varied experiences - - - 164 



The want of a summer home a site for Castle Frank selected 
Description of the building Life in the' early days of York- 
Dining in a meadow on Toronto peninsula A canoe trip to 
Scarborough Heights Peculiarity of Indian burial rites Armed 
schooner " Onondaga " of the Provincial Government Sergeant 
Wright of the Queen's Rangers Mrs. Simcoe visits old French 
Fort Rouille 203 


Residing in Castle Frank John Scadding's dwelling burned The 
" Onondaga " afloat Poverty of Indians Instructions of Lord 
Dorchester with regard to building Fort Miami Mr. McGill's 
farm Again at Niagara Rumor of war Francis Gwillim Sim- 
coe's third birthday Soldier accidentally wounds the Governor 
An excursion to the " Forty " General Washington at Phila- 
delphia Bishop Mountain visits Niagara News from Fort 
Miami Return of Alex. Mackenzie from the Pacific - - - 213 


Uncertainty of continued peace necessitates Mrs. Simcoe's going to 
Lower Canada The " Mississaga " in readiness Passage for 
Molly Brant Anchored in Kingston harbor Hospitality of Gan- 
anoque settlers A stormy sail, attended with anxiety Lachine 
reached Wearisome drive to Montreal Mr. Frobisher always 
hospitable Voyage recommenced The closing day Welcome at 
Cap Sant6 Reception at Belmont Friendships renewed Cer- 
tainty of peace Courtesy of Lord and Lady Dorchester Loss of 
the Bridget" 244 


Assembly at the Chateau Social enjoyments Lady Dorchester calls 
to take leave of Mrs. Simcoe Travel in winter season The Gov- 
ernor meets his wife They proceed westward Difficulties on the 
way In Kingston Many miles covered on Bay of Quinte ice 
The Governor seriously ill In great danger off Gibraltar Point 
Gaieties at York Pleasurable canoe trip to Niagara - - - 264 


Prominent in France Guest at Navy Hall His remarks regarding 
Mrs. Simcoe " Anglo-Canadian's " criticism Mrs. Simcoe's 
opinion of the Duke and his party Mrs. McGill visits Niagara 
Characteristics of Fort Erie Governor Simcoe proceeds to Long 
Point and Mrs. Simcoe returns to Niagara A mineral spring 
Long Point (Charlotteville) impresses the Governor favorably 
His illness on return 277 




A quick trip across the lake Mr. John B. Laurence accompanies the 
party to York Deer in vicinity of Lake Simcoe Castle Frank 
in process of erection Fishing on the Don River Governor's 
health improves Winter picnics John Macaulay (Honorable 
John Simcoe Macaulay) an axeman Thaw affects the " Head of 
the Lake " A few days at Castle Frank in camp fashion - - 297 


The Governor worse The journey from York to Niagara is made in 
four hours A snowfall in May News of the ratification of Jay's 
Treaty Mrs. Simcoe takes leave of Mrs. Hamilton Farewell to 
Navy Hall Grandeur of the " Forty " Over mountain and 
stream to the " Kings' Head " inn The surrounding country 
Some inhabitants Sight-seeing at Stoney Creek A diversion at 
Burlington Bay Embarked at the inlet A sail through a heavy 
sea to the River Credit Arrival at York 310 


Castle Frank in summer The Governor receives official reply to his 
request for leave of absence He and his suite to sail on the 
" Pearl " from Quebec A round of farewells Mrs. Simcoe much 
depressed at leaving friends Sail from York on 21st July, arriv- 
ing in Kingston on 25th A short stay in Kingston Some events 
of the voyage east to Lachine Piloted through the rapids to 
Montreal Sojourn at Mr. Edward Gray's Unpleasant voyage 
from Montreal to Three Rivers A few minutes with Rev. Dr. 
Mountain Mrs. Simcoe enjoys approach to Quebec Greetings at 
Belmont 332 


Bishop Mountain places his house in Quebec at Mrs. Simcoe's disposal 
She accepts offer The " Active " with Lord Dorchester wrecked 
off Anticosti Mrs. Simcoe fears Lord Dorchester will sail oil the 
" Pearl " A visit to the Convent of the Ursulines Recollet 
Church destroyed by fire Embark on the " Pearl " Chased by 
French frigates Anxiety at an end Several days of stormy 
weather Land's End sighted In the Downs Pleasant hours at 
Dover The Cathedral at Canterbury Mrs. Simcoe contrasts 
English climate with that of Canada Arrival in London - - 350 


The home-coming Life at Wolford Gov. Simcoe appointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief at San Domingo Climatic conditions unfavor- 
able Returns to England Commander of the Western Military 
District Appointed Commander-in-Chief in India, followed by 
orders to leave for Portugal Mrs. Simcoe makes preparations to 
leave for the East News of the General's illness and return to 
England Mother and daughters hasten to Exeter General 
Simcoe's death . 359 





Wolford after the death of the General Rev. Henry Addington Sim- 
coe Work of the Misses Simcoe What they did for the Parish of 
Dunkeswell The building of the Abbey church Carving and 
ornamentation by the Misses Simcoe Death of Mrs. Simcoe An 
impressive funeral service A daughter on her mother's char- 
acter Capt. John Kennaway Simcoe succeeds to Wolford His 
marriage and life on the old estate 363 

A last tribute to Mrs. Simcoe A memorial sermon in the parish 

church Every parishioner present A memorable gathering - 370 


Her daughters her heirs Leaves a large sum of money to each The 
land and estate of Dunkeswell Abbey left to Eliza and Caroline 
as joint tenants Mr. Walcot, of Oundle, a cousin of Mrs. Simcoe, 
bequeaths a large estate to the Simcoe family - ... 381 



His lands principally in the eastern part of the province His income 
as Governor Accounts not all adjusted when he left Canada 
Trouble in disposing of lands and in collection of arrearages 
The Castle Frank property, which belonged to Francis, his eldest 
son Mrs. Simcoe's interest in property at York Kept up a corre- 
spondence with Canadian friends until within a short time of 
her death Profound regard for Rev. Dr. Scadding, of Toronto - 387 


The author talks with some of the old retainers of Dunkeswell Parish 
Kindly words of the Simcoes from tenants Something about 
Bailey 390 



Tells of incidents in the daily life at Wolford Pleasurable outings 
Catastrophe at the " Old Passage " Bailey a man well versed in 
Bible knowledge The Simcoes as early risers The improve- 
ments on the estate at Wolford Visit of Mrs. Simcoe to her son, 
Henry Addington Simcoe at Penheale North Wales a favorite 
touring place Bailey's knowledge of every locality visited - - 393 


Describes the funeral of the General in 1806, and of his mistress in 
1850 Comments on death and the resurrection Bailey tells of 
General Simcoe's work as commander of the South-Western Dis- 
trict Describes a sham battle near Honiton Training of volun- 
teers Simcoe's great care Bailey on the proposed French 
invasion 403 




Its improvement in fifty years Improvements at Wolford Estate 
and military discipline Bailey again gives opinion on the 
chances of a war with Prance Dinner parties at the Manor 
House Death of the General Bailey's high opinion of the 
Misses Simcoe 409 


His recollections of the General Bailey intersperses comment of a 
religious character in relating his story As a small boy in the 
butler's pantry Curious incident concerning a distinguished 
Frenchman Journey to Bath A runaway - - - 415 


Places and scenes Comparisons by Bailey Musings Courtesy and 

Liberality of the General Always progressing .... 422 


Wolford a great social centre in Devon The General appointed to 
India The Scadding family in Devon and Canada Bailey quotes 
Scripture Likens Governor Simcoe to Biblical characters - - 426 



MBS. JOHN GRAVES SIMCOE .... . Frontispiece 


" OLD COURT," NEAR Ross, HEREFORDSHIRE - - ' - - - - 1 
(From a drawing- in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From the plaster bust at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 
collection. ) 


(From a drawing in the College of Arms, London, England.) 


(From, a drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a miniature at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From the original at Wolford, Devon.) 

(From a drawing made in 1818, in the J. Ross Robertson 


From a drawing in College of Arms, London, England.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

HON. JAMES BABY - - - 21 

(From a drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

NAVY HALL, NIAGARA, 1792 - Face 22 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe, In the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From register of Buckerall Parish Church.) 


(From a drawing in the College of Arms, London, England.) 


(From a drawing at Wolford, Devon.) 





(From a drawing- in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing in the Broadley collection, Brldport, Dorset.) 

(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

(From a drawing by B. O. Pearce, ex-Reeve of Portland.) 

(From a water-color by Wm. Delamotte, in the Broadley 
collection, Bridport.) 


(From an engraving- in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a miniature owned by the late Miss Gwynne, Toronto.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a portrait in possession of His Excellency Earl Grey, 
Governor-General of Canada). 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe on board H. M. S. " Triton.") 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe on board H. M. S. "Triton.") 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe on board H. M. S. " Triton.") 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe on board H. M. S. "Triton.") 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe on board H. M. S. " Triton.") 


(From a portrait in possession of Rev. C. "W. Vernon, Halifax, N.S.) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simooe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an engraving in the Public Library, Toronto.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing of interior of the church, restored after the 
siege of Quebec.) 


(From an engraving in the Legislative Library, Quebec.) 





(From a drawing in possession of P. B. Casgrain, K.C., Quebec.) 


(From a miniature in possession of his great-grandson, A. El 
Holland, St. Eleanor's, Prince Edward Island.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


FRONTENAC, 1694-8 61 

(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From a water-color by H. Bunnell, 1887.) 


(From a water-color by J. B. Wandesforde, in possession of 
Mrs. George Macbeth, London, Ontario.) 


(From a sketch sent to England in 1806, copied by Mrs. Simcoe.) 


(From an engraving in the Legislative Library, Quebec.) 


(From a drawing by Richard Short, 1761, engraved by James 
Mason. ) 


(From a drawing in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From Routhier's "Quebec.") 

ST. Louis GATE, QUEBEC, 1791 70 

(From a drawing In the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a portrait in possession of L. P. Sylvain, Assistant 
Librarian, Library of Parliament, Ottawa.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a portrait in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 





(From a silhouette in possession of Mons. Hertel la Rocque, 


(From a silhouette in possession of Mons. Hertel la Rocque, 


(From a portrait in possession of L. P. Sylvain, Assistant 
Librarian, Library of Parliament, Ottawa.) 


(From a portrait in the Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal.) 


(From a portrait from life in possession of his grandson, Colonel 
George Shaw, Toronto.) 


(From a portrait in the David Ross McCord collection, Montreal.) 


(From a portrait in possession of L. P. Sylvain, Assistant 
Librarian, Library of Parliament, Ottawa.) 


(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


- (From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing 1 by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From an oil painting from life at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 

JOHN McCoBD, JB. 91 

(From a portrait in the David Ross McCord collection, Montreal.) 


(From a portrait from life in possession of his grandson, Sir 
Randolph Littlehales Baker, Bart., Dorset, England.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a portrait in the David Ross McCord collection, Montreal.) 


(From an engraving in " Hochelaga Depicta," 1839.) 


(From "Montreal After 250 Tears," by W. D. Lighthall, K.C.). 

(From an oil painting from life in possession of Mrs. Rushton 
Fairclough, her great-great-granddaughter, Stanford Univer- 
sity, Gal.) 

HON. WM. GRANT -... gg 

(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 





(From an oil painting: from life in possession of Mrs. Arklay 

Fergusson, her great-granddaughter, Ethiebeaton, Scotland.) 

POINTE AU BODET, 1792 Face 100 

(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From an engraving- in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 

(From a drawing- by James Peachey, 1783, in the J. Ross 
Robertson collection.) 

A DISTANT VIEW OF KINGSTON, IN 1792 ------- 115 

(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an oil painting from life, in possession of his grand- 
daughters, the Misses Macaulay, Exmouth, Devon.) 


(From an oil painting from life, in possession of the Misses 
Macaulay, Exmouth, Devon.) 

REV. JOHN STUART *- - - - 119 

(From a portrait in the David Ross McCord collection, Montreal.) 


(From a drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

NAVY HALL, NIAGARA, FROM THE RIVER, 1792 - - - - Face 122 
(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From a miniature in possession of his grandson, Clark Hamilton, 
of Kingston, Ontario.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From a water-color by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a silhouette in possession of his grandson, A. H. Askin, 
Walkerville, Ontario.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a portrait at Newton-Stewart, Scotland.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From an engraving in possession of Errol Bouchette, F.R.S.C., 



(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson Masonic collection.) 

(From a drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

LITTLE NIAGARA, 1745-51 ........ 

(From a drawing by Peter A. Porter, of Niagara Falls, N. T.) 


(From a drawing- by the late Col. Peter A. Porter, of Niagara 
Falls, N. Y. 

(From a drawing by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

(From a drawing in the Royal Library, British Museum, made 
by Lieut. Pilkington, and copied by Mrs. Simcoe.) 


- 142 

- 144 

- 145 



(From a silhouette in possession of her niece, Mrs. Stephen 
Howard, Toronto.) 


Face 152 

Face 158 


(From a drawing by "Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing made in 1830, copied by Mrs. Simcoe.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

TIMOTHY PICKERING ........... 165 

(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a portrait in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From a portrait from life in possession of Sir Gordon Johnson, 
Bart, Montreal.) 

SIR JOHN JOHNSON, BART. ....... - 168 

(From a portrait in the David Ross McCord collection, Montreal.) 

COLONEL GUY JOHNSON .......... 168 

(From an engraving in the Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 

HON. ALEXANDER GRANT .......... 171 

(From an oil painting from life in possession of Grant of Glen- 
moriston, Inverness-shire, Scotland.) 

(From a water-color by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 

YORK (TORONTO) HARBOR, 1793 ....... Face 176 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


AND RAGGED RAPIDS ........ Face 180 

(From a drawing by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
in the Royal Library, British Museum, London.) 




(From a drawing- by Lieut. Pilkingrton, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
in the Royal Library, British Museum, London.) 


(From a portrait in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a portrait in the Ursuline Convent, Quebec.) 



(From a drawing- by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
in the Royal Library, British Museum, London.) 

(From a drawing: by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
in the Royal Library, British Museum, London.) 


(From the original in Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, 
London, England.) 

(From a drawing- by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
in the Royal Library, British Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
in the Royal Library, British Museum, London.) 


(From a plan in the Crown Lands Department, Toronto.) 

CASTLE FRANK, 1794 Face 204 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an oil painting from life in possession of his grandson, 
Edward H. Rodden, Toronto.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an oil painting from life in possession of his grand- 
nephew, Dr. H. Crawford Scadding, Toronto.) 


(From a portrait in possession of his daughter, Mrs. Robert 
Sullivan, Toronto. ) 


(From a portrait in possession of his daughter, Mrs. Robert 
Sullivan, Toronto.) 


(From a drawing by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
at Wolford, Devon.) 




(Prom a drawing: made in 1910, in the J. Ross Robertson 
collection. ) 

(From a drawing: by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe, in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 

RESIDENCE OF D. W. SMITH, NIAGARA, 1794 - - - - - 226 

(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing by Owen Staples, O.S.A., of Toronto, in 1911, 
in the J. Ross Robertson collection, Public Library, Toronto.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe, in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Owen Staples, O.S.A., of Toronto, in 1911, 
in the J. Ross Robertson collection, Public Library, Toronto.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a portrait in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe, in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From an oil painting from life, at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

KINGSTON, U. C., IN 1794 - - - Face 244 

(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe, in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a portrait in possession of his grandson, Charles 
Macdonald, Gananoque. ) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 

MONTREAL EAST TO POINT DU LAC, 1794 - - - - - - 256 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 





(From a copy of a miniature in England.) 


(Prom a portrait in possession of his granddaughter, Mrs. Henry 
J. Low, Montreal.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe, in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an oil painting from life, in possession of ^milius Jarvis, 


(From an oil painting from life, in possession of ^milius Jarvis, 
Toronto. ) 


(From a portrait in possession of his grandson, Basil G. 
Hamilton, Wilmer, B.C.) 


(From a portrait in possession of his grandson, Basil G. 
Hamilton, Wilmer, B.C.) 

(From a drawing" by Mrs. Simcoe, in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe, in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum. London.) 


(From a drawing by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
in the Royal Library, British Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Lieut. Pilkington, copied by Mrs. Simcoe, 
in the Royal Library, British Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From an oil painting in possession of his grandson, Robert 
C. Givins, Chicago, 111.) 


(From a miniature in possession of his great-granddaughter, 
Miss Maude A. A. Givins, Toronto.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From an oil painting from life, in possession of his grandson, 
^Emilius Jarvis, Toronto.) 

MRS. JARVIS , 311 

(From an oil painting from life, in possession of her grandson, 
^Emilius Jarvis, Toronto.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) . 




THE TWENTY MILE CREEK (JORDAN, ONT.), 1796 - - - Face 312 
(From a drawing: by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing from life by Lieut. Pilkingrton.) 


(From a drawing by Win. Forbes, Grimsby, Ont., in the J. Ross 
Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing; by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 

(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London. ) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 

(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 



(From a drawing- by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(A photograph of the wheel in possession of Mrs. Stephen 
Heward, Toronto.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the Royal Library, British 
Museum, London.) 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe in the J. Ross Robertson 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 





(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a portrait in the Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal.) 


(From an engraving: on the spot by Richard Short, 1761, in the 
J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From an engraving in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

(From a photograph at Wolford, Devon.) 

(From a photograph at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a picture in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a drawing by Miss Harriet Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a picture in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 


(From a photograph at Wolford, Devon.) 


(From a photograph at Wolford, Devon, 1908.) 

(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 

(From a drawing by Miss Harriet Simcoe at Wolford, Devon.) 

(From a picture in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 



The personal character of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, the wife 
of the first Governor of Upper Canada, may be written in a few 
brief sentences. The records that have been handed down to us 
from her own pen and from the pen of others who were contem- 
porary with her, all testify to her worth as woman, wife and mother. 
Mrs. Simcoe had not all the advantages that in natural course come 
to a daughter in girlhood days. She never saw her father, and in 


(From a Dramng in the J. Rogg Robertson collection.) 

the first twenty-four hours of her life she lost her mother. Bereft 
of those she would have loved, it fell to other than the gentle hands 
of father and mother to care for her as she grew to girlhood. 

Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim was born in 1766 at Whitchurch, 

in Herefordshire, at the mansion known as "Old Court" near the 

town of Ross, the home of her mother, Elizabeth Spinckes, widow of 

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Gwillim. Her father died seven months 

1 1 


before she was born, while her mother died a few hours after giving 
birth to this daughter her only child. She was named Elizabeth 
after her mother and Posthuma to commemorate the circumstances 
of her birth. Her father was an officer in the army, attaining the 
rank of colonel a few years before his death. He served in Canada 
and was one of the three Majors of Brigade of General Wolfe at 
Quebec in 1759, and died in 1766 while his regiment was stationed 
at Gibraltar. The marble bust of General Wolfe, now in the saloon 
at Wolford, was presented to Colonel Gwillim by the General, and a 
plaster bust of Colonel Gwillim from which the 
picture is taken is in the drawing-room of the 
old mansion. On the death of her mother and 
father the infant Elizabeth inherited " Old 
Court" and all that it contained. Mrs. Simcoe's 
mother was a daughter and co-heir of Elmes 
Spinckes, Esq., of Aldwinkle in North North- 
amptonshire, who died there in 1762. She suc- 
ceeded to the fortune left by her mother and 
grandmother, both of whom were heiresses in 
their own right. 

"The old Church of Whitchurch on the Wye" 
was erected some hundreds of years ago, and was 
COLONEL GWILLIM. the church which the Gwillim family attended 
from the time of its erection. The registers show 
baptisms in connection with the family as early as 1754 and burials 
from 1766. The family tomb of the Gwillims is in the churchyard. 
In alter years Mrs. Simcoe often visited Whitchurch and made 
sketches of spots so well known to her mother. Amongst them was 
the old church. 

The Gwillims came of noble lineage. Among the Archives at 
Wolford is an elaborate pedigree of the family, which is a very ancient 
one, the genealogy being traceable in a straight line from the early 
kings of North and South Wales. To this family belonged the 
celebrated Herald Gwillim, Rouge Croix Pursuivant-at-arms, 1618. 
Several pedigrees of the family have been drawn from time to 
time at the different visitations or investigations by a high heraldic 
officer whose duty is to examine into the pedigrees and inter-marriages 
of a family or the families of a district, with the view of ascertaining 
whether the arms borne by any person or persons living in that 
district are incorrect or unwarrantably assumed. Of the later ones 
entered at the College of Arms, one was drawn in 1569, another 
in 1683, and another was drawn for the subject of this biography by 
Francis Townsend, Windsor Herald, in 1806. It is a most elaborate 
document, being eighteen feet in length and forty-eight inches wide, 
and contains about four hundred quarterings of arms in colors, the 
work of a skilled artist, and forty-four feet of illuminated border. 
The penwork in which the names are written gives the document rank 
as an example of the best in heraldic art, and is said to have cost 300. 



The Gwillims on the paternal side were originally from Brecon- 
shire, having been Lords of Brecon before the Conquest. At a 
somewhat later date their ancestral home was at Brayne Court, 
Herefordshire, where they were domiciled before the fifteenth cen- 
tury and again early in the sixteenth century at Fawley Court, 
Langstone Court and Whitchurch Court, and later at the Hunt 
House, Clodock, all in the county of Hereford. They married into 
many notable families and possessed at different periods vast landed 
estates, principally in the counties of Brecon, Hereford and Mon- 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simeoe in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

During the troublous times of the Conquest, and for some 
centuries after, the Gwillims were actively engaged in warfare, some- 
times holding their commissions from the Welsh princes and some- 
times from the English kings. At the Wigga, Rowleston, Hereford- 
shire, there are papers relating to farms that had been given to 
Gwillims more than eight hundred years ago for their services in 
the army. 

The history of the family entwines with the well-known and 
historical Herbert family, of which the Gwillims are a branch, both 
paternally and maternally. William, eldest son of Howel-ap- 
Thomas, Lord of Perthhir, was the first of the family to adopt a 



surname, in conformity with the English law, and the first pat- 
ronymic of Ap-Howel became corrupted with Powell. Gwillim 
Dhu (William Herbert), Earl of Pembroke (beheaded at Banbury in 
1469), was commanded by the King, Edward IV., to take the surname 
of "Herbert" in memory of his illustrious ancestor Henry Fitz 
Herbert, Chamberlain to King Henry I. The Gwillims seem to have 
adopted "Gwillim" as a surname about the same timo, one Robert 
tjrwillim, son of Gwillim ap Thomas and Margaret, daughter and heir 
-of Sir James Abrahall, Knt. of Ingestone, 'County Hereford, being 
according to Francis Townsend, Windsor Herald in 1806, the first to 
do so. Prior to the edict of Edward IV. it had always been "the Welsh 
custom to change the surname at every descent." Hence the 
Welsh were always most careful to preserve 
authentic evidence of their family records. 

The writings on this interesting document 
have been summarized from its beginning. It 
will be noted that the name of Gwillim first 
appears about the time of Edward IV. This 
summary shows an unbroken line back to Wil- 
liam I., of England, commonly called the 
Conqueror, and also to the ancient kings of 
Xorth and South Wales. 

The arms granted to the Gwillim family are 
here given: 

Argent a lion rampant Ermines, collared Or. 
Crest A dexter arm embowed in armour proper 
grasping a broken sword argent. 

The introductory paragraph or preamble as 
written by the Windsor Herald reads : 


"The Genealogy of the ancient family of 
Gwillim deduced to Mrs. Elizabeth P. Simcoe, 
wife of Lieut.-General John Graves Simcoe. Tracing her descent 
paternally from the ancient British Lords of Brecon from Henry 
Fitz Herbert, who was Chamberlain to King Henry the First and 
from King William the Conqueror; and paternally and maternally 
through Sir Giles de Brewes or De Braisosa, Lord of Buckingham 
in the time of King- Edward the First, from William de Braisosa, 
one of the Conqueror's companions whose posterity were Lords of 
Brembre, Brecon, and Gower and from the ancient Earls of Clare, 
Gloucester, Pembroke, Hereford and Derby and other of the most 
noble and illustrious families of England and Wales, compiled from 
public records and other authentic evidences by me, Francis ; Town- 
send, Windsor Herald, MDCCCVI." 

Then follows the line of descent : 

Gundreda, daughter of William the Conqueror, married William, 
Earl of Warren and Surrey. She died in 1085 and was followed 




in 1088 by her husband, who, the records show, was buried in Lewis 

The line is continued through Maynarch, Lord of Brecon, through 
whom also is traced the descent from the Welsh kings, he being the 
fourteenth in descent from Kariadoe Vrachfras and the daughter and 
heir of Pelinor, King of North Wales. 

Maynarch married Ellen, daughter of Eynon ap Selif, Lord of 
Cwminwd, and their second son was Blethyn ap Maynarch, Lord of 
Brecon, who married Elinor, daughter of Twdwr Mawr, King of 
South Wales, 1077 to 1091, and sister of Prince Rhys. 

In 1090 A.D., Blethyn was slain by Bernard Newmarch, who 
became Lord of Brecon. Blethyn's second son, Gwrgan ap Blethyn, 
appears in the records as Lord of Llangorse. 

Gwrgan ap Blethyn married Gwenllian, daughter and sole heir 
of Philip Gwy?, Lord of Wilton. Their second son, Traharne ap 
Gwrgan, was the next Lord of Llangorse and married Joan, 
daughter of Sir Aaron ap Bledry, Kn't. 

Howel ap Traharne succeeded his father and married Gwenllian, 
(laughter and heir of Griffith ap Eynon of Senighenith in County 
Glamorgan. During his lifetime he waged prolonged but unsuc- 
cessful wars against the Lord of Brecon in an attempt to win back 
the ancient seat of his family. 

At his death, Howell was succeeded by his son, Rees ap Howell, 
also known as Henry II L, of Aberllfni, who married Katherine, 
daughter of Griffith Gwyre. 

The line then comes through a cadet branch of the family, 
descended from Eynon Says ap Rees ap Howell, third son of Rees 
ap Howell, who succeeded to the family estate of Lywell, County of 
Brecon. The family burying-place was at Crych-Einon. The family 
arms are given as "Argent, 3 cocks gules." 

Eynon Says ap Rees ap Howell married Joan, daughter and 
heir of Howell ap Meredith ap Cradock ap Justin, her mother being 
Ann, daughter of Gwilliin of Llewellyn-Lagar ap Ivor ap Einon. 
Their son was named Howell ap Eynon. 

Howell ap Eynon married Llelles Lettice, daughter and sole heir 
of Cadwallader ap Gruff ap Sitsile, Lord of Gwent, and had for 
heir Howell Vychan ap Howell, who took for his arms "a fees 
between two arming swords." 

Howell Vychan married Ellen, daughter and heir of Llewellyn 
ap Howell-hen. 

Their third son, Llewellyn ap Howell Vychan, married Malltion, 
daughter and co-heir of Jevau ap Rees ap Jevan. The family arms 
were "A lion rampant, sable armed, or." 

Thomas ap Lin ap Howell, eighth son of Llewellyn and Malltion, 
succeeded to the family arms, which are given during his generation 
as "Argent, a lion rampant, sable armed, or." He married Mar- 
garet, daughter and co-heir of Philip ap Adam of Llanvair, Gelgedyn. 



The name Gvvillim, which afterwards became the family name, 
first appears as the given name of the son of Thomas ap Lin and 
Margaret Gwillim ap Thomas, who is the next in line and who 
married Margaret, daughter and heir of Sir John Ahrahall, Knight 
of Ingestone, Co. Hereford. ' 

Robert, son of Gwillim ap Thomas and Margaret, took his father's 
name as a surname and was known as Robert Gwillim of Treken- 


(From a Drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

keved. All the information given as to his wife is that she was the 
"Daughter of Egerton." 

Thomas Gvvillim succeeded his father Robert and is known in 
the records as Thomas Gvvillim of Llangonoke. His wife was the 
"Daughter of Milbourne," and their sons were: (1) John Gwillim 
of Trerise, who died unmarried in 1600, and (2) William Gwillim, 
of Trekenkeved. 


William Gwillim married Margery, daughter of Thomas Vaughan 
of Trevervyn, and the line to Mrs. Simcoe is continued through his 
third son, Thomas Gwillim, of Whitchurch. 

Thomas Gwillim married Barbara, daughter and co-heir of 
Walter Powell of Whitchurch, who was descended in a direct line 
from Robert Corbet, to whom King Henry I. gave the town of 
Alcester ("In Com. Warn."). Corbet's daughter, Lucy, married 
Henry Fitz Herbert, the famous Chamberlain of King Henry I., and 
it was from this marriage that the family sprang of which Barbara 
Powell was a descendant. 

- Thomas Gwillim was succeeded in 1634 by his son Rudhall 
Gwillim, of AVhitchurch, who married Jane, daughter of Edmund 
Fox, of Leighton Court ("aforesaid"). They had two sons: (1) 
Thomas, who died unmarried, and (2) Eichard Gwillim. 

Richard Gwillim of Whitchurch, who succeeded to the estate 
in 1683 at the age of 54, married Margaret, daughter of Charles 
Price, of Llanfoist in the County of Monmouth. 

Then their son, Thomas Gwillim of Whitchurch Court, married 
Sophia, daughter of Selwyn of Matson, County of Gloucester. 

Thomas and Sophia had two sons, Selwyu who died unmarried, 
and Thomas Gwillim who succeeded his father and married Elizabeth, 
daughter and co-heir of Elmes Stuart of Cotterstock, High Sheriff 
of the County of Northampton. 

The children of Thomas Gwillim and Elizabeth Stuart were 
Jasper and Elmes, who died without issue, Henrietta Maria and 
Sophia, two daughters who died unmarried and were buried at 
Whitchurch, and Thomas Gwillim who succeeded to the estate. 

This Thomas Gwillim of Whitchurch Court was a lieutenant- 
colonel in the Army and died in 1766 and was buried in Gibraltar. 
His wife was Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of Elmes Spinckes, who 
died at Aldwinkle, Sept. 22nd, 1762, and is buried there. 

Thomas and Elizabeth were cousins on the maternal side. Mrs. 
Gwillim died in 1766. The only child of this marriage was 
Elizabeth Posthuma, so culled because she was born subsequent to 
the death of her father. She married John Graves Simcoe of Wol- 
ford on December 30th, 1782, and died at Wolford, January 17th, 

The Simcoes were related to the Creed family of Northampton- 
shire, through the Gwillims. The connection is shown as follows: 

Sir Edward Montague, Knt., created Earl of Sandwich, July 
12th, 1661, and from present Earl, 1806. 

Nicholas Stuart of Pattishull, aforesaid, J. P. for County, living 
1682, aged 57, married Susanna, daughter of Anthony Elmes and at 
length co-heir, living 1681. 

Sir Thomas Elmes, Knt. (bro. of Susanna) of Lilford, High 
Sheriff of said County, 1670, died without issue. 



Sir Sydney Montague, Knt. Master of the Requests (living 1G18) 
married Paulina, daughter of John Pepys of Cottenham, Co. of 

Elizabeth,, daughter of Sir Sydney Montague, Knt., married Sir 
Gilbert Pickering of Tichmarsh, County of Northampton, Bart, of 
Nova Scotia. 

John Creed of Oundle, County Northampton, Gent., married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir Gilbert Pickering, Bart, of Nova Scotia. 

Elizabeth, daughter of John Creed, Esquire, born 1672, married 
1692, died 1742, buried at Whitchurch married Elmes Stuart of 
Cotterstock, County Northampton, High Sheriff of said County, Ano. 
12, Wm. III., aged 26 years, 1682, living 1710. 

Anne, daughter and co-heir, died unmarried and was buried at 

Jemima, daughter and co-heir of Elmes Stuart of Cotterstock, 
aforesaid, Esq., died at Aldwinkle, 26th May, 1763; married Elmes 
Spinckes, Esq., Lord of the Manor of Warrington, County Northamp- 
ton, died at Kidwarke. The issue of the marriage was a daughter who 
married Thomas Gwillim, the father of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe. 
This closes the summary. 
Thomas Gwillim, as before stated, died at Gibraltar in 1766, seven 

months before the birth of his daughter, and his 

widow died a few hours after the birth. 

The child thus born was named Elizabeth 
Posthuma. She married Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Graves Simcoe, who was born in 1752 at Cotter- 
stock in Northamptonshire, the ceremony being 
performed in SS. Mary and Giles, the Church 
of Buckerall parish in Devon in 1782. Colonel 
Simcoe, afterwards a general and the first Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Upper Canada, died in 1806 
in Exeter. Mrs. Simcoe, his widow, died in 
1850. Both husband and wife are buried in the 
COLONEL GWILLIM. east end of the private chapel erected by the 
General on the estate of Wolf ord. General Simcoe 
was the only surviving son of Captain John Simcoe, R.N., of Cotter- 
stock, who married Catherine Stamford on 8th August, 1747. The 
marriage took place in Bath Abbey. At the time Captain Simcoe 
was in command of the "Prince Edward." Afterwards he was pro- 
moted to H.M.S. "Pembroke" and died of pneumonia while his ship 
was off the island of Anticosti in the St. Lawrence River, on 15th 
May, 1759, four months before the capitulation of Quebec. 

The following is an extract from the Registers of the Abbey 
Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Bath, regarding the marriage of Cap- 
tain Simcoe: 

"1747, August 8th, John Simcoe, Esqr., commander of His 
Majesties ship Prince Edward and Catherine Stamford, spinster, of 
Walcott, were married by License." 


Part of the city of Bath is now in the parish of Walcott, and 
although search has been made in the registers of the parish church, 
which date from 1694, no trace can be found of the name of Stamford. 

After the death of Mrs. Gwillim, the daughter was most tenderly 
cared for by her aunt, Mrs. Graves, a sister of her mother and wife 
of Samuel Graves of Hembury Fort, three miles from Wolford in 
Devon, who was Admiral of the White in 1717. There is a monu- 
ment in Buckerall parish church to the memory of Admiral Graves. 

To the west of Honiton one looks over a space of comparatively 
flat country, to the northwest overshadowed by St. Gyres Hill, and 
further north is the bold height of Dumpdon. On the top of this 
hill are the remains of an oval camp, and a few miles away the 
better known camp called Hembury Fort. The Fort stands very 
high and looks south to the sea beyond the vale of the river Otter, 


(From a Drat 

the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

and west to Haldon and the fringes of Dartmoor over Exeter. Three 
ramparts surround the fort, which covers a large space of ground. 
It is oval in shape, divided into two parts by an earthwork and 
enclosed by a triple "vallum" or line of palisades. Several Roman 
coins and an iron "lar" in the form of a small female figure three 
inches high, representing a goddess who presided over the fortunes 
of the home, have been found there. Past Honiton ran the great 
Roman road of the Fosseway to Totnes, and according to some authori- 
ties, on into Cornwall. It is thought that the Romans, in making 
these famous roads, usually followed the line of the oldest British ways. 
Of Elizabeth Gwillim's very early youth little is known. Her aunt 
was most affectionate in disposition, a tender, kind and lovable woman, 
who in a thoroughly Christian spirit accepted the responsibilities 



of watching over her sister's child. This much may be gathered 
from the Graves' correspondence. 

The years were not slow in passing with Miss Gwillim. As a 
child she evinced a natural ability that surprised her governesses. 
She gathered knowledge as eagerly as she gathered the wild flowers 
by the roadside, of which she was so passionately fond. 


(From, a Miniature at Wolford.) 

She loved to ramble through the woods, where she could repro- 
duce bits of landscapes that are still so charming all around Hem- 
bury Fort. Her delight as a girl was to be skilled in pencil, pen, 
and water-color work; and be it said that some of her water-colors 
that hang to-day on the walls at Wolford bear excellent evidence of 



her artistic skill. It was readily admitted by all who met her at Hem- 
bury Fort that Mrs. Graves had in her niece Elizabeth an accom- 
plished relative. 

As a linguist Miss Gwillim was an apt pupil. She spoke German 
and French fluently and ventured occasionally to converse in Spanish 
when opportunity offered. To a letter from Miss Burgess, a friend 
at Tracey, near Honiton, Devonshire, she replied with one in 

She was fond of gaiety and outdoor life. To rahirl in the dance, 
to cross country with the hounds, 
seemed second nature to her, 
while to tramp through the 
woods and along the rural roads 
with her young friends was one 
of the ordinary enjoyments of 
her life. Though she had an ex- 
cellent ear for music, she never 
sang or played on any instru- 

She was below the average 
height, about five feet, not more, 
and this is indicated by a satin 
skirt, thirty-seven inches in 
length, which she wore in her 
married life when she was twenty- 
five years of age, just before 
leaving for Upper Canada. The 
waist is missing, but the skirt 
has been preserved at Wolford. 
The garment was known as Mrs. 
Simcoe's "presentation dress/' 
'and was worn by her at the opening of the first Legislature of Upper 
Canada at Niagara on the 17th September, 1792. 

It was in the spring of 1782 that Colonel Simcoe first met Miss 
Gwillim; and as the story of her life is so interwoven with that of 
her husband, it is fitting that the reader should have some knowledge 
of the family of Simcoe; for the first Governor of Upper Canada 
was a man of marked ability, whose name is to-day a household word 
in the great province, the government of which he inaugurated 
under many difficulties. 


(From the Original at Wolford.) 

1 1 


It was only in the summer of nineteen hundred and six that the 
writer finally after years of research determined that the Simcoe 
family was of Cheshire origin. There are no records in the papers 
at Wolford in Devon which give any trace of the birthplace 
or even the names of the ancestors of the first Governor of Upper 
Canada. Indeed, it was only after a continuous personal quest in- 
volving a careful examination of a score of parish and other records 
in villages, towns and cities of Northumberland, Yorkshire, Nor- 
thamptonshire, Devonshire, Cheshire, and even north to the border- 
land of Berwickshire, that the writer was able to place his hand or/ 
documents that proved beyond doubt that the ancestors of John 
Graves Simcoe were born and bred in Bunbury, a village and large 
parish in West Cheshire about three miles from Tarporley and a 
mile and a half southeast of Beeston Castle. This old stronghold 
occupies a romantic and impregnable site on the summit of a huge 
and lofty isolated rock. It was built in 1220 by the fourth Earl of 
Chester and dismantled after surrender to the Parliamentary forces 
in the year 1646. The parish records date from the year 1559. Mrs. 
Simcoe visited the old ruin on one occasion but no date is given in 
the memoranda. It was probably about 1800-1. 

The first trace of the name of Simcoe was found by the writer 
in the "Cantabrigiensis Graduati" of the University of Cambridge, 
published in the year 1800. At page 381 of this work under the 
letter "S" is the record "Simcoe, Gail., Christ, A. B., 1675" and 
"Simcoe, John, Christ, A. B. 1716." The late Dr. John Peile, the 
master of Christ's College, 1887-1910, informed me that "this Wil- 
liam Simcoe of 1675 was the son of a William Simcoe, born at a 
place not given, in Cheshire, was at school in Bunbury, and was 
admitted a sizar under Mr. Lovett at Christ's College, 5th April, 
1672, aged 19." The parish records show that he was born in the 
parish of Bunbury. At Cambridge University and Trinity College, 
Dublin, a sizar was an undergraduate of limited means, and was 
allowed free commons and some other gratuities. Formerly menial 
duties were imposed upon a sizar. 

A memorandum on a half sheet of note paper in the papers at 
Wolford states that Captain John Simcoe, K.N., father of General 
Simcoe, was born at Leamside farmhouse, some miles from the city 
of Durham; but other than this memorandum, though a close exam- 
ination has been made of the property registers of Durham Uni- 
versity, at one time owners of the farm, there is no entry to be 



found containing the name of Simcoe. It should be stated that the 
University records in this regard are not extant before 1752. 

There are some hundreds of entries of births, marriages, and 
deaths of persons named Simcoe in the parish books of Bunbury 
and the adjacent parish of Acton, the earliest dating back to 1759, 
but there are so many entries with Christian names alike that it is 
impossible to fix upon the ancestor of William Simcoe who entered 
Christ's College, in 1675. The opinion prevails at Bunbury that 
"William Simcoe/' a churchwarden who died in 1664, was his 


(From an old Drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

The same difficulty arises in determining the parentage of Captain 
John Simcoe, R.N., born in 1714 and father of John Graves Simcoe. 
Hodgson in his history of the parish of Long Horsley in Northum- 
berland states that Captain John Simcoe was a son of the Rev. 
William Simcoe, vicar of that parish, who died in June, 1714. If 
this statement be true the vicar died in the year his son was born. 

There are no letters or documents in the papers at Wolford too 
help in a verification of Hodgson's statement. Suffice it to say 
that Captain Simcoe was a distinguished naval officer. Of his early 
life nothing is known. His after life shows that he was a man of 
exemplary habits and character, highly educated, and had made a 



special study of seamanship and naval tactics. He was thoroughly 
earnest in his work, eager in the obtaining of knowledge and with 
a mind most retentive, made the best use of leisure hours in per- 
fecting himself so as to eventually reach the top round of the ladder 
in the profession he had chosen. He had an extensive knowledge of 
the classics and in mathematics he excelled. He was a voracious 
reader and his cabin was the home of a small library consisting not 
only of works on military and naval tactics but of the best authors 
in general literature. Through the influence of his father he entered 
the Royal Navy as a midshipman in 1730. The name of the ship 
is not on record. 

In 1737 he was promoted to a lieutenancy and in 1743 at twenty- 
nine years of age he obtained a captain's commission. In 1747 he 
was in command of H.M. Ship "Prince Edward." His ability was 
recognized in many ways by the Admiralty, and his advice was often 
sought in considering questions of grave import. He was one of the 
members of the court-martial on the trial of Admiral Byng 

About four years before the capitulation of Quebec he drew up/ 
a plan, and wrote an able paper suggesting the manner in which 
not only the ancient city could be captured, but how Canada could 
be possessed by the British Crown. He addressed this document to 
Lord Barrington, who was Secretary of War 1755-61 ; and the latter 
after giving the paper a careful reading complimented Captain Simcoe 
on its excellence, and said that when the time came to act, his sug- 
gestions would have due consideration. 

Another paper entitled "Maxims of Conduct," or, as it is also 
called, "Rules for Your Conduct," was written in 1752 by Capt. 
Simcoe for the guidance of young officers in the naval and military 
service, and for the edification of his sons. It is an admirable 
paper, unexcelled in stvle and diction, as worthy of perusal in these 
modern days as when it was penned a hundred and fifty-nine years 

After his marriage with Catherine Stamford Captain John 
Simcoe decided that he would make his home in Cotterstock, 
a village about a mile from the old town of Oundle in Northamp- 
tonshire: Four children, all sons, were issue of this marriage, 
Paulet William, John, John Graves, and Percy William. The first 
and second sons died in infancy, and the fourth was drowned in 
1764 at Sandy Point above the head of the river Exe near Exeter. 

On August 22nd, 1747, Captain John Simcoe was granted by the 
Garter and Clarenceux Kings of Arms, the arms and crest here given, 
namely: Azure, a fesse wavy ermine, between two stars of twelve 
points in chief and a cannon barwise in base or, and for his crest, 
out of a naval cross or a demi sea lion proper holding in his fore fin a 
mariner's cross staff erect or and on his shoulder a rose gules seeded 
proper. In October, 1747, application was made by Captain Simcoe 
for an alteration in his arms. The extract from the official document, 



dated 4th November, 1747, regarding the granting of this alteration, 
reads: "The crest depicted on the other side granted to John 
Simcoe of Chelsea, in the County of 
Middlesex, Esq., and his descendants is 
hereby altered from out of a naval crown 
or a demi sea lion proper holding in 
his fore fin a mariner's cross staff erect 
or and on his shoulder a rose gules 
seeded proper, to out of a naval crown 
or a demi sea lion proper, holding in 
his fore fin a dagger erect argent, the 
pomel and hilt gold and on his shoulder 
a rose gules barbed and seeded proper 
as the same is in the margin hereof more 
plainly depicted/' 

Captain Simcoe joined H. M. Ship 
"Pembroke," 60 guns, in 1757, as com- 
mander, with Mr. James Cook as master, 
and in 1759 sailed for Canada with the 
fleet under Admiral Saunders. Mr. Cook 
was afterwards the celebrated navigator 
who in 1768 circumnavigated the globe 
in the "Endeavor"; and in later years he 
declared that he was under many obliga- 
tions to Captain Simcoe, for from him he 
had received a great part of his training 
in "navigation and seamanship." Captain 
Simcoe, however, was never to reap the 
reward of his years of study in naval work, 
for on Tuesday, May 15th, 1759, while the "Pembroke" was near- 
ing the island of Anticosti he died of pneumonia and was buried 
at sea at six o'clock on the evening of the 

Mrs. Simcoe, on receiving the sad news of the 
death of her husband on the "Pembroke," decided 
to leave Cotterstock, where she had spent many 
happy years, and remove to Exeter. She had 
friends in Devon, several of whom resided in 
Exeter, and she felt that the advantages for the 
education of her children would be much greater 
in a city, possessing better schools than Oundle/ 
She accordingly rented a dwelling in the Cathedral 
City and determined that her life's aim should be 
the care and education of her boys. 

But her cup of sorrow was not yet full. The CAPT. JAMES COOK. 
death by drowning of her fourth son, Percy, sad- 
dened Mrs. Simcoe's heart for years ; however, with an affection that 
was intensified by her affliction, she devoted her life to her surviving 




son and to a certain extent outlived the last great sorrow that fell to 
her lot. 

The future Governor of Upper Canada was an apt pupil. He 
received his primary education at the Free Grammar School in 
Exeter and in 1766, in his fourteenth year, he was sent to Eton. 
On 4th February, 1769, while in his sixteenth year, he entered 
Merton College, Oxford, and matriculated. There is no record of 
his graduation. It is said that owing to ill-health he was compelled 
to withdraw from college at the end of his first year. He accord- 
ingly returned to his mother's home in Exeter and with the assist- 
ance of a tutor he devoted the years 1770-1 to the acquiring of 
general knowledge and especially to the subject of military tactics, 
for he had the promise of an ensign's commission from friends of his 
mother in the War Office. 

In 1771 at the age of nineteen he entered the army as an ensign 
in the 35th Regiment of Foot. He sailed on the outbreak of the 
war of the American Eevolution for New England and joined his 
regiment in June at Boston a few days after the historic battle 
of Bunker Hill, or rather Breed's Hill; for that is where tb battle 
took place on the 17th of June, 1775. 

His anxiety to be of service to the Crown was shown by his offer 
to raise a corps of negroes for service in New England; but not- 
withstanding the strong influence of Admiral Graves, his godfather, 
who was in command of the fleet, his offer was declined by General 
Gage, who was in command of the forces. While his regiment was 
stationed in Boston he acted as adjutant, but there is no record of 
his appointment. At the evacuation of Boston in March, 1776, he 
embarked with General Howe's army for Halifax. 

During his stay in Halifax he purchased a captaincy in the 
grenadier company of the 40th Eegiment, and when New York was 
threatened with attack he sailed with the forces 
early in June for Staten Island and disembarked 
with the army on 3rd July, 1776. He took an 
active part in the military operations in Long 
Island and the Jerseys during the summer and 
won commendation for his services. 

While at winter quarters at Brunswick in 1776 
he went to New York to see Sir William Howe 
and ask for the command of the Queen's Eangers, 
which was then vacant. But driven by stress of 
weather out of its course, the boat in -which he 

sailed was delayed and he arrived at headquarters 

QTT, WTTT * some hours too late, for the position had been 

o! U W 1LL.IAM JlOW.h. r-n -i -r 11 n -i i -i-i i 

filled. In the summer of 1777, still bent on an 
independent command, he wrote to General Grant, under whom he 
had served, requesting his influence in the securing of a "command 
similar to that of the Queen's Eangers; but there were no vacancies, 
and once more he was disappointed. The Queen's Eangers were at 



that time commanded by Major Weymess. Shortly afterwards, on 
the llth September, was fought the battle of the Brandywine. Simcoe 
led his company of the 40th Regiment and received a wound, from 
which he never fully recovered, although he was able to resume his 

At last his ambitions were realized, for on the 15th of October, 
1777, Captain Simcoe was nominated major commander of the cele- 
brated Provincial regiment known as the Queen's Rangers, which 
became under him one of the most efficient and gallant corps .that 
took part in the War of the Revolution. It was at this time encamped 
with the army in the vicinity of Germantown, near Philadelphia. 

In June, 1778, he received from Sir Henry Clinton the local 
rank of lieutenant-colonel of the Rangers. In an action in 1779 
he had a narrow escape for his life and was taken prisoner. He 
obtained his release on the 31st of December, 1779, and returned 
to his regiment. His Majesty on the 19th of December, 1781, was 
pleased to confer upon him the rank of a lieutenant-colonel in the 
army, the duties of which he had fulfilled from the year 1778. His 
regiment was amongst the troops which were included in the sur- 
render by General Cornwallis at Gloucester Point on the 19th of 
October, 1781. 

The story of his part in the campaign as colonel of the Queen's 
Rangers, as told in his journal, will be found in another volume. 
His journal is one of the most interesting books of its kind. It was 
published in Exeter at the close of the war, and was .received most 
favorably by the press and highly commended by the leading military 
writers of England. Simcoe returned to England in December, 1781, 
at the close of the war, married Miss Gwillim in 1782, and from 
1783-7 he resided in the Cathedral City. 

In 1784, the estate of Wolford, four miles from Honiton, in 
the parish of Dunkeswell, Devon, was purchased by Mrs. Simcoe. 
Although there was an old farmhouse on the property, a new resi- 
dence was built; the estate was considerably improved during the 
years 1786-7, and in 1788 Colonel Simcoe and his family left Exeter 
and took up their residence at Wolford. He held the rank of 
colonel in the army from the 18th of November, 1790, and in the 
same year he was elected to Parliament for the borough of St. Maw's 
in Cornwall. His political career, however, was of short duration, 
for in. 1791 he received his commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the 
new province of Upper Canada and sailed from Weymouth for Quebec 
on the 26th of September in the ship " Triton," 21 guns, accompanied 
by his wife and two of his children and Lieutenant Talbot. 

In a despatch to the Secretary of State, Lord Dorchester had 
.previously recommended Sir John Johnson as first Lieutenant- 
Governor of Upper Canada. Sir John Johnson had rendered valuable 
services, and in the matter of claim was entitled to consideration. 
On the other hand, his appointment was undesirable, not only on 
.account of his large property holdings in the new province, and 
2 17 


consequent local interests, but also from the fact that the policy of 
the British Government did not allow the appointment of residents 
of colonies in the government of the same. 

The "Triton" arrived in Quebec on the llth of November. Lord 
Dorchester, the Governor-General, was on leave of absence in Eng- 
land and Major-General Alured Clarke, who by the way was a 
Devonian, was acting as administrator. Simcoe had been entrusted 
with the commission of and instructions to the Governor- General 
which were to be issued on the division of the province into Upper 
and Lower Canada, together with the commission of Sir John 
Johnson, Bart., as Superintendent-General of Indian affairs, and the 
commission of Major-General Alured Clarke as Lieutenant-Governor 
of the new Province of Lower Canada. All these documents were duly 
delivered on the day following his arrival. 

Simcoe presented also a personal letter from the King to H.R.H. 
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, the father of Queen Victoria, in 
which His Majesty commended the newly appointed Governor io his 
son, who was in command of the 7th Fusiliers, stationed at Quebec. 
It should be stated that Governor Simcoe was offered by the War 
Office before his departure for Canada the rank of Brigadier-General ; 
but he declined the promotion because he foresaw that unless His 
Royal Highness should be promoted at the same time, his acceptance 
would place him above the King's son. 

Moreover, Governor Simcoe understood that such promotion 
was not desired by Prince Edward, and from general belief it was 
also not his Majesty's intention to confer it. Governor Simcoe had 
always a dislike to nominal rank. His local Provincial rank in 
America was senior to that of Major-General Alured Clarke, for 
early in 1778 Simcoe had been gazetted a lieutenant-colonel, though 
of course ranking as the youngest of the service. 

The Governor in a letter to Mr. Dundas on the 6th September, 
1791, said: "I by no means wish to command or to wound the 
feelings of a senior officer, much less to interfere with the just pre- 
tensions of the son of my Sovereign." 

The official proclamation and the text of the Act dividing the 
old province of Canada into two provinces was issued on 18th No- 
vember, 1791, a week after the Governor's arrival in Quebec, and 
was published in the Quebec Gazette of December 1st, 1791. The 
natal day of the new provinces was fixed for the 26th of December. 

General Alured Clarke was duly sworn in as Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Province of Lower Canada, but being administrator in the 
absence of the Governor- General he occupied a different position from 
that of Governor Simcoe. When the proclamation was issued for 
the division of the province, Lieutenant-Governor Clarke had full 
powers as regards his own government, but he had no authority to 
deal in any way with the affairs of the civil government of the Prov- 
ince of Upper Canada. But, at the same time, acting as administrator, 



he could exercise all the prerogatives and powers of the Governor-in- 
Chief in either province. 

The Act of 1791 making further provision for the government of 
the province of Quebec is familiarly known as the Act for dividing 
the province of Quebec into the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. 
But Mr. Avern Pardoe in his excellent paper on "The First Chapter 
of Upper Canada History" (Ontario Historical Society Transactions, 
Vol. VII.) points out, the creation of the new provinces was an Act 
of the King under his royal prerogative. The Crown divided 
Quebec by proclamation and Parliament's duty and privilege in the 
matter was to provide a constitution for them. 

The statute quoted enacts that these provinces which the King has 
created shall have a Legislative Council and Assembly and that these 
shall be assembled by the Governor or Lieutenant- Governor. But 
there is nothing in the Act authorizing the appointment of a Gov- 
ernor or Lieutenant-Governor. That is another prerogative of the 
Crown in these days exercised on advice but hardly so in the days 
of George III. Nor does the Act contain any information as to the 
extent of the powers conferred upon the Governor or the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Province. That is yet another prerogative of the 
Crown. The powers of the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor are 
those conferred upon them by their commissions and instructions. 

Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe seems to have been from the first at a 
loss to know his exact relations to the Governor-General, Lord Dor- 
chester. The commission of and instructions to Lord Dorchester 
as Governor-in-Chief and Captain-General over the provinces of 
Upper and Lower Canada issued on the division of the province, were 
brought out by Simcoe as before said, and Simcoe's own instruc- 
tions directed him to read Dorchester's instructions and conduct 
himself accordingly. 

The power of the Governor-General was almost unlimited. The 
whole duty of the Lieutenant-Governor was to follow out the instruc- 
tions of the Governor-in-Chief. There were no instructions issued 
to Governor Simcoe other than his commission and the injunction 
to regard Dorchester's instructions, neither is there record of any in- 
structions having been addressed to Simcoe. His commission, which 
was simply a few hundred words appointing him as Lieutenant- 
Governor, contained nothing that would throw light on the extent of 
the powers the Lieutenant-Governor should exercise. 

Simcoe felt that in accepting office he should in the main have 
been free to administer the affairs of the province as one endowed 
with authority, and that he should not be hampered with edicts 
and instructions from Quebec, but should have the right to com- 
municate direct with the home authorities. As a matter of fact 
he did so communicate. 

In the Simcoe correspondence there is a letter from Sir George 
Yonge in connection with the military force, giving an "extract from 
the instructions given to the civil Governor." 



These instructions show that, where no specific orders have been 
given by the Commander-in-Chief or by the General commanding 
the district, the civil Governor-in-Council may give orders for the 
inarching of troops and other military services; but such order must 
be repeated to the Commander-in-Chief, and that the Civil Governor 
must not interfere with the detail of the military regimental duty. 

The complexity of the situation and the delay in getting his 
government formed was galling to Simcoe. He foresaw that he would 
be virtually cribbed, cabined, and confined in Quebec for the winter, 
and that he was absolutely powerless to make any immediate move 
in the direction of occupying his seat of government. 

Meanwhile he occupied his time with various matters that con- 
cerned the new province. Many months before his departure from 
England, indeed before the Canada Act of May, 1791, was passed, 
he had considered the policy he would pursue in conducting his new 
government; for, of course, he knew at that time his appointment 
was assured. 

One of Simcoe's first suggestions was the raising of a military 
force for service within the limits of the province. This suggestion 
Avas assented to in August of 1791, the corps being known as the 
Queen's Eangers. Another was that he should be permitted to visit 
Philadelphia, where the United States Congress was sitting, to 
discuss and mediate on the Indian question. But this suggestion 
was not acted upon. 

Even in regard to the administration of justice in Upper Canada 
the Governor's hands were tied ; for, as there was no majority of his 
Council in Canada, the oaths could not be administered. He, there- 
fore, had no power to issue a proclamation. This was after the 
division of the provinces was proclaimed. Major-General Alured 
Clarke could act for Lower Canada, but Governor Simcoe, until he 
had taken the oath, had no legal power. This difficulty might have 
affected the organization of courts in Upper Canada, but when Judge 
Powell was appointed to hold court in Kingston in December, the 
difficulty was overcome by him, as, on the advice of Chief Justice 
Smith, he did not raise the question of authority to hold court in the 
new province. 

Simcoe now occupied a singular position. By virtue of his com- 
mission he was the Governor of the new province of Upper Canada, 
but, notwithstanding, had no military command ; and as regards his 
own military rank, he could not avail himself of his colonelcy until 
the corps the Queen's Eangers, of which he was Commander 
or part of it, was actually on service under him. This restriction 
was specifically set forth to Governor Simcoe in a letter from Sir 
George Yonge, the Secretary of State, on September 21st, 1791. 
Simcoe knew that the Rangers would not arrive until the summer 
of 1792 and keenly resented the inevitable delay in the recognition 
of his rank. 



Furthermore, his civil powers' as Lieutenant-Governor were not 
operative until a meeting of the Executive Council had been convened 
and the oaths of office administered. Four members of this body 
had been nominated by the authorities in London, namely, William 
Osgoode, William Robertson, Alexander Grant and Peter Russell. 
Mr. Grant was the only member who had arrived in Canada. Thus,, 
in the absence of a majority of his Council, the Governor had 
practically to mark time and await their arrival. 

Simcoe saw clearly the situation and at once applied to England 
for permission to nominate James Baby, of Detroit, as one of the 
three Councillors required and asked permission 
to appoint two more so that the seven members 
required by the act would meet and initiate the 
business of organizing the government of the 
new province. In June, however, Osgcode and 
Russell arrived, and with Baby made a quorum. 
The appointment followed of John Munro, of 
Matilda, in January, 1792, and later of Richard 
Cartwright, jr., of Kingston, Robert Hamilton, 
of Niagara and Richard Duncan, of Rapid du 
Plat. The Council was now complete. William H J AMES BABY 
Robertson, however, never came to Canada but 
resigned, his place being filled in June, 1793. by the appointment of 
Aeneas Shaw. 

All this delay was vexatious to Simcoe. True, he and his wife 
were the recipients of unbounded hospitality from the military, civil, 
and social leaders of the old capital, but the Governor was a man of 
active habit and eager to journey to his new province. 

At the end of May and in the second week of June two divisions 
of the Queen's Rangers arrived at Quebec, and some weeks later 
reached the new province. 

Governor Simcoe had paid a short visit to Montreal in December/ 
1791, but did not go further west. On the 8th June, 1792, with his. 
family and Lieutenants Grey and Talbot he left Quebec for Kingston 
in bateaux, arriving in Montreal on the 17th, leaving there on the 
27th and reaching Kingston on the 1st of July. On the 8th of July 
the Governor repaired to the Protestant church, and there the oaths 
were administered by Chief Justice Osgoode. The Honorable James 
Baby and the Honorable Peter Russell, together with the magistrates 
and principal inhabitants of the town, were present ; and the ceremon- 
ial must have been, so far as the primitive environment permitted, of 
a very impressive character. A note containing the minutes of the 
Executive Council in connection with this event is given in its proper 
place in Mrs. Simcoe's diary for July, 1792. 

From Kingston, Governor Simcoe, with his family and suite, 
sailed on the Government schooner "Onondaga" for Niagara, where 
they arrived on the 26th July, 1792. Navy Hall was undergoing, 
alteration?. These were not completed, so by the Governor's orders 



three marquees were pitched on the hill above the Hall. In these 
the Governor's family and suite were housed pending the completion 
of the alterations. Navy Hall had been originally built by Governor 
Haldimand for the use of the naval officers on the lakes. During 
Simcoe's time some additions were made. One of these was a council 
chamber, and it was used as a ball-room where Mrs. Simcoe enter- 
tained. Simcoe's work in the way of organizing the Provincial 
Government and carrying on the affairs of the Province, will be told 
in another volume. 

Simcoe was energetic in his administration and was inspired by 
a determination to do his best for the people he was called upon to 
govern. The first Legislature was called on 17th September, 1792, 
at Navy Hall, Niagara, and was prorogued on the 15th of October. 
There has always been some doubt as to the building and the place 
where the first Legislature met. Some assert that the meeting was 
held in a tent pitched on the common above Fort George. This 
ground was marked 'by an old oak tree known as the "Parliament 
Oak." A picture of this tree in decay is in the Museum, Niagara-on- 
the-Lake. Another writer asserts that the Legislature met in Free- 
masons' Hall, Niagara. The records of the Upper Canada Gazette, 
however, dispose of all doubts, for in the issue of that paper of 18th 
April, 1793, the words "Government House, Navy Hall" are used, 
and on 3rd July, 1794, the same words are used, while on the 10th 
of August, 1794, Governor Simcoe calls the members to appear at 
"our Government House, Navy Hall." On the 14th of August, 1794, 
the latter expression is again used. 

During Simcoe's term from 1792-6 five sessions of the Legislature 
were held at Niagara, in one of the four buildings known as Navy 
Hall, for there was no accommodation for the Legislature at York. 
The buildings at York were not ready for occupation till 1797, the 
year following Simcoe's departure. Rochefoucauld in his "Tour 
Through Upper Canada," 1795, writes that "during our residence 
at Navy Hall the session of the Legislature of Upper Canada was 
opened." He does not indicate any building other than "Navy Hall" 
and says the Governor "dressed in silk entered the hall with his hat 
on his head, attended by his adjutant and two secretaries." 

Eight acts were considered and passed. The ancient laws of the 
Province of Quebec were abolished, the laws of England were to 
prevail, and all forms of law and equity were to be in conformity 
with the British rules of evidence. Trial by jury was established and 
provision made for the recovery of small debts. Jails and court 
houses were to be erected in the four Districts, the Eastern, the 
Middle, the Home and the Western. A marriage bill was introduced 
with the view of legalizing all irregular marriages, for at this period 
no marriage ceremony was legal unless performed by a clergyman of 
the Church of England. It was, therefore, necessary that all past 
marriages should be legalized and a law provided for the future vali- 
dation of all such unions. 



But this act was withdrawn and another act was drawn during 
the recess, submitted to the authorities in England, and was then 
passed by the Legislative Assembly and assented to by the Governor. 
Shortly after the prorogation of the first Assembly the publication of 
the Upper Canada Gazette or American Oracle, the official 
journal of the province, was commenced. 

In February, 1793, General Simcoe visited the western parts of 
the Province, accompanied by Major Littlehales, Captain Fitzgerald, 
Lieutenant Smith of the 5th Regiment, and Lieutenants Talbot, Grey 
and Givins. They proceeded west to the Mohawk village on the Grand 
River, then to the Moravian Settlement of the Delaware Indians, and 
returned by way of the present site of London, Ont., which at a later 
date Simcoe suggested as a proper place for the capital of the prov- 

On' the 2nd May, 1793, he visited the site of Toronto for the 
first time and decided to call the new town York "in consideration 
and compliment of the Duke of York's victories in Flanders." But 
it was not until the 26th August, 1793, that the official notification 
of the name was published. 

In 1793, Simcoe directed also the making of a roadway to the 
western part of the province, the present Dundas Street, and named 
it after the Right Hon. Henry Dundas, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. In May, 1794, he paid his second visit to the site of his 
new capital (now Toronto), and ordered Mr. Alexander Aitken, a 
Government surveyor, to make a plan of the town. He also selected 
the site for a fort at the west end of the town so as to command the 
mouth of the harbor. This fortification was destroyed in 1813, but 
rebuilt in 1816, and is now (1911) being restored by the corporation 
of Toronto under agreement with the Dominion Government. 

It must be remembered that Lord Dorchester, the Governor-Gen- 
eral, was on leave of absence and did not return to Canada until 
September of 1793. From the date of Lord Dorchester's return down 
to the date of Simcoe's departure from Canada, there was constant 
friction between the Governor-General and the Lieutenant-Governor 
of Upper Canada. Indeed, it looked as if Dorchester had determined 
to make Simcoe's position as uncomfortable as possible. Simcoe had 
not forgotten the "unjust, humiliating and disgraceful order," as he 
termed it, issued by Guy Carleton in 1783, concerning a charge made 
against the Queen's Rangers as being guilty of "plundering and 
marauding" on Long Island Sound during the War of the Revolu- 
tion, a charge, by the way, that was without foundation. The official 
correspondence shows that Dorchester seized every opportunity to 
clog the wheels of Simcoe's .Government. As an example of this 
unfriendliness Dorchester compelled Simcoe to change the system 
of contracting for supplies and he ordered the change in a manner 
that was most mortifying. 

Then again, Simcoe was strongly against the proposal of Dor- 
chester to erect a fort in the Indian territory on the Maumee River. 



Dorchester insisted that the fort should be established and his order 
was carried out by Simcoe. He did not agree with Simcoe on the 
choice of London as the capital of Upper Canada; and when Simcoe 
objected to Dorchester's policy of removing the best part of the 
troops from Upper Canada and taking them to Quebec, the Governor- 
General wrote to Simcoe saying that he would act on his own 
judgment irrespective of the opinion expressed by Simcoe. The 
official correspondence of the time teems with passages at arms 
between Dorchester, Simcoe, and the Duke of Portland. 

Simcoe, of course, had carried on official correspondence during 
his term with the authorities at London. Dorchester naturally 
thought that Simcoe should use the Governor-in-Chief as the medium 
of communication. Indeed, Dorchester complained that he had not 
been treated as the Governor-in-Chief should be ; and that the author- 
ities in London, that is, the Duke of Portland, had no right to 
receive official communications from the Lieutenant- Governor, who 
was subordinate to the Governor-in-Chief. 

The poles could not be further apart than Simcoe and Dorches- 
ter in their views as to the powers and prerogatives of the Governor 
and Lieutenant-Governor, respectively. Dorchester would have made 
the new province a military colony with forts for the protection of the 
settlers. On the other hand Simcoe's aim was to bring in colonists 
even American colonists and make Upper Canada a great agricul- 
tural province. 

Simcoe often said that the day would come when every acre of 
land from the Ottawa to the Detroit River would so respond to the 
call of the husbandmen that the sickle would never be idle and the 
people never be in want. 

The Duke of Portland tried to throw oil on the troubled waters, 
but without avail. Dorchester felt that Simcoe was his inferior 
officer, for he writes that Simcoe "seemed to think that he had an 
independent command." Simcoe held fast to the idea that, outside of 
actual military operations, he was supreme in his own province. The 
neglect to furnish Simcoe with individual instructions defining 
exactly his powers and duties seems to have been the cause of all 
the trouble. 

This continued friction and unrest between the Governor and 
Lieutenant-Governor in Upper Canada led to the resignation by both 
of their respective commands in the usual form of "leave of absence." 
Dorchester sailed for England on the 9th July and Simcoe said 
farewell to Upper Canada on the 21st July, 1796. On the 10th Sep- 
tember, with his wife and children he sailed from Quebec in H. M. 
Ship "Pearl," which anchored in the Downs on the 13th of October. 
On disembarking, the General and his family proceeded to Dover, 
Canterbury and Dartford, and on Monday, the 17th, reached Wolford. 

In 1796 the British Government wanted an officer to take charge 
of the forces in San Domingo. General Simcoe, who had been 
gazetted Major-General on the 2nd of October, 1794, was offered the 



position. He called upon the Duke of Portland, who told him that 
he could retain his position of Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada 
or go as Commander-in-'Chief of the forces in San Domingo, to succeed 
Sir Ralph Abercrombie. 

Simcoe accepted the new position and on the 3rd of December, 
1796, he was appointed Civil Governor and Commander-in-Ohief of 
the British forces in San Domingo in place of Sir Adam Williamson, 
who had established the British protectorate over the island. 

Simcoe was much disappointed. In a letter written to H. R. H. 
the Duke of Kent on 24th November, 1801, referring to his San 
Domingo appointment, Simcoe writes: "His Grace (the Duke of 
Portland) expressly told me that I was to be Commander-in-Chief. 
In this I was disappointed. Sir R. Abercrombie retained that office, 
but with the injunction communicated to him by a letter from Mr. 
Dundas, the Secretary of State, not to exercise any authority in San 
Domingo," and Simcoe further adds, "I believe such an injunction 
to be illegal, I am sure it was unmilitary." In this letter Simcoe 
also pointed out that his "services in Canada had been slighted" in 
that as Lieutenant-Governor he had a fair claim to the command of 
the Royal Americans in preference to General Hunter. The letter 
further shows that he was promised the position of Governor-General 
of Canada and also a peerage. 

In 1797 General Simcoe proceeded to his new post with instruc- 
tions to aid the French in restoring, if possible, order to the island. 
While the General did excellent work in his command, he became 
wearied with the kind of warfare in which he was engaged, and after 
eight months in the island he returned to England, either to pro- 
cure a force adequate for the work or to abandon the cause. His 
place was filled by his second in command, Brigadier-General Sir 
Thomas Maitland, appointed 18th April, 1797. In 1798, owing to 
the fear that Napoleon would seek a landing on British soil, General 
Simcoe was appointed to the command of Plymouth and the Western 
District, and in Felruary, 1801, he was gazetted as "Lieutenant- 
General in the Army." 

In 1806 the General was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the 
British forces in India, to succeed Lord Lake, and he at once began 
to make arrangements for departure to his far-distant command. 
Mrs. Simcoe and one of her daughters had gone to London and 
were busily engaged in making purchases such as would be required 
in their new home, when an entire change of plan came from the 
authorities in London by special messenger to Exeter, the head- 
quarters of the Western District. 

The order was in effect that the British Government had informa- 
tion that led to the belief that an invasion of Portugal was contem- 
plated by Napoleon. The orders were peremptory. The fleet under 
Earl St. Vincent was cruising off Brest, whence it was ordered to 
the Tagus, while Lord Rosslyn and Lieutenant-General Simcoe were 
directed to join Earl St. Vincent at Lisbon. 



General Simcoe had been in poor health, but by exercising the 
greatest care he was able without undue exertion to cover the large 
amount of work assigned to him in the command of the Western 
District. He was so confident of his physical strength that he did 
not hesitate to accept the India command when it was offered to 

Indeed it was anticipated that after the negotiations in Lisbon 
lie would return to England and then proceed to India. But it was 
not to be. He sickened on the voyage to Lisbon and was compelled 
to return to England. There was some delay owing to the non- 
arrival of the man-of-war which was ordered to convey him to Eng- 
land. But on the 28th of September, 1806, he sailed on H. M. S. 
"Illustrious" and on the 21st of October he landed at Topsham and 
the next day was carefully driven to Exeter and taken to the house 
of his friend, Archdeacon Moore, whose dwelling was in the Cathedral 
Close. He was too ill to make the journey to Wolford, and on the 
following Sunday, the 26th, the General passed away. 

The remains of the General were embalmed and kept in Exeter 
until the 4th of November in order that the funeral arrangements 
might be perfected. His funeral was an imposing one and every mark 
of respect was paid by the citizens and by the military authorities. 
The burial took place at Wolford, fourteen miles from Exeter, and 
the old Roman road over which the cortege passed was lined by the 
volunteer militia of Devon. At the third mile of the journey a squad- 
ron of dragoons were drawn up and escorted the remains to Wolford. 
The regulars stationed at Exeter were unable to take part owing to 
the fact that there was a Parliamentary election in progress and 
during such an event the military were not allowed in the constit- 
uency. Reaching Wolford at six o'clock in the evening, the burial 
was by' torchlight in the presence of his widow and family and the 
leading men of the county. The remains were interred at the east end 
of the private chapel, which had been erected by the General. 



Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe after his return in 1781 from the 
American campaign, spent some days in London with the authorities 
of the War Office. During that summer he journeyed to Exeter and 
resolved that Devon, the county in which he had so many friends and 
connections, should be his permanent home. 

There is no correspondence in the manuscripts at "Wolford to 
show whether his mother, to whom he was devoted, was alive at the 

(From a Drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

time of his return. Nor is there any record of her death to be found 
in the registers of the Cathedral or of any of the churches of Exeter, 
although diligent search for entries has been made by the writer. 
The impression amongst the Devon connections of the family all 
by marriage is that Mrs. Simcoe died in Exeter shortly before the 
return of her son from the United States. 

After his return the Colonel was not in the best of health. The 
strenuous activities of military life in the American campaign had 
told severely on his physique. He had not fully recovered from the 



effects of a wound he had received at the Battle of Brandywine; and, 
therefore, a quiet life and perfect rest were prescribed by his physician. 
He loved the balmy air of Devon and enjoyed short visits to the 
country houses of friends, who delighted to welcome him ; for he had 

a happy and amiable disposi- 
tion, and was an entertaining 

But there was one country 
home where his presence gave 
more than ordinary pleasure. It 
\vas Hembury Fort, some miles 
from Honiton. Here on the site 
of this old Eoman encampment 
resided two old friends of his 
father, Admiral and Mrs. 
Graves. The Admiral was his 
godfather, and out of respect 
and deep regard for that officer, 
Captain Simcoe, E.N., had 
given his son " Graves " as one 
of his Christian names. Mrs. 
Graves was a sister-in-law of 
Colonel Gwillim of "Old 
Court " in Herefordshire. 

On the first of these visits, 
in the spring of 178.2, Colonel 
Simcoe met Miss Gwillim. It is 
BUCKERALL CHURCH INTERIOR. sa id to have been a case of love 

at first sight. She was then 
sixteen, petite, fair to see, 
bright and entertaining, and attractive in manner. The Colonel, now 
in his thirtieth year, renewed his visits ; and in this case the course 
of true love ran absolutely smooth, for the engagement followed, but 
no date for the wedding was fixed. 

Mrs. Graves naturally thought that sixteen was rather an early age 
for her niece to assume the responsibilities of married life, but what- 
ever objections she offered were evidently overcome, for Samuel 
Graves and Margaret Graves were witnesses to Simcoe's marriage 
at Buckerall Parish Church, on the 30th of December, 1782, which 
was solemnized by the Eev. Thomas Kosskilly, Curate of the Parish. 
The marriage certificate reads : 

"No. 60 Lieutenant-Colonel John Graves Simcoe of this Parish 
and Miss Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim of this Parish were married in 
this church by License this 30th Day of December in the Year One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-two by me, Thos. Eoskilly, 
Curate. This Marriage was solemnized between TJs, John Graves 
Simcoe, Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim, in the Presence of Saml. 
Graves, Margaret Graves." 


(From a Drawing in the J. Ross Robertson 


Where the honeymoon was spent does not appear in the Wolford 
MSS., but the Colonel and his wife after marriage resided in Exeter. 
The Colonel felt that Devonshire was really his native county. He 
had practically lived in it for twenty-three years from 1759, when 
his mother and his brother Percy left Cotterstock, after the death 
of his father. With this idea in his mind he determined to settle 
down in some congenial spot, of which there are so many in Devon, 
the most charming of all the English counties. 

His wife felt as he did, and her fortune made it possible to realize 
this desire. Accordingly in 1784 Wolford and the surrounding 
estate were bought by Mrs. Simcoe from the heirs of Peter Geneste. 
But it was not until 1788 that they made Wolford their permanent 
residence, after improvements in the house had been made. 

and (tit'/, 

Married in this (~6u>rc bv ^(/GGHOU 

this 3a*- Day of fdef^t,^ in the Year One ThoufandSevci 

Hundred and g^gx -(&* by me_ 

This Marriage was folemnized between Us- 



(From Register of Buckerall Parish Church.) 

Shortly after the marriage, the College of Arms, on application, 
authorized the arms here depicted to be borne by Colonel and Mrs. 
Simcoe, viz., Dexter, Simcoe Azure a fesse wavy Ermine between 
two stars of twelve points in chief and a cannon barwise in base or, 
Sinister, Gwillim Argent, a Lion rampant, Ermines, collared Or. 
Crest, Simcoe: Out of a naval crown Or a demi Sea Lion proper 
holding in his fore fin a dagger erect Argent the pomel and hilt gold 
and on his shoulder a Rose Gules barbed and seeded proper as hereon 

Mrs. Simcoe was entitled to a large number of quarterings and at 
a subsequent date some of these were added to the arms borne by the 
Colonel and his wife. An explanation of the later arms is: The 
arms in the first and fourth quarters are those of Simcoe. The arms 




ARMS, 1782. 



in the second and third quarters have not been identified by the 
College of Arms, London, England, and there is nothing in the 
College to show that 'Colonel Simcoe was entitled to make 'use of this 

'quartering. -With regard to the smaller shield 

the first quarter is an incorrect representation 

of the Gwillim arms. 

The second, consist- 
ing of four lions and 

crosses, represent the 

Spinckes arms. The 

third quarter contains 

the arms of Stuart 

Or a fesse chequy 

argent and azure, a 

bordure, ermine ; and 

the arms in the fourth 

quarter of the smaller 

shield are those of 

Elines Ermine two 

bars sable each 

charged with five elm 

leaves or. 

From 1783-7 the 

Colonel and his wife 
lived at St. Stephen's in Exeter, and in January, 1784, Eliza, their 
first child, was born. Then in August, 1785, at St. David's in Exeter, 
Charlotte, the second child, arrived, and in April of 1787, the third 
child, Henrietta, another daughter. The first child born at Wolford 
was Caroline in November of 1788, followed by Sophia, another 
daughter, in October of 1789. The sixth child, the first boy, Francis 
Gwillim, was born in June, 1791, some months before the departure 
of the Colonel and his wife for Canada. 

The Exeter Flying Post of Thursday, June 9, 1791, announces 
the birth as follows: "Monday, the Lady of Colonel Simcoe was 
safely delivered of a son and heir, at their seat, at Wolford Lodge, 
near Honiton." 

The Colonel devoted his entire time for the first few years to re- 
organizing and improving his estate. Wolford, which was a 
small but well-built house, was remodelled. A new dwelling was 
built in front of the old-time farmhouse. Every convenience for 
those days was introduced; roadways were laid out through different 
parts of the estate, which covered about 5,000 acres; and under the 
direction of Colonel Simcoe and his active and well-informed manager, 
Mr. John Scadding, many valuable improvements were made. Mr. 
Scadding was the father of the late Rev. Henry Scadding, D.D., 
grand-uncle of Dr. H. Crawford Scadding, of Toronto. 



All this delighted Mrs. Simcoe. She had a direct interest in 
the work of improvement, and it was at her suggestion that many of 
the acres, thickly wooded to-day, were planted and improved. 

Mrs. Simcoe, as has been said, was of a vivacious disposition. She 
was fond of gaiety. Wolford in 1789 became the centre of attraction 
in that part of the county. The house had ample accommodation 
for visitors, and never a week passed without all its guest-chambers 
being filled. 

Mrs. Simcoe had inherited all the Gwi'llim wealth and it was 
liberally spent, not only in improving the estate but in making life 
enjoyable in the manor house. She had a great admiration for her 
husband and was especially pleased when in 1790 he entered Parlia- 
ment as the representative of St. Maw's in Cornwall. 


(From a Drawing in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

But a change in their lives came when the British Government 
decided in the summer of 1791 that it would require Colonel Simcoe's 
services immediately as the first Lieutenant-Governor of the new 
Province of Upper 'Canada. All plans for the coming winter were 
summarily disposed of, for arrangements had to be promptly made 
for the journey to Canada. Mrs. Simcoe and the Colonel went to 
London, the former to arrange for her outfit, the latter to interview 
the authorities at the War Office and receive his final instructions. 

Then came the question of the children which of the six could 
be taken to Canada. Eliza was seven years of age, Charlotte six, 
Henrietta four, Caroline three, Sophia two, and Francis Gwillim was 
only three months old. Mrs. Simcoe would have liked to take all her 
little ones with her, but that was impossible. 
3 33 


Fortunately, however, there were two old friends, Mrs. and Miss 
Hunt, in whom the Colonel and his wife had the greatest confidence 
and in whose care at Wolford they determined to leave the four 
eldest, Eliza, Charlotte, Henrietta and Caroline, taking Sophia and 
Francis to Canada. Mrs. Simcoe returned from London in the 
beginning of September and most energetically directed the packing 
and looked forward with pleasure to the days to be spent in the new 

The story of Mrs. Simcoe's life from the day she with her husband 
left Wolford and sailed in H. M. S. "Triton" from Weymouth, cannot 
be told better than it is written in her diary. Some incidents of her 
life in Canada not given in the diary will be found in subsequent 

When in 1759, her father, Captain Gwillim, ascended with General 
Wolfe the rugged path that led to the heights of Abraham, little did 
he think that thirty-two years later his daughter would give to future 
generations of Canadians pictures of places in the new land that he 
and his companions were winning for the Empire. But the daring 
and resolute soldier of Wolfe transmitted to his daughter not only the 
courageous qualities that had been necessary to win this new land 
for Britain, but also the foresight and the genius by which she has 
preserved by pen and pencil the spirit both of the natural scenery 
and the social life of the New Britain that was being planted. 


The air at Wolford was filled with loving farewells as Colonel 
Simcoe, his wife, his children and attendants left one of the happiest 
of England's homes to face the perils of an Atlantic voyage. For a 
week before their departure the county people had called to say good- 
bye, and wish the new Governor and his wife a safe voyage to their 
colonial home in the western continent. 

Wolford had during the few years of residence by the Simcoes 
been the most hospitable of all the country houses in that part of 


(From a Drawing in Ike Broadley collection.) 

Devon. Its guest chambers were never without an occupant, and the 
reception days of Mrs. Simcoe had a welcome and a charm for the 
large circle of friends who had the pleasure of being entertained there. 
Colonel Simcoe's name was a household word, not only in county 
families, but in military circles in Devon and Cornwall, and as a 
Devon chronicle writer says, "more distinguished men than ever 
dined under one roof in Devon were often found at Colonel Simcoe's 

The afternoon of Thursday, 17th September, 1791, was fixed for 
the journey to "Weymouth, from which port they were to sail. The 
luggage and there was plenty of it had been sent forward on 
Wednesday. On Saturday morning, the 17th, the pa'rty arrived at 



Weymouth and in a few hours were comfortably settled in lodgings 
which faced the esplanade and the bay. 

Weymouth is a well known port in Dorset, on the English Channel 
south of Dorchester, on a bay at the mouth of the river Wey. The 
river separates the two quarters of the town. Old Weymouth is on 
the south side and Melcombe Regis faces the bay on the north. The 
sands are extensive and there is a magnificent esplanade. George 
III. after his serious illness in 1788 found the place an excellent 
health resort and visited it nearly every year between 1788-1805. 
He resided at Gloucester House, built by the Duke of Gloucester 
and bought by the King. Owing to the King's visits the town soon 
attained considerable social prominence. 

Colonel and Mrs. Simcoe thoroughly enjoyed the days spent in 
Weymouth before sailing in the "Triton" frigate which lay anchored 
in the bay awaiting the embarkation of its distinguished passengers. 
The first entry in Mrs. Simcoe's diary was made on the day of her 
arrival in Weymouth. 

Weymouth, Saturday, 17th Sept., 1791 We arrived at Weymouth. I 
walked with Lady Collier on the Esplanade in the evening. 

NOTE. Lady Collier was Elizabeth Fryer, second wife of Sir 
George Collier, whom he married in 1781. He was Senior Naval 
Officer, Halifax, July, 1776-9, and in 1780 commanded the 
" Canada." 

Sunday 18th Went to church with Lady Collier and to the Rooms in 
the evening. The King looked very well. 

NOTE. Robert Huish (1777-1850) in his "King George III." 
writes : 

"The time of His Majesty was chiefly 
occupied at Weymouth in receiving the 
formal address of the corporation or the 
visits of the nobility and gentry of the 
vicinity, and partly on horseback, rambling 
over the hills and downs or walking on the 
esplanade amidst respectful joyous groups 
of his loyal subjects. The Sabbath day was 
always passed in the offices of religion, the 
royal family walking to church without 
parade or ceremony, the service of the 
day always ending with 'God Save the GEORGE III. 


Mr. A. M. Broadley, of Bridport, Eng., informs me that the 
"Weymouth Rooms" patronized by the Royal Family were those 
known as "Stacey's," formerly part of the Royal Hotel, which can be 
clearly seen in the earlier pictures and engravings of Weymouth 
C 1789-91) of which he possesses a large collection. The "Royal" 
spoken of by Dr. Wolcot in his satire " Weymouth Amusements " 
(1795), was pulled down several years ago and has been replaced by 
a modern building. 



Mon. 19th I went to Portland Island, a rock peninsula of Dorsetshire, 
connected with the mainland, with Lady de la Pole, wife of Sir John de la 
Pole, and went round the Island in a cart, the conveyance generally used 
on those rough roads. The sea views are very fine. There is an uncommon 
aperture in the land in one spot, where we looked down as if into a vast 
well and saw the waves dashing below. We drove by the lighthouse. 
There are some buildings in ruins covered with ivy which have a very 
picturesque appearance. We stopped to take some refreshment after the 
drive at one of the largest villages in the island, where we tasted Portland 
mutton. The inhabitants of the island have laws and regulations peculiar 
to themselves. For instance, there is an official of the island called a 
Reeve. He collects rent and has a staff called the Reeve Staff, a very long 
stick on which payments are recorded in notches cut on the face of the 
stick. In buying and selling land the buyer and the seller go to the 
church, and sign a register before witnesses. They call it a Church Gift. 
It's very simple no writings or parchment used, no lawyers consulted. 
We crossed a very narrow passage to the island, but it is sometimes very 

NOTE. The Isle of Portland, really a peninsula, though generally 
called an island, is in Dorset, south of Weymouth, projecting into the 
English Channel and terminating in the Bill of Portland. It is four 
and a half miles long and about two miles wide and nine in circum- 
ference. It is connected with the mainland at Abbotsbury by the 
shifting Chesil Beach, a narrow ridge of gravel and shingle ten and a 
half miles long. This peninsula is practically a great bed of stone, 
first used in the reign of James I. The stone is quarried in blocks of 
three to fourteen tons each. St. Paul's Cathedral and other great 
structures were built of stone from these quarries. Portland is a 
"liberty" of itself, and the custom of "gavel-kind" prevails, which is 
an old land tenure in England still in vogue in Kent, by which land 
descends to all the sons in equal shares. 

In Portland service of lawyers is not necessary in connection with 
the sale and purchase of land. The ordinary method of conveyance 
is almost unknown in Portland. This is done by what is called a 
Church Gift, a form used for the purchase from time immemorial. 
The buyer and seller go to the church and in the church is a register. 
The Church Gift is signed in presence of two witnesses who must be 
" Tenants " of the Manor. The deed is called a Church Gift instead 
of a common law conveyance. 

One of the officials of the Island of Portland is called the Reeve. 
His duty for his year of office is to collect the Chief or Quit rent. He 
holds the office for one year only and never for a second term. A 
new Reeve is appointed annually by the Court Leet, which is held 
twice a year, in May and November. A woman or a man may hold 
the office. Men and women have had equal rights in Portland, long 
before any Married Woman's Property Act was passed by Parliament 
giving women their rights. This has been the case in Portland from 
time immemorial and women make wills and hold offices and buy and 
sell property quite apart from their husbands. 

The duty of the Reeve for his year of office is to collect the Quit 


Rent or Chief Rent which is due to the Lord 
of the Manor, who in this Manor is the King 
or Queen, this being a Royal Manor. The 
Quit Rent is an annual payment at the rate 
of three pence per ,acre to the Lord of the 
Manor by landowners in the Island for their 
private lands as distinct from Crown Lands 
and Common or Parish lands. Every such 
landowner is called a " tenant " of the 
Manor, but the private lands are treated as 
freehold notwithstanding this annual pay- 
ment to the Chief. On the death of a tenant 
there becomes due to the Chief a payment 
of 2/6 which is paid out of the lands owned 
: at his death. There are three kinds of 
land, viz.: The Crovv-n lands, Private lands 
and Commonable or Parish lands, the latter 
belonging to the King and the tenants, and 
in which the tenants have equal rights with 
the King. 

The Reeve Staff or Stick is the record of 
the payment of this Quit Rent and is of 
Saxon origin. It is a stick from ten to 
twelve feet long and one and a half inches 
square. Payments are represented by 
notches cut across the face of the stick. A 
deep notch cut across the whole side of the 
face represents one shilling. A notch half 
way across represents sixpence, a lighter and 
not so deep a notch across the whole face 
represents a penny. A notch the same depth 
as the last named half way across the stick 
represents a halfpenny, and a quarter across, 
one farthing. No one pays less than a 
farthing, but it is easy to see that an acre 
may be so divided as to make many owners 
who would pay one farthing each. This was 
the custom before books for keeping accounts 
were in vogue. It is done every year, but in 
these modern days books are kept as well. 
Each Reeve prepares a new Staff and retains 
it as his own, as the stick he used during 
his term of office. 

The Chief or Quit rent is paid on pri- 
vate lands only. The total amount has stood 
at 14 14s. 3d. from time immemorial and 
although by the sub-division of land the 
Reeve collects more, only this sum is paid over to the Chief. No 
question is asked and so the extra amount goes into the pocket of the 


3 /8 



Reeve. The payment proper to the Reeve is 1 per year. Formerly 
he had no money payment, but had the use of a piece of land for the 
year. This piece of land is called the " Reeve Plot." 

Showing (A) Gloucester Lodge, (B) Stacey's Hotel Rooms. 

(From a Water-color in the Broadley collection.) 

The picture of a Reeve Staff is from a drawing kindly made for 
me by Mr. B. 0. Pearce, an Ex-Reeve, prominent in business circles 
in Portland. He also furnished the information in this note con- 
cerning the peculiar customs of Portland and the use of the Reeve 

Mon. 19th I dined with Lady de la Pole at 
Stacey's Hotel on the Esplanade, and went in the 
evening to see the play of "As You Like It," which 
was very well performed. Col. Simcoe dined with 
Lord Grenville. 

NOTE. This conclusively proves Mr. Broad- 
ley's contention as to Stacey's Rooms existing in 
1791. They were quite close to Gloucester Lodge. 
Lady de la Pole was the wife of the sixth Baronet. 
George William Wyndham Baron Grenville 
(1759-1834), Home Secretary, 1789-90 and Sec- 
retary of State for Foreign Affairs 1791-1801 in 
Pitt's administration. 

Tues. 20th I was tired with writing, and did not 
ro to the ball. 

Wed 21st The Chancellor, Edward, Lord Thurlow, is gone into 




The sealers, those officials who prepare documents for sealing in the 
Lord Chancellor's department, are following with Gov. Simcoe's com- 
mission, but not having yet overtaken him, we are detained here and 
complaining of losing a fine east wind. We give two and a half guineas 
a week for a very small lodging. I could not go to Lullworth Cove to-day 
lest the Commission should arrive, in which case we are to sail imme- 

NOTE. Thurlow, Edward, first Baron Thurlow (1731-1806), 
Lord Chancellor, 1778, prepared a celebrated report on the Quebec 
Bill which was quoted at length in Christie's 
History. He intrigued with George, Prince of 
Wales, against Pitt, and was obliged to resign in 
1792. His political principles were merely a high 
view of royal prerogative and an aversion to 
change. It was of him that Macaulay said, "I 
wonder if any man ever was as wise as Thurlow 

Lullworth Cove is a beautiful inlet in the Eng- 
lish Channel, almost landlocked, deep and narrow 
with lofty cliffs, and very fine scenery. It is a 
few miles from Weymouth, and is usually visited 
BAROX THURLOW. by excursionists. 

Thur. 22nd Intelligence is received that the Chancellor is gone to 

Fri. 23rd I was pleased with a camera obscura I saw fixed in the top 
of a room. I bought a wooden pentograph, an instrument for the mechan- 
ical copying of engravings, diagrams and plans. The Misses Rolle, mem- 
bers of Lord Rolle's family (a Devonshire nobleman) are here and very 
civil to me. I went five miles with Lady Poulett and her children in her 
Sociable (a carriage of the period), and dined with her. 

NOTE. Henry Rolle was created Baron Rolle of Stevastone in 
January, 1747, and died without issue in 1759. His nephew John Rolle 
eventually succeeded to the Stevastone property. He was M.P. for 
Devonshire, 1780-4, 1790, and was a staunch 
adherent of Pitt. In 1796 he was created Baron 
Rolle of Stevastone. He died without issue in 
April, 1842. The "Misses Rolle" were Isabella 
Harriot Charlotte, born 1754, and Florence, born 

Fri. 23rd In the evening we walked on tlhe 
esplanade. The Royal family came and spoke to 
Lady P., and the Princess Royal carried Lady 
Mary Poulett, daughter of the Earl, a heavy 
child three years old, the wihole length of the 

NOTE. Princess Charlotte Augusta Matilda, 
born 29th September, 1766, eldest daughter of PRINCESS 
George III., (1738-1820) married in 1797, her 
cousin Frederick William Charles, Duke of Wurtemburg, who subse- 
quently became King of Wurtemburg. He formed an alliance with 



Napoleon in 1805, his army fighting for Napoleon for several years, 

but eventually joining the allies in 1813. 

Lady Mary Poulett was the second daughter 
of John, the fourth Earl Poulett, by Sophia his 
wife, daughter and heir of Admiral Sir George 
Pocock, K.B. Lady Mary in 1821 became the 
second wife of Lord Charles Henry Somerset. 

Sat. 24th I walked on the sands with Coll. Sim- 
coe before breakfast. We met the King. He asked 
me whether I left my children at school, how I should 
like being at sea, &c. I was not well and dined at 
home. Sir de la Pole sent me landrails. My French 
cook dressed them without taking out the inside, and 
I found a shell as large as a nut in one of them. I 
thought they lived by suction. How could this be? 
LADY POULETT NOTE. The Landrail or Corncrake, a mi- 

gratory bird, leaves England before the winter, 
and repairs to other countries in search of food. It appears in Eng- 
land the latter end of April. 

Sun. 25th I was at the Rooms to-night, and met Capt. Sydney Smith. 
He wore a handsome star given him by the King of Sweden, in whose 
service he distinguished himself. He is thought to be like Charles the 
Twelfth of Sweden. His countenance reminded me of pictures of some 
great men in Elizabeth's reign a marked countenance, expressing the 
reverse of a trifling character. 

The whole of this day it blew so heavy a gale that the "Triton," the 
ship on which we are to sail for Canada, was obliged to go out to sea, it 
being dangerous to remain at anchor. From Lady de la Pole's windows 
in this hotel, where I dine, the waves looked tremendous. The scene was 
grand, but, as the Queen (Charlotte) observed this evening, was "mixed 
with too much horror to be pleasing." 

NOTE. Sir William Sydney Smith (1764-1840) a naval officer 
who entered the Navy in 1777, became captain in 1782, knighted 
in 1792. He was captured off 
Havre by the French in 1796, 
imprisoned in Paris for two 
years, escaped in 1798, and in 
1799 undertook the defence of 
St. Jean d'Acre. In March, 
1799, he captured the French 
vessels and held the town until 
the siege was raised. He died 
in 1840. 

Sun. 25th I dined yester- 
day, 24th, at Sir G. Collier's, 
with Capt. Murray, of the 
SIB GEORGE MURRAY. " Triton," who appears a very glR SYDNEY SMITH 

gentlemanly man, and his hav- 
ing the reputation of being an excellent officer is a great consolation to 
us who are aJbout to sail in so late a season for a northern climate. Sir 
J. Jervoise is the only man who tells Coll. Simcoe that he is certain of 
making his passage at this time of the year. Others think it is too late, 



but he is a man of knowledge in nautical affairs, and, therefore, his 
opinion is to he trusted to. 

The King asked Capt. Murray about his stock of provisions for the 
voyage, and hoped he had prepared for making my passage as comfortable 
as possible to me. 

XOTE. Sir George Murray, 1759-1819, Vice-Admiral, of a 
younger branch of the Elibank family. His actual services in the 
Navy probably began about 1772 when he joined the "Panther" on 
the Newfoundland station. He was afterwards in the " Romney," 
the flagship of Rear Admiral John Montague, on the same station. 
In 1792 he was appointed to the "Triton" frigate, and after- 
wards to the " Nymphe." In 1807, he was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the naval opera- 
tions against Buenos Ayres. On 25th October, 
1809, he was promoted to be a Vice- Admiral, 
\\ T as nominated a K.C.B. on 2nd January, 1815, 
and died suddenly at Chichester on 28th February. 

John Jervoise (Jervis), Earl St. Vincent, the 
first Viscount, was born at Meaford, Staffordshire, 
17th January, 1734. He entered the navy in his 
tenth year, led the advanced squadron in charge 
of transport past Quebec, was entrusted by Wolfe 
with his last message to his betrothed, 1759, and 
EARL ST. VINCENT, was a personal friend of Captain John Simcoe, 
R. N., father of Governor Simcoe. He became 
admiral of the blue and commander of the naval forces in the 
Mediterranean in 1795, and in. consequence of his victory over the 
Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent in February, 1797, was raised 
to the peerage. In 1821 he became admiral of the fleet. 


Mrs. Simcoe's description of the trip from Weymouth to the New 
World forms an interesting commentary upon the ocean travel of 
a century ago. Long was the voyage and great was the discomfort 
even upon the "Triton," which compared most favorably with the 
usual sailing craft of the day. With wind as the only motive power, 
the man-of-war which bore the Simcoe party towards the West took 
forty-six days upon a voyage which the fleet liner of to-day would 
make in less than five. And the gain in comfort has been no less 

However, Mrs. Simcoe was possessed of an industry which pre- 
vented her long passage from being irksome. Much of the time she 
spent in reading and writing. Every incident of importance found 
its way into her record. The vessel's speed and weather conditions 
were, of course, sedulously jotted down by the diarist; there is men- 
tion of the rare passing vessels; while the description of the routine 
life upon an eighteenth century warship has a peculiar interest to 
the luxury-loving traveller of to-day. 

When land was sighted, the Captain's chart was always consulted 
and every point of land that had a name found a place in her daily 
writings. She certainly had a traveller's mind, with powers of obser- 
vation that added to her voyage pleasure both for herself and for 
the friends to whom she wrote. 

Mon. 26th Sept. Wind east, blowing fresh, fine and clear. It became 
calm this morning, and at one o'clock p.m. we embarked on board His 
Majesty's frigate " Triton," 28 guns. Captain Murray. Capt. Stevenson 
accompanied us, and Lt. Grey, a son of Sir Charles 
Grey's, for whom Coll. Simcoe requested a passage, 
who is going to join the Fusiliers or the 7th Regt. at 
Quebec, the regiment of which Prince Edward is 

I became giddy as soon as I entered the ship 
and went to my cabin, an apartment just large enough 
to swing a cot, which I immediately got into. On 
leaving Weymouth and in going through a surf called 
the Portland Race, one of the port hole windows was 
stove in, and the gentlemen at dinner were quite wet. 

NOTE. Sir harles Grey, first Earl Grey, 
1729-1807, a General in the Army, was con- 
spicuous for his services to the King in the Ameri- 
r< can Revolution. He was created Earl Grey and 
Viscount Howick in 1806. Earl Grey, the present Governor-General 
of Canada, is the fourth bearer of the title, and is directly descended 
from Sir Charles Grey. Lieutenant Thomas Grey, who sailed with 



Governor Simcoe, was fifth son of Sir Charles Grey, was lieutenant- 
colonel of the 12th Regiment of Foot, which embarked for the East 
Indies, 8th June, and anchored in Table Bay, 19th September, 1796. 
The regiment was in bad health while in Table Bay, so Grey was 
probably left behind when it sailed on the following 10th of November. 
He retired by sale of his commission, 1st December, 1796, and died 
at the Cape of Good Hope, 17th January, 1797, unmarried. 

Tues. 27th East, fresh and fine. Went before the wind at 9 knots an 

Wed. 28th East, fresh and fine. Went upon deck. Our hours are 
early. We breakfast at 8; dine at 2, and never take any supper. 

Sunday, Oct. 2nd Calm. 

Mon. 3rd Rough. 

Tues. 4th I got the better of my sickness yesterday, but there blew 
so strong a gale of wind that I was obliged to remain in my cot or in a 
corner behind the stove in the great cabin, to secure myself from falling. 
It was by persevering to go on deck and by eating salt beef, covered with 
mustard, that I soon became well. As my health amends my spirits rise, 
and I am rather diverted at the difficulties we meet with at dinner, when, 
in spite of all care, the dishes are often tossed to every corner of the room. 
The ship not having sufficient ballast makes her roll so unreasonably. I 
think I have great merit in beginning to write to you this early, in spite of 
rough weather. The children (Francis and Sophia) are well, but never 
appear to be safe except when in their cots, for the nurses are much indis- 
posed and have very indifferent sea legs. I am learning to walk on deck, 
but cannot yet do it without leaning on the arm of a gentleman. Capt. 
Murray, who has been in France, plays at reverse, the French card game, 
with us. Sophia's amusement is seeing the poultry on deck, where a little 
midshipman carries her every day. The wind has for several days driven 
us to the southward of our course. It begins to blow hard again, so I 
must retire to my cot. 

Wed. 5th Calm. Went five knots an hour. 

Thur. 6th Went six knots an hour. 

Fri. 7th We saw porpoises. 

Sat. 8th Calm and fine. It is expected we shall see the Azores or 
Western Isles to-morrow night. 

Sun. 9th Hot and fine. We rose from dinner at three o'clock to see 
a ship pass. She was the " Minerva," of London, from New York to Malaga, 
a Spanish port on the Mediterranean. I admired the sight as she sailed 
close to us. She did not give any intelligence. At 10 p.m. an island was 

Mon. 10th Fine, very hot. The heat was so excessive I could not 
sleep, and rose at 6 o'clock to look at the island, which was Corvo, the 
most northerly of the Azores. The mist presently dispersing, we saw 
Flores, the westernmost island of the Azores, where, in 1591, Sir Richard 
Grenville, in a small man-of-war, the "Revenge," held at bay fifteen 
Spanish warships till his own was but a wreck. The atmosphere far 
from clear. Corvo is extremely high land, lat. 39, Corvo S.S.E., 3 leagues. 

Coll. Simcoe has been reading " L'Histoire Generale de la Nouvelle 
France," by Francois Xavier Charlevoix, the French Jesuit traveller, who 
twice visited Canada and sailed down the Mississippi to New Orleans, 
and who says that Corvo was discovered by a Portuguese, who found it 
uninhabited, but saw an equestrian statue on a pedestal, of what metal 
made he knew not; but there was an inscription on it which was not 
legible. The right hand of the finger pointed to the west. 

The Western Isles are inhabited by Portuguese, who are fond of buy- 
ing black clothes whenever ships call there, which they frequently do to 



take in water, and which we should have done had not the lateness of 
the season in which we quitted England made it necessary not to lose an 
hour on the passage, as we are doubtful of reaching Quebec before the 
St. Lawrence is filled with ice. 

I should have liked to have gone on shore here, as the climate is said 
to be delightful and the islands abounding in grapes, oranges, melons, 
chestnuts, etc. No boats came to us with fruits, and they rarely fish 
beyond their harbour on account of the heavy squalls to which the coast 
is subject, which endangers their being blown out to sea. From the 
description of the islands I would like to make a voyage here instead of 
going to Tunbridge Wells (in England) or other watering places, where 
people frequently tire or weary themselves. The scheme would be more 
enlarged, and I believe much more amusing. Being at sea in good weather 
is delightful, and there is no occasion to execute such a voyage in the 
equinoxial season. 

Tues. llth Wind light, very hot and contrary. A ship on her lar- 
board tack was seen last night; we, being on the starboard, did not speak 
with her. I rose this morning at three o'clock and looked at the constel- 
lation of Orion and its stars in great brightness. The heat is excessively 
oppressive, though we have the windows open all night. 

Wed. 12th I copied some prints of ships Capt. Murray lent me. An 
American vessel was seen. 

Thurs. 13th Fine. A sail passed this morning, supposed to be an 
English 44 guns. At noon a Portuguese vessel was seen. 

Fri. 14th Very hard gale this morning. The sea ran mountains 
high. I sat on deck and saw the men reefing the sails. Their situation 
appeared tremendous. Mr. Benge, the Purser, gave Coll. Simcoe an 
account of his having been twice wrecked on the 14th October, which made 
him rather distrust his safety on this anniversary. He was on the " Deal 
Castle " when she and seventeen ships were lost on the Spanish main. 
She was carried by a violent gale of wind over a high rock, and struck 
on the sands. At two in the morning her bottom stove in, but she did not 
sink till after daylight, when all the men except seventeen got on shore 
on rafts. The account of such perils during such weather was not very 
amusing to us. 

NOTE. On the 10th of October, 1780, a dreadful hurricane com- 
menced on the island of Barbadoes, and continued without inter- 
mission for forty-eight hours. Ships were driven from their anchors, 
the capital of the island was destroyed, and the inhabitants were 
compelled to take refuge in cellars. Many were killed by falling 
buildings, and on the following day there was not a house in the 
island that had escaped damage, many of them were levelled to the 
ground, and the loss of life amounted to thousands. Many of the 
ships moored at St. Lucia were driven out to sea. The "Androm- 
eda," 28 guns, and the "Deal Castle," 24 guns, were lost on the 
coast of Martinique, while the "Thunderer," among other vessels, 
was never heard of again, and the exact place of their loss was never 

Sat. 15th Wind ;N.W.. cold, hard gale. This hard gale did not cool 
the cabins, which had been so extremely heated; I was, therefore, glad to 
be on deck to get rid of the headache, notwithstanding the weather was 
so rough that I was obliged to hold fast by a cannon. The waves, rising 
like mountains, have the grandest and most terrific appearance, and when 
the ship dashes with violence into the sea, much as a chaise in the 
act of overturning, it is surprising that she rights again. I viewed this 
tempestuous scene with astonishment. 



Sun. 16th A very stiff gale. Fine weather makes me very happy, 
but when it blows hard this abode is certainly horrid beyond the imagina- 
tion of those who have not experienced it. The noises on board a ship, 
till one becomes accustomed to them, almost deprive one of one's senses; 
in bad weather they are doubled; every place wet and dirty, besides being 
bruised by sudden motions of the ship and half drowned by leaks in the 
cabin. The gale has to-day been stiff and contrary. Two days since we 
expected to have been ere this catching cod on the banks of Newfound- 
land, and now we are far off. Those who are of a sanguine temper think 
we may get to New York; others foresee that we shall be driven to Bar- 
badoes, where we must pass the winter, and in May sail for Antigua to 

Coll. Simcoe is the only person who supposes it possible to reach 
Quebec. It will be so late before we come into the River St. Lawrence 
that the pilots will probably have quitted the Isle of Bic, an island in the 
river near Rimouski, below Quebec, and the master of the " Triton " 
cannot carry her up without a pilot. In this case we must return to the 
Gulph, and the season being too severe to keep in a northern latitude, we 
must steer for Barbadoes, and there shall meet with millions of those 
black beetles I so much detest, those verdaderos ninos d'eponomon 
lizards, centipedes and scorpions besides: Desdichada de mi gue tengo de 
ayer? (I miserable, what have I of yesterday?) 

After being amused during the day by a description of those vile 
reptiles, the evening proved so rough and dismal that everybody sat 
melancholy and unoccupied. I learnt a hymn in the Spectator, happening 
to open the book where there was one applicable to our present situation. 

I then sat myself down to copy pictures of ships, and by perseverance 
and determined opposition to unfavourable circumstances I finished six 
pretty correctly. My cot striking against the side of the cabin most un- 
comfortably, Coll. Simcoe thought of the method used by the ancients to 
lessen the force of battering rams by hanging up feather beds to receive 
them. This device made the cot slide up and down very easily. 

NOTE. Addison's Spectator the first number of this periodical 
was published in March, 1711, and the last on the 20th December, 
1714. The Spectator newspaper was not published till 1828. 

Mon. 17th We saw porpoises. 

Tues. 18th A pleasant morning. At 12 a sudden gale of wind arose, 
and while I was engaged in a game of Piquet, the French card game much 
played in England, with Oapt. Murray, a lee lurch threw me to the side of 
the cabin against the fender. I was vexed at the accident, though not 
hurt, having piqued myself on having been so expert as always to have 
avoided falling. 

Wed. 19th A brig seen. A shag (or green cormorant) with a red 
bill was seen. Wind variable. 

Thurs. 20th Wind moderate. We are 130 leagues from Newfound- 
land. This distance we have kept these last five days. I began to draw 
a map of the Genesee River, New York State falls into Lake Ontario. 

NOTE. Mrs. Simcoe was very fond of drawing maps. One of her 
maps of Upper Canada, about four feet square, is preserved at Wol- 
ford. It is very accurately drawn. 

Fri. 21st Very hard gale. 'A tempestuous night. It rained upon 
my bed, but a thick greatcoat covered me, and I slept well. This ship 
is a good sea boat, but so leaky in her upper works that the floor of my 
cabin is scarcely ever dry, and the baize with which it is covered retains 
the wet. Therefore, I always wear clogs. Some shrouds were lost in 
this gale of wind. 


(From a Drawing by Mr. Siincoe.) 

Sat. 22nd N.E. hard gale. 

Sun. 23rd Wind N.E. Whales seen near the ship, and many birds, 
which are signs of being in soundings, though none can be obtained. As 
the sun has not been seen for some days no observation can be taken, and 
the compass is so bad a one that it traverses to all points in a gale of 
wind, so that the Master knows not where we are, or, in bad weather, what 
course we are going. 

Mon. 24th Wind N.E. Cold and clear. Number of gulls and shear- 
waters and Mother Carey's chickens flying about. They are a brown 

bird with white spots, _ 

pretty and rather larger 

than a sparrow, a storm 

petrel, a little bird which 

frequents this part of the 

Atlantic. The shearwater 

is a bird measuring 15 

inches in length, 31 inches 

in breadth. It has a black 

and yellow bill, white 

under wings and body, 

back and tail black, found on waters all over the world. Mother Carey is 

Mater Cara. The birds are called "Sailors'" friend; their appearance 

portends bad weather. To kill them is unlucky. Each bird is supposed, 

so legend says, to contain a soul of a dead sailor. At 12 o'clock we were 

in 75 fathoms of water. Cod, haddock and halibut were caught. A very 

cold night and rained into my cot. 

Tues. 25th N.W. wind excessive. No soundings since 12 last night. 
It is extraordinary to be out of them so soon. It is hoped we shall keep 
clear of Sable Island, 30 leagues east of Nova Scotia, which is frequently 
enveloped in fog, and, therefore, very dangerous. No trees grow on it, but 
there is plenty of wood from the frequent wrecks that are driven on its 
shores. It abounds with rats, snipe, and so forth. 

Wed. 26th Wind N.W. So extremely cold that I could not stay on 
deck without a fleecy, hosiery greatcoat on; a bird like a linnet and a 

crossbill alighted on the 
rigging. It was out of the 
reach of land. I hoped to 
have kept it in my cabin, 
but it soon died. This 
bird is about the size of a 
lark and 7 inches in 
length. It has a peculiar 
bill, the upper and under 
mandibles curve in oppo- 
site directions and cross 
each other at the points. 
Its eyes are hazel, and its general colour reddish mixed green, but these 
birds are sometimes rose colour or yellowish green. 

Thurs. 27th Wind moderate. A beautiful owl, olive colour, with 
white spots and black about his face, was caught to-day. He was not 
larger than a thrush and not wild; also a bird the size of a lark. 

Fri. 28th Wind N.E. A fine morning, and we fortunately made the 
Isle of Sable, thirteen leagues N., only 8% fathoms water, before 12 o'clock, 
when a very thick fog came on. 

NOTE. Sable Island is a small island off Nova Scotia, first 
sighted by Cabot in 1497, situated in the Atlantic Ocean, lying 110 
miles southeast of Cape Canso, lat. 43 58' N., long. 59 46' W. It is 




Draining by Mrs. Simcoe ) 


deep, low and sandy, about 25 miles in length and surrounded by 
shoals and sandbanks, and known as "the ocean graveyard." In 1791 
it was forty miles long; in 1890 it had been reduced to 25 miles. 
Cape Sable Island is the southwesternmost extremity of Nova Scotia 
and is frequently confused with Sable Island. 

28th, p.m. If it blow hard until to-morrow we hope to go through the 
Gut or Strait of Canso, a beautiful passage between Nova Scotia and Cape 
Breton from the Atlantic Ocean into Northumberland Strait, between 
high, rocky shores, and the shortest way to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. I 
am now reconciled to being at sea. I am well enough to work, write or 
draw; and sailing at the rate of 10 miles an hour without fatigue or 
trouble (which in this good weather is the case) is very pleasant. I 
should like to embark in summer, see various coasts, look into the har- 
bours, and pass two or three months in this way. For example, come to 
Spanish River, on the Oape Breton Coast, where we hope shortly to be, 
and I am 'told is a pretty place, and I hope to visit Mrs. McCormick, wife 
of Lieut.-Col. McCormick, governor of the island of Cape Breton, to-morrow. 

NOTE. Spanish River is known to-day as Sydney Harbour. 

Sat. 29th Wind N.W. The wind against our going through the Gut 
of Canso. At 8 to-day we saw the coast of Nova Scotia. At 12 observed 
White Island, east of Liscomb Harbour. We saw American schooners. 
The white sails appeared very pretty to us who had been so long without 
seeing any objects, and the breakers along the coast, contrasted with some 
dark shores, had a good effect. We saw the Gut of Canso at a distance. 
At 4 we saw at the south end of Cape Breton, Richmond Island, so called 
in some charts, in others Isle Madame. We were very near it. It is a bold, 
perpendicular, dark red rock, shaded almost to black, and covered with pine, 
which looks richer than oak, and the conic shape when in maps looks 
well. Some large blasted pine, quite white, had a wild, fine effect. At 
the end of this island are rocks under water, which form fine breakers, 
dashing up a great height and sinking beneath the blue tide. A little dis- 
tance from Richmond lies Green Island, a small, low, smooth, olive-coloured 
slip of land south of Isle Madame. Behind Richmond island is Arichat 
Harbour, on the west coast of Isle Madame, off the southern coast of Cape 
Breton, from whence we saw a schooner coming. Within half an hour she 
came up with us, but could not pilot us into Arichat harbour, or we should 
have anchored safely there and waited for an E. wind to carry us thro' the 
Gut of Canso, the passage between Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island. 

Coll. Simcoe quotes " there is a tide in the affairs of men," and says 
our losing the opportunity of going thro' the Gut of Canso makes him, for 
the first time, doubtful of reaching Quebec. He is particularly disappointed 
at not seeing this passage, as his father, Capt. John Simcoe, R.N., of the 
" Pembroke," proposed to the Admiralty to carry large ships through it, 
and would have gained much time by so doing. This advantage was lost, 
as his proposal was objected to by the officers, who were afraid to risk the 
passage. We are now beating about, not making much way or venturing 
to make more sail than will carry us 5 knots an hour during this night, 
lest we get among the numerous breakers hereabouts. 

Sun. 30th Wind W., clear and cold. Passed Louisbourg at seven this 
morning. Coll. Simcoe was very sorry he had not seen that harbour, so 
often mentioned in his father's papers. At ten we passed the Isle de 
Scatari, Lat. 46, long. 59, 45 W., off Cape Breton (near the entrance to Mir6 
Bay). Then saw Cape Breton. At eleven made Flint Island and Cape 
Perc6 (north of Mir6 Bay). We passed Spanish (River at 6 in the evening. 
I did not see it. Gov. McCormick lives there, and has a brig in which he 
goes to England. 



NOTE. Flint Island is east of Cape Breton between North and 
South Head at the entrance of Cow Bay. 

Governor Macormick, of Cape Breton, was appointed to that office 
October llth, 1787, as successor to Des Barres, and in September of 
the following year, entertained at Sydney, the capital, Prince Wil- 
liam Henry (afterwards William IV.), who had arrived there in 
his yacht the "Andromeda." Governor Macormick resigned on 27th 
May, 1795. He was a personal friend of Governor Simcoe and was 
frequently at Wolford. 

Mon. 31st Wind N.E. Snow. At eleven we passed Niganiche (Nig- 
anish) Island, off the east coast of Cape Breton, near Middle Head. At 12 
Cape Nord, the N.E. extremity of the island of Cape Breton, which is 


(From a Drawing by- Mrs. Simcoe.) 

broken into rifts and chasms, a very bold coast. There was a good deal 
of snow on the trees, and as it was still falling, together with fog, I saw 
but little. It had a wild appearance. Lat. 47, long. 42%. This place 
abounds with ducks. 

NOTE. In Bayfield's Admiralty charts Inganish Island is situated 
north of Middle Head, between North Bay and South Bay, lat. 
46 50' on east coast of Cape Breton. It is sometimes spelled 

Tues. November 1st Wind N.W. Cold. We saw the Magdalen Islands 
about the centre of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. They are uninhabited, and 
in summer frequented by sea cows. There is good duck shooting on them, 
and codfish near them, for which purpose an American schooner is now 
at anchor off one of them. At 12 saw Amherst Island, the south island 
of the Magdalen group, and afterwards to the north and east the Isle 
Entry, another of the group. 

Wed. 2nd Wind N.W., very cold. I saw Amherst Island in another 
point of view; also Deadman's Isle, which appears in shape like a ram. 

4 49 


NOTE. Deadman's Island is a small island to the west of the 
Magdalen group. In a French map of 1755 by Vangoudy, the island 
is given as "Isle de Corps Mort." 

Wed. 2nd We met the " Liberty," of Whitby, 
bound to Portsmouth from Miscou (Misco) Har- 
bour, in Miscou Island, at the entrance to the 
Bay of Chaleur, laden with plank. The "Liberty" 
informed us that the "Alligator," with Lord 
Dorchester on board, had put into Halifax the 
7th of September, having sprung her bowsprit, 
and the " Penelope " was nearly being lost at the 
same time. Capt. Murray sent a boat on board 
the "Liberty," with letters for England. During 
the time we lay to, several codfish were caught. 
I like the chowder made of them very much. 
Coll. Simcoe has the gout in his hand. 


(From a drawing by 
Mrs. Simcoe.) 

NOTE. Guy Carleton, who was created first Baron Dorchester 
in 1786, served in America from 1758 to 1762, and from 1766 to 
1770, was acting Governor of Quebec. Upon 
his return to England in 1770, he advocated the 
passing of the Quebec Act and in 1775 returned 
as Governor of that province. For five months 
he successfully defended Quebec against the 
Americans, and in October of the same year, 
1776, defeated them on Lake Champlain. In 
1782-3 he was Commander-in-Chief in America. 
As Governor he resided in Quebec from 1786 
to 1791, and as Governor- General from 1793 to 
July, 1796, when he returned to England. 

Fri. 4th Wind N.E. Dreadful gale and snow- 
storm; several men frost bit during the last night, LoRI> DORCHESTER. 
which was the worst weather we have had. The 
ship pitched her forecastle under water continually. In the morn- 
ing the Isle Bonaventure, just north-east and opposite the Perce Rock, 
.on the Gaspe coast, was seen, but the wind being contrary they tacked all 
day and lost ground. We were under single reef courses the whole day. 
Coppers, or kettles from the ship's galley, are kept boiling night and day 
to thaw the tackle and ropes, which are continually freezing. The sailors 
have no clothing more than they would have on a West India voyage, and 
suffer severely. Had we been 8 leagues more to the northward, this wind 
would have served to carry us up the St. Lawrence River. 

Sat. 5th Wind N.W., moderate. N.W. during the day, but at night the 
wind came S.W., and we ran our course at the rate of 8 knots an hour. 
Isle Bonaventure was seen again. 

Sun. 6th Wind N.W. Passed Cap des Rosiers north of Cap Gaspe, 
in fine weather, but at 12 o'clock a most heavy gale of wind came on, which 
lasted till 12 at night, the highest sea and the roughest weather we have 
had. Two reefs in the foresail. Tacked all day and lost much ground. 
If this weather continues many hours we cannot weather it, but must be 
blown out of the river and go to New York, if we can, more probably to 
be blown to the West Indies, the men being so disabled by the frost and so 
many on the sick list that there are not enough to work the ship against 
adverse winds. The dinner overset, the tea things broke, but I eat broth 
without spilling it. 



Mon. 7th Wind moderate. Saw Anticosti Island. It's a large island 
in the estuary of the St. Lawrence. 

Tues. 8th Wind moderate, N.W., hard frost and clear. We saw part 
of the coast called in the chart Les Vallees, two rivers in Gaspe" County 
falling into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Tacked all day and made some way. 

NOTE. Called "Great and Little Valley" in chart of Gulf of St. 
Lawrence published by Eobert Sayer, London, 1st August, 1785. 

Wed. 9th N.E. Clear and moderate. Saw Mons. Camillo and Riviere 

NOTE. Mount Camille, in Eimouski County, is one of the highest 
mountains in Quebec, being about four thousand feet in height. 
River Matane, also in Rimouski County, rises in the Shickshock 
Mountains and falls into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

I walked two hours on the deck this afternoon, and saw a fine sunset 
behind Bique (Bic), a village in Rimouski County, near Rimouski. When 
we came within sight of Bique, Capt. Murray fired a gun for a pilot, and 
one very soon after the signal came on board. He had arrived from 
Isle aux Coudres (or Hazel Island, 17 leagues N.E. of Quebec) this day to 
attend a dance at Bique, which latter place he had quitted a week before, 
not expecting any ships from England at so late a season. To-morrow he 
would have returned to Coudres, and we must have left the river for 
want of a pilot. Our arrival this day was, therefore, most fortunate. 
I copied some of Des Barres' charts this morning. The wind was so fair 
that all the sails were set, even the sky scrapers, and the ship went so 
steadily that I did not feel any motion. 

NOTE. Bic, or Sainte Cecile de Bic, is a post-village of Rimouski 
County, about a hundred and eight miles below Quebec City and 
nine miles west of Rimouski. There is an island opposite this village 
three miles in length and three-quarters of a mile in breadth called 
Bic or L'Islet au Massacre. According to tradition two hundred 



Micmac Indians were murdered here by the Iroquois about two 
hundred years ago. The place is also called Bicque and Bique. 

Joseph Frederic Wallet des Barres was born in 
1722. He was the descendant of the Protestant 
branch of a noble French family who emigrated 
to England after the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. In 1756 he embarked, as lieutenant, in 
the 60th Regiment of Foot for America. From 
1784-1787, Des Barres was Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Isle of Cape Breton, and in 1785 founded 
Sydney. He ranked in the army as Colonel 
(Brevet) from 1st January, 1798, and retired 
in 1803. A large part of the Maritime Provinces 
were surveyed by Des Barres and many of the 
best maps of the period were made by him. He was Captain Cook's 
teacher in navigation. His death took place in Halifax, N".S., in 
October, 1824, at the age of 102. 

Thurs. 10th N.E. Rain and mild. We saw three ships on their way 
to England anchored off the Brandy Pots Islands, N.E. of Hare Islands. 
Passed Hare Island and the Kamouraska Islands. I feel the air much 
heavier since we have been so near land. We expect to be at Quebec in 



H^^4%.*-. .^-V^'^.^lW--^- *.->:;-- 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

the night. The Island of Orleans (N.E. of Quebec) reaches from nearly 
opposite Cape Tourmente to within a league and a half of Quebec. It is 
seven leagues in length and three in width. As Baron Jean de la Hontan 
writes in his "Voyages dans I'Amerique Septentrionale " (published in 
1704), "north of the Isle of Orleans the river divides into two branches;" 
the ships sail through the south, the north channel being foul with shoals 
and rocks. 


Governor Simcoe, although he had brought his commission as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada with him, was compelled, 
owing to circumstances related in a previous chapter, to remain at 
Quebec until June of 1792, before proceeding to the Upper Province 
and to Kingston, where he would take the oaths of office. There were 
many matters of importance to be arranged before he entered upon 
the active duties of his position. 

The Act of the Imperial Parliament dividing the old province 
of Quebec into the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada was 
passed in May, 1791. The commission of Governor Simcoe is dated 
12th September, 1791, and the proclamation in accordance with the 
Act was issued at Quebec on November 18th, 1791. In June, 1792, 
he proceeded to Upper Canada, arriving at Kingston in July, where 
he took the oaths of office in presence of his Executive Council. 

Fri. llth I expressed so much concern to quit the ship that Capt. 
Murray said he was almost afraid to dine on shore, lest I should order the 
ship under weigh to sail on a further voyage. The "Triton" anchored 
at Quebec at one this morning. At 7 I looked out of the cabin window 
and saw the town covered with snow, and it rained the whole day. Coll. 
Simcoe and Capt. Murray dined with General Alured Clarke, the Lt.- 
Governor, administrator, to meet H.R.H. Prince Edward. 

NOTE. Sir Charles Alured Clarke had a long and distinguished 
military career. When fourteen he entered the army as an ensign. 
Seventy-three years later, on the accession of 
William IV., he was made a field marshal. He 
died in September, 1832. Sir Alured was Gov- 
ernor of Jamaica from 1782-90, when he was 
transferred to the staff at Quebec. He was sworn 
in as Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of 
Quebec, 8th of October, 1790. He received his 
commission as Lieutenant-Governor of Lower 
Canada, September 12th, 1791, and remained in 
office until January 21st, 1796. During the two 
years' absence of Lord Dorchester he acted as SlR ALUBED CLABKE . 
administrator of the province. Subsequently he 
became Governor-General of India and later Commander-in-Chief 
of the forces there. 

Edward Augustus was the fourth son of George III. and the 
father of Queen Victoria. He was not liked by his parent and spent 
most of his time in military service abroad. For a while he was in 
command of the 7th Royal Fusiliers at Gibraltar and at once showed 



himself a thorough martinet, and became so unpopular Tfith his 
men that he was sent to Oanada in 1791. Three years later he 
served in Martinique and St. Lucia, but on the close of operations 
returned to Canada. In 1799 several promotions 
came his way. He was made Duke of Kent, and 
Commander-in-Chief of the forces in British 
Xorth America. In 1803 he was appointed Gov- 
ernor of Gibraltar. In July, 1818, he married 
Victoria May Louisa, widow of Enrich Charles, 
Prince of Leiningen. Eighteen months later he 

The 7th Regiment or Royal Fusiliers was 
formed in 1685. In 1773 they proceeded to 
Canada and were stationed at Quebec, Montreal 
and St. John's. When Quebec was 'besieged by 
Montgomery and Arnold, the garrison, of which 
sixty men of the Fusiliers formed part, defended 
the place with firmness and intrepidity. The regiment fought dur- 
ing the War of the Revolution. They returned to England in 1783, 
on conclusion of the treaty of peace. In May, 1791, the regiment 
was again in Canada under the command of Prince Edward, who 
in 1799 was created Duke of Kent. In 1801 the Duke was re- 
moved to the First or Royal Regiment, and was succeeded in the 
colonelcy by Lieutenant-Governor Sir Alured Clarke, from the 5th 
Foot, who had commanded the Fusiliers during a great part of the 
American war. In 1810, the regiment, which was stationed in the 
West Indies, returned to England. 

Fri. llth I was not disposed to leave the ship to enter so dismal 
looking a town as Quebec appeared through the mist, sleet and rain, but 
at 6 o'clock L.t. Talbot went ashore with me, and General Clarke's covered 
carriole, a small chaise on runners instead of wheels, was ready to carry 
me to the Inn in the Upper Town, to which we ascended an immensely 
steep hill through streets ill built. The snow was not deep enough to 
enable the carriole to run smoothly, so that I was terribly shaken, and 
formed a very unpleasant idea of the town which I had come to, and the 
dismal appearance of the old-fashioned inn I arrived at, which, I could 
suppose, resembled my idea of a Flemish house, was not preposessing. 
My rooms were all on the first floor and a large kitchen adjoining the 
sitting room. I did not suffer from cold, for it was heated by polls or 
stoves, which were so well supplied with wood that I found it sometimes 
necessary to open the finettes, or sliding panes of glass in the windows. 
I met with fine partridges and excellent apples called Roseaux, pink 
throughout, and they had a flavour of strawberries a very early apple, 
and they do not keep. 

Sun. 13th Capt. Murray sailed for Halifax. I sent letters to England 
by a merchant vessel. I was amused by seeing dogs of all sizes drawing 
traineaux or sleds with wood. Mastiffs draw loads of provisions, and very 
small dogs carrioles, with children in them. 

Fri. 18th I walked with Ooll. Simcoe to Cape Diamond and saw the 
citadel, which is fortified by many works, and from whence there is a very 
grand view of the town, shipping and distant mountains as far as Cap 
Tourmente. near the mouth of the river. The inhabited country near 
Quebec is embellished by the villages of Montmorency at the Falls, Charles- 



bourg, Lorette, St. Foix (Ste. Foy), all within a few miles of Quebec. It 
seemed very perilous walking over acres of ice, but cloth shoes or worsted 
stockings over shoes prevent slipping. 

Sat. 19th I went to the house we have hired in St. John Street, which 
is a very moderate one, but the only one at present to be let. There is a 
poil or stove in one parlour, and a fireplace in the other. 

Mon. 21st I went to a subscription concert. Prince Edward's band 
of the 7th Fusiliers played, and some of the officers of the Fusiliers. The 
music was thought excellent. The band costs the Prince eight hundred a 

Sat. 26th. A Mr. Hazeel, who is lately come from the River la 
Tranche (the Thames in Middlesex, U.C.), dined with us, and confirms the 
favourable opinion we have entertained of the country on its banks. We 
supped at Major Watson's. Mrs. Watson appeared pleasing. Mrs. Caldwell, 
wife of Coll. Caldwell, was there. 

XOTE. There was a Major Watson on the staff at Quebec in 1791. 
He belonged to the 3rd Foot Guards. He became Major-General, 
20th December, 1793. 


Sun. 27th I went to church. The service is performed in a room 
occasionally used as a Council Chamber. Prince Edward always goes to 
church, and his band plays during the service. On the death of the two 
Jesuits the Recollet Church will devolve to the English, and as these 
men are very old, the English Government do not think it necessary to 
build a church for the use of Protestants; indeed, the French allow us to 
use the Recollet Church between the hours of their service, but as they 
will not admit of fires in it, the Council Chamber is generally used as a 
church in the winter. 

NOTE. The Recollet Church in 1791 was situated on the site of 
the present English Cathedral. The Convent gardens occupied the 
site of the present Court House. The picture is from a drawing 
showing the interior of the church restored after the Siege of Quebec. 



Mon. 28th I went to a concert, and afterwards to a dance at the 
Fusiliers' Barracks. 

NOTE. The Fusiliers' Barracks were on the site of the present 
City Hall, Quebec. 

Tues. 29th I supped at Major Stewart's, of the Royal Regiment of 
Artillery, and met Mrs. P. V. (full name not in MSS.),the most unpleasing 
woman I have seen in this place. She is just arrived from London. 

NOTE. Major John Stewart became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
regiment in 1793. 

Wed. 30th St. Andrew's Day. Coll. Simcoe dined with Dr. Mabane 
at Woodfleld, near Quebec. He was an army surgeon, came into the Coun- 
cil at Quebec, amassed money, and lived what is called most hospitably, 
far beyond his fortune. 

NOTE. Judge Adam Mabane was a member of the first Executive 
Council of Quebec (1775). He at one time resided at Woodfleld, 
formerly "Samos/' which is situated three miles 
from Quebec. It was an elegant mansion and rich- 
ly laid out estate. In 1646, the Company of New 
France owned the estate surrounding Woodfield. 
After various owners it passed in 1731 into the 
hands of Monseigneur Dosquet, Bishop of Samos, 
who built the dwelling house. He was consecrated 
Bishop of Samos in 1726, and evidently gave the 
name of the diocese to the house. 1733 he was 
made Bishop of Quebec, having been for three 
years coadjutor to Monseigneur Duplessis-Mornay. 
In 1763, the land on which the house stood was 
conceded by the Quebec Seminary to Thomas 
JUDGE MABANE. Ainslie, who renamed the dwelling "Woodfield," 
and in 1769, Judge Adam Mabane acquired it. 
He died in 1792, and his sister Miss Isabella Mabane bought it in 
1794, holding it until 1805, when it was purchased by the late 
Honorable Matthew Bell, who in 1816 sold it to Mr. William 

The original house was built on the brow of the hill overlooking 
the St. Lawrence. It was of stone, one storey high, peaked roof, after 
the style of architecture which prevailed in those days, something 
the same as that of the manor house at Beauport. Judge Mabane 
made many alterations, adding a second storey and two pavilion 
wings connected with the house by corridors. In 1775-6, it was used 
as an hospital for American soldiers. In December, 1842, the house 
was destroyed by fire and a new residence built by Mr. Sheppard. 
In 1847 Woodfield was sold to Mr. Thomas Gibb, who exchanged it 
with his brother, Mr. James Gibb. In 1879, the estate was sold as 
a site for a rural cemetery. 

The information concerning Samos is from an excellent paper 
written by P. B. Casgrain, K.C., Clerk of Circuit Court, Quebec, and 
presented to the Royal Society of Canada in 1906. 



Thurs. 1st Dec. A fine, clear day. I walked near three miles to 
Major Holland's, Surveyor-General, where I saw some fine prints of Italy 
and Mount Vesuvius. 

Observing that the stoves are generally heated to an excessive degree, 
I was told that in this house they were always moderate. I looked at the 
Fahrenheit's thermometer in the room, and it was 74. They said that it 
had been 86 at Chief Justice Smith's a few evenings ago. 


( From a Drawing in possession of P. B. Casgrain, Quebec.) 

NOTE. Major Samuel Holland was born in England in 1717, 
receiving his military education there and in Holland. At an early age 
he entered the Army as Lieutenant of Artillery 
and served some time on the Continent. In 1756 
he was promoted to a captaincy and in the follow- 
ing year was appointed aide-de-camp to General 
Wolfe. He took part in the expedition against 
Louisbourg and was engineer-in-chief with Wolfe 
and Saunders at Quebec. According to some critics 
he stood near Wolfe when that officer fell. In 1763 
Holland was appointed Surveyor-General of Quebec 
and Director of Surveys in British North America, 
and also a member of the Council, Quebec. Many 
of the manuscript plans in the Dominion Archives 
are signed by him During his stay in Quebec SURV .^, EN . HOLLAND. 
Prince Edward paid Holland many visits at his old 
mansion on the Ste. Foye Road. He married Marie Josephte Rolet, 
by whom he had eight children, the eldest, Colonel John F. Hol- 
land, being the first British subject born on Prince Edward Island. 
The only living grandson of the Surveyor-General is Augustus E. C. 
Holland (son of Frederic Braham Holland), of Wallace Bridge, 
N.S. A. E. Holland, of St. Eleanor's, P.E.I., is a great-grand- 
son through his father, Samuel Holland, Jr., while Miss Marion 



Holland, of Melbourne, Que., and Mrs. Alton Rowland, of Windsor 
Mills, Que., daughters of the late H. A. P. Holland, are also great- 
grandchildren of the Surveyor-General. 

From hence I went in an open carriole (which is a sort of phaeton 
body on a sledge or runners, shod with iron instead of wheels) to Wood- 
field, to call on Dr. Mabane's sister. It is three miles from Quebec, a 
beautiful situation among woods, on the steep and high banks of the St. 
Lawrence, and within a mile from Wolfe's Cove, the spot where Wolfe 
landed. From hence I went to " Sans Bruit," a house of Coll. Caldwell, 
let to a Mr. Philip Tosey, a Church of England clergyman, who emigrated 
from Sussex. He is military chaplain, and is also engaged in clearing 
7,000 acres of land, and of his skill in farming Mr. Young, the agricul- 
turist, has written so largely. I walked from hence to Quebec, two miles. 
It is fatiguing to walk on snow when not perfectly frozen, and my half 
boots were heavy with icicles. 


(From a Draiving by Mrg. Simcoe ) 

NOTE. "Sans Bruit," on the Ste. Foy Road, was bought by Colonel 
Murray, a nephew of General Murray, and named "Sans Bruit," 
which means "without noise." It appears that on one occasion the 
Colonel wrote to a merchant in the Lower Town asking him to send 
him a list of articles, and at the foot of the letter he wrote "Sans 
Bruit, 1 June." The merchant, thinking that this was simply a 
caution to him to deliver the goods without noise, arrived at the 
house at night and as secretly as possible. The Colonel heard the 
disturbance at the door, and discovered that the merchant was doing 
his best to call attention to his presence with the least noise possible. 
Explanations were given, but the merchant still thought that "Sans 
Bruit" was simply a word of caution, and could not possibly be the 
name of a residence. 

Rev. Philip Tosey was appointed rector of the parish of Quebec 
in 1786. He was the second authorized Protestant minister in the 
city and was also Ecclesiastical Commissary for the Eastern Dis- 



Fri. 2nd We dined at Belmont, four miles from Quebec, Coll. Cald- 
well's, a very indifferent house in appearance, but comfortable within. I 
nearly fainted with the heat this evening, and was told that Fahren- 
heit thermometer in this drawing-room had one evening been at 100. I 
eat part of a metiffe, a bird between a wild goose (the outarde) and a 
tame one. It was much better than the tame goose. I found it so cold 
coming home after supper in a covered carriole that I wore one of the 
fencing masks lined with fur which Capt. Stevenson gave me. 

NOTE. The estate of Belmont, on the north side of the Ste. Foy 
Road, near Quebec, originally belonged to the Jesuit Fathers. After 
passing through different hands it came into the possession of Hon- 
ourable Colonel Henry Caldwell, who was Assistant Quartermaster- 
General under Wolfe, in 1759. He settled in Quebec after the con- 
quest, held the Provincial rank of lieutenant-colonel and was appointed 
to the Legislative Council in 1792. In 1794 he became Receiver- 
General of the Province. Colonel Caldwell built the mansion, which 
was burned in 1798 and rebuilt in 1800. He died there in 1810. 


(From a Drawing by Mr*. Simcoe.) 

During the years that followed the property was owned by different 
parties until the late manager of the Beauport Asylum bought it, 
and it is now a private sanitarium, known as the "Belmont Retreat." 

Sat. 3rd Coll. Simcoe set out for Montreal, accompanied by Capt. 
Stevenson. They wore large beaver coats, and the carriole was filled with 
buffalo skins. I copied some views of Italy that Major Holland lent me. 

NOTE. I find mention of Captain Stevenson in a letter of General 
Simcoe, dated 6th September, 1791. Simcoe refers to Captain Stev- 
enson in these words: "I have recommended him to the office of 
Deputy Quarter-Master General, to relinquish the idea of not joining 
his regiment till the spring, and to accompany me to Quebec, not 
thinking it fitting in respect to the commission with which I am 
honoured that if I should be blown off the St. Lawrence into an 
American port that I should arrive there unattended, and in case 



of personal accident that those whom I value more than life would 
be without a protector." 

Sun. 4th Mrs. Tosey, wife of the military chaplain, carried me to 
church in a carriole like a narrow coach, which, from its length, was much 


(From a Draiving by Mm. Simcoe.) 

easier than those usually used, but too heavy for one horse to draw with 
ease, therefore seldom used. 

Mon. 5th A thaw to-day; the air raw and cold, and the roads full of 
cahots a word used in Quebec for the holes and pits made on the snow 


(From an Engraving in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 

roads makes driving very jolty; but it did not deter Prince Edward and 
a party from driving 8 miles to the village of Lorette. It is the custom 
here to make parties to dine in the country at a distance of ten miles. 
They often carry a cold dinner, and return to a dance in the evening, 



and this in the severe weather, which seems as much relished by the 
English as the Canadians. Their partners must be very agreeable, or they 
could never have liked these parties. I drank tea with Mrs. Watson, wife 
of Major Watson. 

A slight shock of an earthquake was felt in Saint Louis Street this 
evening. Quebec is divided into Upper and Lower town. The latter is 
inhabited by the merchants for the convenience of the harbour and quays. 
They have spacious houses three stories high, built of dark stone, but 
the streets are narrow and gloomy. In the suburbs of St. Foy are ruins 
of the Intendant's Palace, which was a very large building. The upper 
town is more airy and pleasant, though the houses in general are less. 

NOTE. Ste. Foy this form of spelling has been used by the 
Abbe Scott, who found it in the original documents. When Talon 
filled the office of Intendant, he had a brewery built at the Palais, 
which was finished in 1671. This industry, quite a new one in the 


(From an Engraving in the Dominion Archive*, Ottawa.) 

country, did not prove as profitable as expected. Thereupon the 
Intendant made the building his residence, and the Superior 
Council held its sittings there. The Council, when first established, 
held its sittings in a house called the "Palais" at the corner of 
the Place d'Armes and St. Louis Street, on the very spot, in fact, 
where the present Court House stands. Talon's brewery was de- 
stroyed by fire in the night of the 5th January, 1713. On its ruins 
was erected the splendid building of the Intendant's Palace, of 
which Kalm and Charlevoix speak in terms of admiration. It was 
almost entirely demolished during the siege of 1759. At the present 
day a large brewery stands on the ruins of the Intendant's Palace, 
and thus the site is restored to its former use. 

Mon. 5th The Chateau, the residence of the Governor, just above the 
lower town, contains some very good rooms built by Sir Frederick Haldi- 
mand. The situation is very high, and commands a most noble prospect 



down the river. The old chateau is in a ruinous state, but it is used for 
public offices, and convenient for the Governor as being so near his own 
residence that there is only a courtyard between them. 

NOTE. Champlain in 1620 built the first Fort St. Louis. In 
the year 1646, a contract was passed between the Company of New 
France and the contractors for more extensive works of defence in 
Quebec. In the following year the foundation of the first Chateau 
was laid. The Chateau was built within the boundary of the Fort, 
and the distinction between Chateau and Fort has not always been 
preserved. Many imagine that the famous Chateau St. Louis was 
but one structure, whilst in reality it was com- 
posed at one time of three, viz. : Fort St. Louis, 
Chateau St. Louis and Haldimand Castle. The 
Chateau overhung the cliffs, as may be seen by the 
view in "Hawkins" and other works, and in fact 
it occupied the site of the present terrace. In 
1784, while levelling the yard at the Chateau, 
workmen dug up a large stone with a Maltese 
cross on it, bearing date 1647. In later years 
there was some controversy as to whether the date 
on the stone was 1646 or 1647, but it was finally 
decided to be the latter, and that the old relic was 
intended to commemorate a double event, viz: 
STONE* AJ J the J ear % i n which the Fort St. Louis Bastion 
was begun and finished, 1646 and 1647. The 
stone was first placed in the cheek of the gate of the new 
building, Haldimand Castle, at the rear, about on the site of 
the present Chateau, and subsequently was placed over the entrance 
to the hotel known as the Chateau Frontenac. The Chateau St. 
Louis was rebuilt in 1694-8 and another storey added in 1811. It 
was destroyed by fire in 1834. Sir Frederick Haldimand lived there 
from 1777 to 1784. 

Wed. 7th Gen'l. Clarke's servant threw himself from the Chateau 
into the Lower Town, some hundred feet, without breaking a bone or 
being killed. I received a letter from Coll. Simcoe, who travelled in the 
carriole to Three Rivers, 100 miles, where he found the river open, and 
was obliged to cross it in a boat and proceed the remaining 100 miles to 
Montreal in a cal&che, a carriage like a gig, with a seat in front for the 
driver. He reached Pt. aux Trembles, on the island of Montreal and 
within three leagues of Montreal, the second day from Quebec. 

Sun. llth I dined at Coll. Caldwell's, and soon after I returned home 
Coll. Simcoe arrived from Montreal, which place he left yesterday. He 
brought with him Mr. Talbot, of the 24th Regt., a relation of Lady Buck- 
ingham, who was aide-de-camp to the Marquis while he was Lieutenant 
of Ireland, and at whose request Coll. Simcoe takes Mr. Talbot into his 

NOTE. Thomas Talbot, son of Richard Talbot and Margaret, 
afterwards (1831) Baroness Talbot, was born at Malahide, near Dub- 
lin, on 19th July, 1771. In May, 1783, when little more than eleven 
years of age, he received a commission in the army, as ensign in the 
66th Regiment of Foot. In September of the same year he became a 





lieutenant, his retirement on half pay, from 1784 to 1787, immed- 
iately following. The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at that time was 
the Marquis of Buckingham, a relative of Talbot's, and he, with 
Arthur Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington, acted as aides to the 
Marquis. In 1790, Wellesley became a member 
of the Irish Parliament, and Talbot joined the 
24th Eegiment at Quebec. Soon after Governor 
Simcoe's arrival in Canada, Talbot became his 
private and confidential secretary, remaining a 
member of the Governor's family until 1794. In 
June of that year he returned to England, hav- 
ing been summoned to join his regiment. In 
1796 he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
5th Foot, which had been stationed at Niagara 
during the period he had been on Simcoe's staff, 
and three years later commanded the second bat- 
talion of the regiment in Holland. Talbot returned to Canada in 
1801, seeking a place to establish a settlement. Through an over- 
sight he did not accomplish his purpose and again went to Eng- 
land, where he was assisted in his efforts by General Simcoe. In 



(From a Sketch gent to England in 1S06, and copied by Mm. Simcoe.) 

1803, Colonel Talbot took up permanent residence in Upper Canada, 
receiving a grant of 5,000 acres in the Township of Dunwich. He 
founded what is known as tbe Talbot Settlement, which in 1831 
was estimated at 40,000 souls. During his residence in Canada, 
Colonel Talbot occasionally visited England, and it was on his last 
5 65 


visit, in 1851, that he met the companion of his early youth, Arthur 
Wellesley, then Duke of Wellington. It is a coincidence that they 
died within a few months of each other, the "Iron Duke" passing away 
on 14th September, 1852, and the "Founder of the Talbot Settle- 
ment" on 6th February, 1853. 

The house was situated on the cliff at the top of a green slope 
; rising to the west from the mouth of the Talbot Creek, in Dunwich. 
The place has always been called Port Talbot although there is neither 
port nor village in the vicinity. The site of Colonel Talbot's home is 
now occupied by a residence built by Colonel (afterwards Lord) Airey 
about 1849, left of the wing shown in the picture on the brow of the 
hill, nearest the creek. 

Thurs. 15th We walked to the provision store, a road by the river- 
side below Cape Diamond, always sheltered and well beaten. 

Sun. 18t.h We dined at Belmont. 

Mon. 19th Dined and supped at Madame Baby's, wife of Monsr. 
(Hon.) Francois Baby, a member of the Legislative Council. I ate part of 
the moufle of the orignale, or elk. They are sometimes shot by the 
Indians, and much esteemed. It was a very rich dish, with an excellent 
sauce. I am told the lip of the ox is sometimes sold for it. A pie made of 
crte de coys (a pie garnished with cocks' combs) is also a very favourite 
dish among the Canadians, and easily procured, as quantities of poultry 
are killed in the beginning of the winter and kept hung up in a frozen 
state. The poultry eat dry, but when preserved in barrels of snow, as is 
the custom at New York, they retain the juices much better. 

Tues. 20th We supped at Mr. Thomas Ainslie's, the Collector of 
Customs here. 

Wed. 21st We dined with Mr. Jenkins Williams, the Clerk of the 
Legislative Council. The supper was very elegant. Mrs. Williams is a 
very genteel woman, and paints beautifully and dresses very well. She 
has not been here above two years, having been educated in London. 

NOTE. Jenkins Williams was Judge Jenkins 
Williams of the District of Quebec in 1797. He 
succeeded Judge Mabane as Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas in 1792. 

Thurs. 22nd I had an order from Mgr. Francois 
Hubert, the Catholic Bishop of Quebec, for admit- 
tance to the Convent des Ursulines, where I went 
to-day with Madame Baiby. The Surperieure (La Mere 
Saint Louis Gonzague) is a very pleasing, conversible 
woman of good address. Her face and manner re- 
minded me of Mrs. Gwillim (Mrs. Simcoe in this 
writing refers to a relative of her own, not her 
mother, who died at her birth). The nuns appeared 
cheerful, pleased to see visitors, and disposed to con- 
verse and ask questions. Their dress is black with 
MGR. HUBERT. a white hood, and some of them looked very pretty 
in it. They carry cleanliness and neatness to the 

greatest pitch of perfection in every part of the convent, and are indus- 
trious in managing a large garden. They educate children at this con- 
vent, taking both pensionnaires and day boarders. They make many deco- 
rations for their altars and church, and gild picture frames. They showed 
a fine piece of embroidery worked by an English nun, since dead. Some 
of them make boxes and pin cushions of birch bark, worked with dyed 



hair of the orignale or elk. It is so short that it must be put 
through the needle for every stitch, which makes it tedious. All 
sorts of cakes and sweetmeats are made here, and all the desserts in 
Quebec are furnished by the nuns. They dry apples in a very peculiar 
manner. They are like dried apricots. All these things are of use to main- 
tain them, their finances being very moderate. 

Another convent is called the Hotel Dieu, for the reception of the 
sick, whether French or English. It is attended by the medical men on 
the staff, who speak highly of the attention payed by the nuns to the sick 
people. The General Hospital is a convent a mile out of the town, where 
sick and insane people are received. 

NOTE. Mgr. Jean Frangois Hubert was born in Quebec on the 
23rd February, and became Bishop of Quebec on 12th June, 1788. 
He died at the General Hospital, Quebec, on 17th October, 1797, 
Mother St. Louis de Gonzague, who was several times Superior of the 
Ursulines Convent, died on the 23rd March, 1802. 


(From a Drawing by Richard Short.) 

NOTE. The General Hospital of Quebec occupied the site of the 
Convent of the Eecollets on the banks of the River St. Charles. It 
was first occupied as an hospital on 30th October, 1692. In 1740 
and 1859, additions were made, and considerable repairs in 1850. 
There do not appear to have been many editions of pictures since 
1743. The present hospital is on the same site as it was in 1791. 

Fri. 23 The great church or cathedral stands in the centre of the 
town, and appears to be filled with people at all hours of the day. It is 
a handsome building. Near to it is the seminary, where boys are educated, 
and some of the Catholic clergy reside there. The Jesuits' or Recollet 



Church is a handsome building, ornamented with some pictures, but no 
fine paintings. Two models of ships are suspended in it, placed there in 
commemoration of the arrival of some of the settlers from France. The 
only two Jesuits living have spacious apartments near the church, and a 
good library and large gardens. I went to a subscription ball this evening. 
There were three rooms well lighted, and the company well dressed. 

NOTE. The Cathedral stands on the same ground as in 1791. 
The first parish church at Quebec was destroyed by fire in 1640 and 
the new structure, which afterwards became the Cathedral, was not 
commenced till September, 1644, under the name of Notre Dame de 
la Paix. It was opened in 1650. During the siege of Quebec in 1759 
nearly all the wooden portion of the church was destroyed, but it was 


(From an old Drawing in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 

restored between 1769 and 1771. In 1843 considerable changes were 
made at the east end, but the building is practically the same in 
the interior as it was in 1791. 

Sat. 24th Dr. T. M. Nooth says a great light was observed last night 
in the air in a direction N.E. beyond St. Paul's Bay, which is 30 leagues 
below Quebec, opposite Isle aux Coudres, in the St Lawrence. He supposed 
an eruption had taken place from a volcano, which is believed from the 
reports of Indians to be in those parts, and a fresh eruption might have 
taken place there, occasioned by an earthquake which was severely felt a 
few days since near St. Paul's Bay. However, there is much of conjecture 
in the supposition about the existence of this volcano. 

NOTE. The Quebec Gazette, of the 22nd December, 1791, con- 
tains a letter from St. Paul's Bay written on December llth, giving an 


account of a violent earthquake that occurred on the 6th at Bay St. 
Paul and relating the fact that there were thirty shocks in one day. 
On the 17th, about five o'clock in the evening "a globe of fire appearing 
to the eye of the size of a 48-pound cannon ball was observed in the 
sky coming from the southwest striking towards the northeast, disap- 
pearing in its perpendicular descent above St. Paul's Bay, after 
bursting with an explosion." This strange "great light" which Dr. 
Nooth observed on the evening of the 23rd may have been a repeti- 
tion of "the globe of fire" on the 15th. 

Sun. 25th Christmas Day. I went with Madame Baby at 5 in the 
morning to the Cathedral Church, to see the illuminations of the altar, 

which to those who have not seen 

the highly-decorated Roman Cath- 
olic churches in Europe is worth 
seeing. The singing and chanting 
was solemn. I was wrapped up 
very much, and wore a kind of 
cloth lined with eiderdown, a very 
comfortable head-dress; but the 
cold was intense, for the Roman 
Catholics will not admit of fires in 
their churches, lest the pictures 
should be spoiled. I saw no fine 

Mon. 26th This day the divi- 
sion of the Province of Quebec into 
Upper and Lower Canada, and the 
new constitution given to the 
former, was announced by pro- 
clamation. There were dinners at 
the hotels and illuminations at 
night to commemorate this event. 

NOTE. This proclamation 
was issued at Quebec on the 18th 
of November, 1791, and decreed 
that the division of the two pro- 
vinces should take effect on 26th 
December, 1791. 

Wed. 28th I was at a very 
pleasant ball at the Chateau, and 
danced with Prince Edward. 


(From Routhier's "Quebec.") 

Thurs. 29th We drove to Woodfield, and admired the beautiful scenery 
around it. 

Sat. 31st We drove to Belmont. We saw two Indians from the village 
of Lorette who had mocassins to sell, a kind of leather shoe made of 
untanned deer skins, which I was glad to buy for the children on account 
of their softness. These Lorette Indians were originally Hurons, con- 
verted, but reluctantly, by the Jesuits. They speak French, and are so 
intermixed with that people that they scarcely appear to differ but in 
dress. They wear shirts, leggings and blankets, and the men wear fur or 
cloth caps. 

I walked this evening at nine o'clock to Fort Louis Gate, one of the 
old gates of the city. 



NOTE. The Indians at Lorette, about eight miles from Quebec, 
were of the Huron tribe. After the Indian massacres of 1648-9, 
parties of the tribe sought refuge in different places, one section 
seeking refuge on the Island of Orleans. They were afterwards 
located in Quebec, and upon Marquis de Tracy effecting a truce in 
1665 with the Iroquois, the enemies of the Hurons, the latter left the 

ST. Louis GATE, 1791. 

(From a Drainng in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa.) 

city. After several Sittings they finally, in 1697, settled at Lorette, 
where some hundred descendants of the once warlike race live to-day. 
Mrs. Simcoe had reference to St. Louis Gate, the entrance to 
Quebec from the west. The Fort St. Louis stood on the edge of the 
cliff, and the entrance to the remains of the Fort in 1792 was through 
the Chateau Haldimand. 



Sat. 31st The moon shone bright, and, however intense the cold is 
here, it is so extremely still at night that it is less felt than in England, 
where a less degree of cold is attended with wind. There is little wind 
here, except with a snowstorm of fine snow. The French call it poudre or 
powdered snow, and to travel with that blowing in one's face is very dis- 
agreeable. The Canadians wear scanty, thick woollen 
coats, and sometimes leather ones, with hoods to 
them, over a bonnet rouge, a red bonnet. The habi- 
tants call it a capitshaw, and their coats are tied 
round with a coloured worsted sash. They have 
always a pipe in their mouths. The French women 
wear long, thin linen cloaks, sometimes hoods lined 
with eiderdown, but often walk in the street with 
only a muslin cap. 

There was an anniversary dinner to-day, attended 
by those gentlemen who particularly distinguished 
themselves in the defence of the town when attacked 
by Montgomery on 31st Dec., 1775. Coll. Caldwell 
was among the most active persons on this occasion. 

This day five years since (31st Dec., 1786) the 
air became in a few hours so dark that it was neces- 
sary to light candles. At three o'clock black clouds M ONS GRAVE DE LA 
were continually rolling onwards from the southwest. " RIVE. 

The darkness continued the whole of the next day, 
when a person could not toe discerned on the opposite side of the street. 
It was supposed to be occasioned by the eruption of a volcano. Pere 
Grav6, Superieur, Seminaire, believes the report of Indians, who assert 
that they have seen a burning mountain to the north-east of St. Paul's 

Accounts received from Montreal of the defeat of 2,000 of the people 
of the United States, about twenty miles from the Miami Fort, by 1.400 
Indians. They had barricaded their camp with flour barrels, etc. The 
Indians attacked them, beat them, and took six pieces of cannon, all their 
provisions, new clothing, etc., killed 1,200 men, Coll. Butler and other 
officers, among whom, it was supposed, St. Clair fell. The troops retreated 
and were pursued by 400 Indians, who probably would have destroyed them 
all if they had not stopped to plunder. 

NOTE. Mons. Frangois Grave de la Eive during 
the interval between 1768 and 1802, was several 
times Superior of the Quebec Seminary. He 
\vas born in France and came to Canada in 1754, 
and for many years was Vicar of the Diocese of 
Quebec. He died, aged 71, in the Hotel Dien, 
Quebec, on 4th February, 1802, and was buried 
in the Seminary Chapel. 

John Butler was born in New London, Conn., 
in 1725, his father, an Irish officer, having come 
to the North American Colonies with his regi- 
ment about 1711. Butler's first service was as a 
captain in the Indian Department in the expe- 
dition against Crown Point under Sir William Johnson, where he 
greatly distinguished himself. He also served under Abercrombie 
at Ticonderoga and with Bradstreet at the capture of Fort 
Frontenac. He accompanied Johnson against Fort Niagara as 




second in command of the Indians and after General Prideaux's 
death he followed him in the command. He afterwards served 
throughout the Revolutionary War in command 
of the famous corps of "Rangers" bearing his 
name. This corps was disbanded June, 1784. 
Butler, after the war, was appointed Deputy-Sup- 
erintendent of the Indians. He died near Niag- 
ara in 1796, and was buried in the private 
burying ground of the family. 

General St. Clair was an American General of 
considerable reputation. He commanded at Ti- 
conderoga in 1777 and had to evacuate the fort 
on Burgoyne's attack in July. He was Governor 
of the Ohio territory in 1789-1802. The fight at 
GEN ST CLAIU M iam i between the Indians and the United 
States troops occurred on the 3rd November, 
1791. He was defeated in an ambuscade by Indians near Fort 
Recovery in Ohio. After defeat he resigned his command and was 
succeeded by General Wayne, who was appointed to conduct the 
operations with a newly recruited force. (See Archives, Q. 57, p. 


From the day of her arrival in Quebec, Mrs. Simcoe's time had 
been fully occupied. It was one round of unalloyed -pleasure. Every- 
one in military and social circles seemed determined that there 
should be nothing lacking to make her winter's sojourn enjoyable. 
The deeds of hospitality were exemplified in the fullest sense of the 
term and ofttimes after the return of the Governor and his wife to 
England, the memories of the pleasant months spent in the "Ancient 
City" during the winter and spring of 1791-2 were the subject of 
conversation at Wolford. The Simcoes made many friends 
in Quebec. Mrs. Simcoe was a most lovable 
woman, highly educated, well informed, bright, 
cheerful, and always ready to join in the social 
festivities that were a great feature in Quebec a 
century ago. Her husband during this period 
won the lasting friendship of Prince Edward. 
They seemed by instinct to be drawn to each other. 
Between them a personal correspondence con- 
tinued up to the time of the General's death. The 
intimacy, begun in Quebec, was cemented in the 
years that followed. It was a generous friend- 
ship, and Prince Edward, then and after he 
became Duke of Kent, never forgot to write from op 

time to time a friendly line to Simcoe. 

But, with all the social appointments, Mrs. Simcoe found time 
to keep up her diary, and her first record in 1792 was of a sermon 
she had heard in the old Cathedral of Quebec. 

Pri. 6th Jan., 1792 Le Jour des Rois the Epiphany visit of the Wise 
Men to Christ. I went with Madame Baby to the Cathedral, and heard 
Monsr. du Plessis, the Bishop's Chaplain, preach a most excellent sermon 
on the subject of the Kings of the East seeking Jesus Christ. His action 
was animated and his sermon impressive. The Bishop himself was 
present. He wore a white muslin dress and a rich mantle embroidered 
with gold; blue silk gloves, worked with gold; his mittens pink and 
silver, blue and gold. He changed them two or three times during the 
service, which had a theatrical, poor and unfit appearance. 

NOTE. Joseph Octave Plessis was born at Montreal in March, 
1762, He was ordained priest at Quebec on llth March, 1786, and 
from time to time was employed as professor of humanity at the 
College of St. Raphael, also as Secretary to the Bishop of Quebec 
and curate of the capital. In September, 1797, he was created 
coadjutor to Bishop Denault, and obtained the royal acceptance 



through General Prescott. He succeeded Mgr. Denault and took 
possession of his seat on 17th January, 1806. He left for England 
and Eome in 1819, and in consideration of services rendered to 
England during the French Revolution and during the War of 
3812, he met with a kind and hearty reception from Lord Bathurst. 
He died at the General Hospital, Quebec, on 4th December, 1825. 
Bishop Plessis was the greatesit man who ever occupied the Roman 
Catholic episcopal seat at Quebec since Frangois de Laval Mont- 

St. Joseph Street, in the suburb of St. Roch, Quebec, was named 
after Bishop Plessis, and it is interesting to note that the church in 
St. Roch's was built by him on land donated by Mr. John Mure, 
a Presbyterian. The church was dedicated to St. Joseph. 

Sat. 7th Fahrenheit's thermometer 23 degrees below. I rub silk 
gowns with flannel to see the beautiful streams of fire which are emitted 
with a crackling noise during the cold weather. 

Tues. 10th I bought an eiderdown quilt which cost 4 16s. 

NOTE. It is generally admitted that money has doubled in value 
since 1791, so 4 16s. would now be worth 9 12s. or $36.85. Lambert 
says in his Travels (1806-8) that the dollar or Spanish piastre 
was worth five shillings in Canadian currency, and that to bring 
sterling money into Canadian currency, one-ninth must be added. 

Thurs. 12th I drove out in a covered carriole. 

Wed. 18th A ball at the Chateau. This being Queen Charlotte's birth- 
night, .there were near 30>0 people. The ladies were well dressed. 

Sat. 21st Miss Johnson dined with me, and we went to a dance in 
the evening at the Fusiliers' mess room very agreeable. The ther- 
mometer is 24 degrees below. In the New York paper I read of " a leaf 
imported from Botany Bay, which when dried goes off by the application 
of a match with an explosion like gunpowder, and the air is agreeably 

NOTE. Miss Johnson was Ann, eldest daughter of Sir John 
Johnson. She married, in 1797, Colonel Edward Macdonell, Deputy 
Quartermaster General. 

Tues. 24th I gave a dance and supper to a dozen of the 7th Fusiliers 
and as many young dancing ladies. My rooms being small obliged me to 
invite so few, and only those who danced. 

Sun. 29th Drove in a covered carriole towards the Isle of Orleans, an 
island in the St. Lawrence seven miles below Quebec. The ice was so 
rough and snow uneven that I was almost seasick. 

Mon. 30th I went in an open carriole to see the Falls of Montmor- 
ency, six miles from Quebec. The river roars over a rocky bed among 
woods before it reaches the precipice, over which it falls 280 feet. The 
rocky sides are covered on the summit with wood. Sir Frederick Haldi- 
mand built a summer house projecting over the water, supported by 
beams. We descended to it by steps cut in the rock, and from it we had 
a fine view of the Fall. Sir Frederick Haldimand built a good house near 
the bank of the river and commanding a fine prospect. Prince Edward 
hired it last year, but as he went to Quebec every day, found the stony 
roads prejudicial to his horses' feet. 



NOTE. Sir Frederick Haldimand (1718-1791), lieutenant-gen- 
eral, colonel commandant of the 60th Foot, was a Swiss by birth. 
In 1756 he was lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Americans, afterwards 
the 60th Foot and now the King's Royal Rifle Corps, then being 
recruited in America under command of the Earl 
of Loudoun. On the 27th of June, 1778, he was 
appointed to succeed Sir Guy Carleton, after- 
wards the first Lord Dorchester, as Governor and 
Commander-in-Chief in Canada, which post he 
held until 1784, when he returned to England. A 
an administrator in Canada he is accused, says 
Lee in the National Biography, of being harsh 
and arbitrary and more than one action for false 
imprisonment was successfully maintained against 
him on his return to England. Haldimand's com- 
missions, 1758-85, including the entire records 
that accumulated during his public career, are g, u p HALDIMAND. 
in the British Museum and copies are in the 
Archives Department in Ottawa, He built the residence known as 
Haldimand House, Quebec. 

Of the summer house, the Baroness Riedesel says in her diary: 
<r When we first went to see that sublime scene (Montmorency Falls) 
T happened to say to the General that it must be delightful to have 
a little dwelling opposite to it. Three weeks later (in the summer 
of 1782) we accompanied him thither a second time and after having 
climbed up a steep ascent and the detached rocks, which were con- 
nected by small bridges and reminded me of some descriptions of 
Chinese gardens, we at last reached the top, where the General 
begged my hand to show me into a small house, which was as it were 

suspended on the cataract The foundations of the 

house consisted of eight strong beams laid athwart beneath which the 
cataract hurried down with tremendous velocity." 

"The good house" Mrs. Simcoe refers to was Montmorency House, 
which is not to be confused with Chateau Haldimand, the addition 
built in 1784 to the Castle of St. Louis. With Montmorency House 
Prince William Henry fell in love when in Canada; from 1791 to 
1794 Prince Edward made it his home in the summer time; and now 
the Haldimand House Kent Lodge is a summer hotel, the home 
of many a tourist, who comes to be thrilled by the rushing waters 
of the Montmorency. 

In the Supplement to the Quebec Gazette, 22nd December, 1792, 
is the following notice. "For sale, the elegant villa of the late Sir 
Frederick Haldimand, K.B., delightfully situated near the Falls of 
Montmorency, with the farm house, Quebec, 1st December, 1791." 

Tues. 31st A very pleasant dance at the Chateau this evening. 

Tues. Feb. 7th At two o'clock the kitchen chimney was on fire. It 
was soon extinguished, as the people here are expert in using fire engines. 
The houses being covered with shingles (wood in the shape of tiles), fires 



spread rapidly if not immediately put out. Prince Edward, General Clarke, 
etc., dined with Coll. Simcoe, and this accident retarded the dinner, so I 
went to bed before the dinner. 

Wed. 8th Supped at Mrs. Smith's, wife of the Chief Justice. 

OTE. Chief Justice William Smith, born at 
York, 1728, educated at Yale, was appointed 
a member of His Majesty's Council in 1769. 
After the evacuation of New York he withdrew to 
England with Sir Guy Carleton, who was at that 
time commander-in-chief. Mr. Smith remained 
in England until 1786 when he was appointed 
first Chief Justice of Canada and continued to 
hold the office until his death seven years later. 
His second son, Honorable William Smith, wrote 
our first Canadian history in English. 

Thurs. 9t<h Coll. and Mrs. Cal dwell and Major 
and Mrs. Watson dined with us. We went to the 
Assembly, where an account was brought of our house 
being burnt down. Coll. Simcoe went home and 
found it only the chimney on fire. I was not told of 


it, thouglh an officious man afterwards assured me he would have informed 
me had he known it. 

Sat. llth We supped at Madame Baby's, but not till 12 o'clock, it 
being a fast day. Then there was a good dinner. 

Sun. 12th Walked by the sea. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

Mon. 13th We walked to the provision store before breakfast; dined 
at Belmont. The thermometer 3 degrees below. 

Tues. 14th Supper at Major Stewart's (of the Royal Regiment of 
Artillery). The Prince was there. During the winter large masses of 
ice float down the river, and the people who come to market from the 
opposite shore pass in canoes, which they quit when they come to one of 



these large bodies of ice, and carry their canoes across the ice on their 
shoulders and launch them again in the water, and this is repeated several 
times before they reach Quebec, where they sell a fat turkey for 15d. 
and provisions, all kinds, in proportion. The mode of crossing the river 
appears so difficult and dangerous that it seems hardly credible till it has 
been seen. This evening it was announced that " le pont est pris " (the 
bridge has formed), that is, there is now a complete body of ice filling up 
the river, and canoes will be no longer used, as carrioles will drive across, 
which is very useful to the peasants and very pleasant to those who drive 
for amusement, and this year the weather, having been calm and the wind 
with the tide when it froze, the ice is very smooth. It is seven years since 
a bridge was formed. 

Wed. 15th Coll. Simcoe and I were going to walk on the ice bridge. 
As there was a narrow space containing water between the land and the 
ice, a plank was laid across, which Coll. Simcoe had passed, and stepping 
back to give me his hand, he slipped into the water, but luckily caught 
hold of the plank which supported 'him until the Canadians who were near 
and on my screaming out " Au secours " (help) assisted him out. Had the 
plank given way he must have gone under the ice, and it would have been 
impossible to have got out. We walked to Monsr. Baby's, and I ran home 
to order dry clothes to be brought there. 

Fri. 17th I went to the ball at the Chateau. There was also a dance 
at the barracks to-night. 

Sat. 18th One of the casmettes (or bombproof chambers) near Fort 
Louis Gate has been fitted up for a theatre. Some Canadian gentlemen 
represented the French play of " Le Medecin malgre lui " (MolieYe) and 
"La Comtesse D'Escarbagnas " (Moliere). I was surprised those people, 
unused to see theatrical representations, could perform as well as they did, 
and I was much amused. The Fusiliers are going to act plays, and as 
Coll. Simcoe does not like to see officers so employed he does not intend to 
go to the theatre again. I went across the river to Point Levy yesterday. 
The ice was excellent, and the sun excessively hot. 
We walked as far as the church. The firs looked 
beautiful among the snow this bright day. We met 
the Prince in a carriole. I gathered bunches of 
berries from a low shrub Dr. Nooth called a clither. 
People cut holes in the ice and catch, fish through 
them. Poisson d'or (gold fish) pickerall are the 
most esteemed fish. 

NOTE. Superintendent-General T. M. Nootii 
was on the staff of the Quebec Hospital. 

Sun. 19th Dined at Monsr. Baby. Met Madame 
Tonacour and Monsr. and Madame De Salaberry, etc. 

NOTE. Colonel, the Honorable Francois Baby, 
Adjutant-General of Militia of Lower Canada, 
was born in Montreal, 4th December, 1733. He 
was a member of the Executive and Legislative HON. FRANCOIS BABY. 
Councils and deputy of the French-Canadians to 
the Court of Great Britain in 1773. He married in 1786, Delle 
Marie-Anne Tarieu de Lanaudiere. He took an active part, 
together with his brother-in-law, Charles Tarieu de Lanaudiere, then 
A.D.C. to Lord Dorchester, in the events of the time. Hi? death 
occurred at Quebec in October, 1820. 




Monsieur Ignace-Michel L. A. de Salaberry, whose father settled 
in Canada in 1735, was born at the Manor House, Beauport, Que., 

5th July, 1752, and was edu- 
cated in France. He married 

Catherine Frangois de Hertel. 

Monsieur de Salaberry was a 

friend of the Duke of Kent. 

Colonel Charles de Salaberry, 

hero of the Battle of Chateau- 

guay, which took place on 26th 

October, 1813, was the son of 

Monsieur and Madame de Sala- 
berry. She died at Beauport 

on 28th January, 1824, her 

husband's death taking place 
MONS. UE SALABERRY. on 22nd March, 1825. 

Mon. 20th The heads of the French clergy dined with Coll. Simcoe 
tire Bishop, Monsr. Grave the Vicar-General, Pere Barre, etc. Pere 
Barre quite an Irishman and too jocose for his station. 

NOTE. From his wit and repartee, Mrs. Sim- 
coe evidently thought Father P. Felix de Berey, 
(pronounced Barry) an Irishman. He was, how- 
ever, born in Montreal, on 10th June, 1720, and 
elevated to the priesthood in 1743. His father 
was a military officer, and Father de Berey was 
a military almoner, wounded on the battlefield 
in ministering the last Sacraments. He was 
the last Provincial of the Recollets in Canada. 
De Berey gave dinners to the Governors, even to 
the Duke of Kent, and proposed a toast in his 
honor. He was invited to the 
officers' mess and his witty re- 
marks and brilliant conversa- 
tion were greatly appreciated there. He died 
18th May, 1800. 

Tues. 21st 'Madame Baby, Mons. and Madame de 
Salaberry, etc., dined with us and stayed till two in 
the morning. Ther. 26 degrees below. 

Sat. 25th Walked to the provision store. The 
scene on the river is now a very gay one. Numbers 
are skating; carrioles driven furiously, as the Cana- 
dians usually do; and wooden huts are built on the 
snow, where cakes and liquor are sold, and they have 
stoves in their huts. 

Thurs. March 1st Walked to Pt. Levy. MoNS - DE SALABERRY. 

Fri. 2nd I gave a dance to forty people. The Prince was present. 
We have left the house we had in St. John Street, and taken one the back 
rooms of which look into the Ursuline gardens. By removing a wooden 
partition upstairs we have made a room, 45 feet long, with a tea room 



and a card room adjoining, which makes a good apartment for a dance, 
with a supper room below. The Fusiliers are the best dancers, well 
dressed, and the best-looking figures in a ballroom that I ever saw. They 
are all musical and like dancing, and bestow as much money, as other 
regiments usually spend in wine, in giving balls and concerts, which 
makes them very popular in this place, where dancing is so favourite an 
amusement that no age seems to exclude people from partaking of it; 
and, indeed, I find giving dances much the easiest mode of entertaining 
company, as well as the most pleasant to them. Mr. Talbot (Lieut. 
Talbot) manages all. the etiquette of our house, and is au fait in all those 
points which give weight in matters of no moment. 

Sun. 4th Capt. Shaw, of the Queen's Rangers, and four other gentle- 
men arrived from Frederickstown, in New Brunswick, which is 370 miles 
from hence. They walked on snow shoes 240 miles in 19 days, came up 
the river St. John, and crossed many small lakes. Their mode of travel- 
ling was to set out at daybreak, walk till twelve, when they stood ten 
minutes (not longer, because of the cold) to eat. They then resumed walk- 
ing till half-past four, when they chose a spot, where there was good fire- 
wood, to encamp. Half the party (which consisted of 12) began felling 
wood; the rest dug away the snow till they had made a pit many feet in 
circumference, in which the fire was to be made. They cut cedar and 
pine branches, laid a blanket on them, and wrapping themselves in another, 
found it sufficiently warm, with their feet close to a large fire, which was 
kept up all night. Capt. McGill, who set out with them, cut his knee in 
felling wood, and was forced to stay at the Madawaska Settlement (now 
Edmundston, N.B.). 

One of the attendants, a Frenchman, used to the mode of travelling, 
carried 60 Ibs. weight and outwalked them all. They steered by the sun, 
a river, and a pocket compass. Captain Shaw is a very sensible, pleasant 
Scotchman, a Highlander. His family are to come from New Brunswick 
to Upper Canada next summer. 

Capt. Shaw gave me a description of the moose deer, which they call 
here " Orignale," and of which we eat the moufle. Their legs are so 
long and their bodies so heavy that they step to the bottom of the snow, 
but they are so strong that they notwithstanding trot 10 miles an hour and 
travel through the most unbeaten country, subsisting on the moss of the 
trees and young boughs. They travel in droves, the 
strongest going first, and when they come to a good 
place for browsing stay till they have taken all the 
tender, and then seek another station. They may 
be tamed, but if several are not kept together, in 
the spring they will probably return to the woods. 
The moose deer is frequently met with in New Bruns- 
wick, and the caribou, which is so light an animal 
as scarcely to break the snow. I have seen a caribou 
at Mr. Finlay's. It was like an English fawn. 

NOTE. 'Captain ^neas Shaw was a captain in 
the Queen's Rangers and served in the American 
War. He settled in York (Toronto) in 1793 and 
lived in a dwelling some hundred feet northwest 
of the present site of Trinity College on Queen COIOXKL SH\\V 
Street. He became Lieutenant-Colonel in 1799. He 
attained the rank of Major-General, and was a member from June, 
1793, of the Executive Council of Upper Canada. General Shaw 
died 15th February, 1815, and was buried in St. James' Churchyard, 
on the west side of the cathedral. His grandson is Colonel George 



Shaw, formerly of the Post Office Department, and in his time an 
active member of the militia. 

Captain John MoGill was an officer of the Queen's Bangers under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe in the War of the Eevolution. He 
settled in Upper Canada and was Commissioner of the Stores in 
1793, Inspector-General of Accounts in 1805, and Eeceiver-General 
in 1818. He owned the site on Queen Street where the Metropolitan 
Church now stands, and built a commodious cottage upon it. This 
residence was known as "McGill Cottage," and in 1813, when the 
Americans visited York the women and children of the town were 
sent for safety to McGill Cottage, which was occupied by Captain 
McGill and his wife, who was a sister of the Honorable George 
Crookshank. A sister of Captain McGill married a McCutcheon, 
their sons being Peter and James McCutcheon. The elder son, Peter, 
was the inheritor of the bulk of the property in Upper Canada of 
Honorable Peter McGill, and it was a condition of his will that Mr. 
McCutcheon should assume the name "McGill." The Honorable Mr. 
McGill was from Dumfriesshire, Scotland, and came to Canada in 
1809. He was President of the Bank of Montreal from June. 1834, 
until June, 1860, and died in September of that year. 
The Honorable James McGill, founder of Mc- 
Gill College in Montreal, was not related to the 
foregoing family. He was born in Glasgow, in 
1744, and died in Montreal in 1813. 

Bishop Strachan, of Toronto, also married a 
McGill, a daughter of Dr. Wood, of Cornwall, 
and widow of Dr. Andrew McGill of Montreal, 
but she was not connected with the families of 
either John, Peter or James McGill. 

Many references to the McGill families in 
Canada in different publications conflict, owing 

rlON. J AS. JylCijILL. . ., / , i n i * i 

to the fact that there was similarity of 
Christian names in all the families, hence the detail of relation- 
ship given. 

Tues. 6th We dined and supped at the Hon. Hugh Finlay's, the 
Deputy Postmaster-General of Canada under P.G.M. of Great Britain. 

NOTE. T'he Honorable Hugh Finlay was Deputy Postmaster- 
General for Canada from 1774 to 1800. He had served from 
1750-1774 under Benjamin Franklin, first English Deputy Post- 
master-General for the British-American Provinces. 

Wed. 7th Drove in an open carriole to Coll. Caldwell's. I gave a 
dance to thirty people this evening. I was this week in a covered carriole, 
driving towards the Isle of Orleans, but part of the river having frozen, 
the ice was in so rough a state that I was quite seasick in the carriage. 
As we passed the furrows of ice, the learge heaps, collected in some places 
many feet high, formed an extraordinary sight. 

Fri. 9th Chief Justice Smith dined here. The Fusiliers acted "The 
Wonder " to-night. 

Tues. 13th Supped at Mr. Isaac Ogden's, Judge of the Admiralty. 



NOTE. Honorable Justice Isaac Ogden of Quebec and Montreal, 
Court of King's Bench district of Montreal, appointed by Guy 
Carleton. He was born in New Jersey in 1740. In 1785, he was 
Judge of the Admiralty Court, Quebec, and later 
returned to Montreal. He resigned in 1818 and 
died in London, Eng., in 1824. 

Wed. 14th Supped at Mr. Coffin's. 

NOTE. Thomas Ashton Coffin was a member 
of the celebrated family who had their descent 
from Trisitram Coffin of Alwington, south of the 
boundary between Somerset and Devon in Eng- 
land, who settled in 1643 in New England at 
Salisbury and then went to Nantucket, at that 
time a dependency of New York. Thomas Ashton 

Coffin was private secretary of Sir Guy Carleton 

(Baron Dorchester in 1786) by whose side he sat Hox lsAAC OGDEN 
in the last boat which left Castle Garden on the 
evacuation of New York in 1783. When Dorchester became Gover- 
nor-General of Canada in 1786, Coffin accompanied him and by his 
influence was appointed Secretary and Controller of Accounts in 
Lower Canada. He died in England in 1810. Miss G. L. Coffin 
of Montreal is a connection of Thomas Coffin. 

Thurs. 15th Went to a musical party and a dance at the barracks, 
which was very pleasant. The Fusiliers all dance as well as Count 
Schernischoff or any famous Russian. 

Another mail arrived, and no letter from you, my dear friend (Mrs. 
Hunt, who, with her daughter, Miss Hunt, took charge of Mrs. Simcoe's 
children at Wolford during the absence of the parents in Canada). How 
is it that you I esteem so wise should not have had observation enough to 
have found out by the newspapers that packets go to New York and Hali- 
fax every month, and are immediately forwarded from thence here? Do 
you not remember Lake Champlain and Lake George, Hudson's River, 
Skeneborough, on a creek of that name, Albany and all that route from 
New York to Quebec, which you have so often drawn, and which is passed 
constantly and in a rapid manner when the lakes are frozen? This town 
is now supplied with fresh cod in a frozen state from Boston, distant 500 
miles, and it is sold at 6d. per Ib. We 'have had some excellent venison 
from the township of Matilda (Iroquois, in Dundas County). I daresay 
you remember that name on the map, above 400 miles from hence. I find 
our maps to be little better than sketches, little of the country having been 
surveyed. The surveyors draw slowly, and, I am told, when they want to 
suit their maps to the paper, do not scruple cutting off a few miles of the 
river or adding to it. 

Coll. Simcoe has had a letter from Capt. Murray, of the " Triton," 
from Halifax, which place he compares to Capua, in southern Italy. Coll. 
Simcoe makes the same complaint of Quebec, where he finds few men of 
learning or information, literary society not being necessary to the amuse- 
ment of ladies. I am very well off amongst the women, and really find this 
a delightful place. The morning Coll. Simcoe and I spend together in 
reading, walking, etc. In the evening I go to balls, concerts, suppers, and, 
when I am with French families, je fais la conversation d'une fagon d pew 
pr<?s parisienne (I speak as readily as a Parisian) as Monsr. -Baby is 
pleased to say and to have everybody I see assiduous to please me, and 

6 81 


to have nothing to do but to follow my own fancy, is a satisfactory mode 
of living, not always attainable on your side of the Atlantic. How happy 
I am. 

I quite enjoy the thoughts of the long journey we have before us and 
the perpetual change of scene it will afford, but the people 'here think it as 
arduous and adventurous an undertaking as it was looked upon to be by 
my friends in England. It is surprising that those who are so much 
nearer to a country should esteem it as impracticable as those who are so 
many thousand miles distant. 

Capt. Murray was all but lost in going to St. John, and from thence to 
Halifax. The day after he left Quebec the river was so full of ice his 
sailing would have been impossible. No ships ever left Quebec as late as 
the "Triton.". The merchantmen sail on the 30th of October. Capt. Shaw 
also advises me not to believe the formidable accounts I have heard of 
rattlesnakes, of which he has seen numbers in Carolina. He affirms they 
never bite but when trod upon or attacked, and the wound they make is 
cured by well-known herbs, as horehound and juice from the plantain 

Sun. 18th We walked from seven till nine this morning on the 
Heights of Abram, the plain on which Genl. Wolfe was killed. It is said 
he was shot from behind a fence by a French priest who is still living. 
The troops daily practice walking on these plains in snowshoes. The 
racket is made of deer or elk skins. The frame is of light wood an inch 
thick, 2 1 / feet long, 14 inches broad. We found it dry at this early hour 
on the track the troops had beaten. 

NOTE. During the engagement of the 13th September, 1759, Wolfe 
received three wounds. The first was probably from the Indians on 
the right, the second from the French-Canadians 
who were advancing in the centre; and the third 
seems to have been from the Indians or Canadians 
in the bushes on Wolfe's right, sheltered in the 
only bit of short brushwood on the top of the cliff. 
The statement that Wolfe was shot by a French 
priest behind a fence is absurd, because there 
were no fences on the Plains, nor any kind of 
shelter beyond the bushes before mentioned, on 
the cliff. It has also been said, and the state- 
ment often repeated by newspapers, that Wolfe 
was shot by one of his own men in revenge for 

n, IT wr, T r fome punishment which Wolfe had inflicted for 

ljrh,i\fc,KAL WOLFE. ... _ ' . ___. . - . _ _ _ , 

disobedience. This is also improbable, because 
Wolfe, at the time of his fatal wound, was at the head of his army 
in advance of Bragg's Regiment. As he received the wound in front, 
it must have proceeded from the enemy. 

Mon. 19th We dined at Mr. William's, the Clerk of the Council. Went 
in the evening to the concert, and returned to supper, an elegant supper 
in the Council Room, after which there was music. 

Thurs. 22nd Walked to " Sans Bruit." Capt. (Benjamin) Fisher, of 
the Royal Engineers, lent me his portfolio, in which there were some beauti- 
ful views taken in the Island of St. Domingo; I almost regretted not to 
have been in the West Indies. We supped at Mr. Ainslie's, the Collector 
of Customs, to-night. 

Sat. 31st We walked to Coll. Caldwell's before breakfast, and returned 
as far as " Sans Bruit " in a carriole and dined there. The most unpleasant 



time of the year is now commencing. The snow melting prevents the use 
of carrioles, and there is still too much to use caleches. During the month 
of April the people are, from this circumstance, little able to go from 
their houses; besides easterly winds, which bring rain, prevail very much. 

Tues. April 3rd We walked to Belmont before breakfast, and found 
the road dry, but in the middle of the day the snow was so melted by 
the excessive heat of the sun that we stayed there until eight o'clock and 
then walked home, the snow being then perfectly frozen again. 

Wed. 4th Mr. Fisher, of the Engineers, showed me some beautiful 
views he took of Windsor Castle for Prince Edward. His oil painting did 
not please me. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) ' 

NOTE. This is evidently a rapid sketch of part of the river at 
Quebec, 1792. The building on the right is the Chateau St. Louis, 
and on the left is shown a powder magazine near the King's bastion. 

Sun. 8th We walked a mile before breakfast about Cape Diamond. 
After church we repaired to the lines with Mr. Talbot, who showed us an 
unfrequented terrace where Sir F. Haldimand began to make a walk on 
the side of this noble cliff, which is crowned by fortified works. The ter- 
race commands the St. Lawrence as far as Cape Tourmente', eleven leagues 
below Quebec, rocky and precipitous, and the Isle of Orleans to the east. 

The shipping and the Lower Town are immediately below and towards 
the Heights of Abraham the blue distant hills of Vermont are seen, and 
the spray from the fall of the Chaudi&re River rising in Lake Megantic 
and joining the St. Lawrence about seven miles from Quebec. The rocks 
and brushwood that adorn the precipitous side of the hill form a fine 
foreground to this grand scene, with which we were so delighted that we 
came to view it again in the evening, and did not return home till it was 
dark, or rather starlight. 

NOTE. The commander of Quebec is styled "Commander of the 
Fortress of Quebec and of the Town Lines," which means the wall8 
which encircle the city. The "lines" referred to in this passage would 
be some part of the grounds immediately within the stalls. 



Fri 13th Walked towards Wolfe's Cove and upon Cape Diamond. 
Dined with Mrs. Winslow, wife of the Acting Paymaster-General. 

NOTE. The Winslows, one of the best known families on the 
American Continent, settled as U. E. Loyalists in Eastern Canada. 

Joshua Winslow, who is given 
in the Quebec Directory of 
1791 as residing at 12 .St. 
John Street, was Paymaster- 
General of the British Forces 
in North America. His great- 
great-grandfather, John Win- 
slow, born at Droitwich, 
England, in 1597, came to 
America in 1621, settled at 
Plymouth, Mass., and was a 
merchant and shipowner. He 
married in 1624, Mary, daugh- 
ter of James Chilton, who 
came out in the " May- 
flower." Joshua Winslow mar- 
ried Anna Green. They had 
a daughter Anna who while 
at school in Boston wrote 
an interesting diary. Joshua 
Winslow died in Quebec in 
1801. Edward Winslow, a 
brother of John Winslow, 
was Governor of Plymouth 
for some years. 
Fri. 20th The Prince dined with us, Gen'l. Clarke, Mrs. Murray and 

St. Ours; a very cold evening indeed. As the cold weather and the short 

days leave us people cease to be sociable, and no kind 

of gaiety is continued but a few dinner parties. I 

have been so unaccustomed to pass evenings alone 

this winter that I do not like relinquishing balls, 

concerts, suppers and cards. 

NOTE. Honorable Paul Eoch de St. Ours 
(sometimes Eocque) was born in 1747. He was 
Colonel commanding of the Assomption Division 
of the Militia in Lower Canada. In 1787, lie 
was a member of the Legislative Council. His 
death took place in 1814. 

Sun. 29th We walked twice this day to Cape 
Diamond. In the morning we saw a merchant vessel 
sail to England, the " Recovery," in which I sent 
letters by Mrs. Tosey, the Sussex clergyman's wife, 
to you and other friends. Walking on Cape Diamond 
after a rainy day, I saw amongst the distant hills to the north a oloud 
rise in a conic form in a light sky until it united with black clouds above. 
We thought it might be a waterspout. Last week the thermometer fell 


(From a Drawing by Mm. Simcoe.) 



30 degrees in three hours and 54 in eleven hours. A beautiful moth 
was sent to me. It remained all day in a torpid state, and flew away 
at night. 

Mr. Fisher, of the Royal Engineers, exchanges duty with Mr. Wolfe, in 
order to go to Niagara to take views of the Falls. I saw mosquitoes this 
evening while walking on the ramparts. They are like gnats. Last week 
1 walked to Powell Place and Woodfield. The woods are beautiful, and we 
went near to Sillery, that pretty vale Emily Montague describes; indeed, 
her account of Quebec appears to me very near the truth. 

A boat going to the Isle of Orleans was overset a few days ago. Four- 
teen passengers were drowned. Accidents often happen on this river by 
carrying too much sail. When the wind is against the tide it is very 
dangerous. The currents are excessively strong. 

NOTE. Powell Place was owned by Sir Henry Watson Powell, 
who resided there from 1780-95. It was renamed Spencer Wood by 
the Honorable Michael Henry Percival, a relative of the Honorable 
Spencer Percival, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who was assas- 
sinated in England in 1812. The situation was most picturesque, 
about two miles from the city walls, on the south side of the St. Louis 
Road. It is now the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec. 
The land occupied is about one-half of the estate as it was when 
known as Powell Place. 

The "History of Emily Montague," by Mrs. Frances Brooke 
(Frances Moore) 1724-89, published in 1769, was a series of letters 
addressed from Sillery by Emily Montague, the heroine, to her 
friend, Arabella Fermor, to military admirers, and to some British 
noblemen, friends of her father. The work, which is dedicated to 
Guy Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester, is the earliest novel 
written in Canada. Mrs. Brooke was the wife of Rev. John Brooke, 
D.D., Rector of Colney, Norfolk, and Chaplain to the garrison at 
Quebec in 1764-8. It is said that the "handsome Colonel Rivers" who 
won the heart of Emily Montague was none other than Colonel Henry 
Caldvvell. In all probability he was a friend of the novelist. 

Sat. 2nd June Mr. Osgoode, the Chief Justice 
of Upper Canada; Mr. Peter Russell, the Receiver- 
General; and Mr. White, the Attorney^General, 
arrived from England. Mr. Russell has his sister 
with him. 

Miss Rolle sent me a doll in the Duchess of 
York's Court dress. My clothes for the 4th of June 
not being arrived, I made myself a turban like the 

NOTE. At the early age of fifteen William 
Osgoode entered Christ College as a commoner. 
He studied law, became M.A. in 1777, and was 
called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn. He was 
appointed first Chief Justice of Upper Canada in CHIEF J USTICE 
1792, his active judicial duties commencing in J OSGOODE. 
August of that year. He was a Legislative Coun- 
cillor of the Province, appointed to the Council in July, 1792, and 
in the following September was appointed Speaker. In consequence 



of his charge to a grand jury that slavery ought not to exist in the 
colony of Canada, the Legislature of Upper Canada passed in July, 
1793, an Act entitled "An Act to prevent the further introduction 
of slaves, and to limit the terms of contracts for service within this 
Province." In 1794 Osgoode became Chief Justice of Lower Canada, 
retaining the office until 1801, when he resigned and returned to 
England. He died in 1824, aged seventy. 

The Honorable Peter Russell was in 1792 ap- 
pointed Receiver-General of Upper Canada by Gov- 
ernor Simcoe. As President of the 'Council he 
succeeded the Governor in 1796, retaining the posi- 
tion until 1799. In accordance with Simcoe's in- 
structions the second Parliament of the Province 
met at York on 1st June, 1797, and several acts 
were passed during Russell's administration. His 
plan was to follow in the footsteps of Governor 
Simcoe, with whose policy he was familiar. He 
died at his home, Russell Abbey, Toronto, in 1808. 
John White was Attorney- General of Upper 
HON. PETER Canada, and was killed in a duel, 3rd January, 
RUSSELL. 1800. 

Mon. June 4th A splendid ball at the Chateau, but the heat was so 
great that I was very near fainting after having danced Money Musk and 
the Jupon rouge. 

Tues. 5th This afternoon we drove to Montmorency, about eight 
miles from Quebec, and drank tea there. I walked a little way up the 
river, which dashes over a very rocky bed among the woods, which, being 
now in leaf, made the accompaniment of the falls much finer than when I 
was last there. 





The pleasant sojourn of seven months at Quebec was "a new 
chapter in my life," said the Governor's wife in a letter to an English 
friend. The kindness, the hospitality, the respect and the courtesy 
which had been paid to them by those of the official circles in the 
ancient city gave untold pleasure to the newcomers. The Governor 
was popular because he was a man not only of extensive military 
experience but also of wide general knowledge, a gifted and inter- 
esting conversationist, and, withal affable and courteous to all with 
whom he came in contact. His wife made friends rapidly, and as 
became the wife of one occupying a distinguished position, she main- 
tained a dignity and gentleness of manner that some say "was born 
with the Gwillims," while at the same time she had an attractiveness 
that was always remembered by the many friends she met. 

On the 8th of June, 1792, Governor Simcoe, with his wife and 
party, set out towards his post in the Western province. Mrs. Simcoe 
often declared that she required a deal of courage to entrust herself 
and her children to the Canadian bateaux, which were the only possible 
means of transportation. 

Fri. 8th June At six this morning we left Quebec, walked through 
Fort Louis Gate, and descended the hill to the river, where we embarked 
in a large batteau (bateau) with an awning, accompanied by Lts. Grey 
and Talbot. Another batteau carried the children, and a third the ser- 
vants and baggage. In three hours we reached Pt. aux Trembles (En 
Bas), on the north shore of the river, seven leagues above Quebec, landing 
a mile below the Maison de Poste. A small tent being pitched, we break- 
fasted, and afterwards went to see the church, which is a neat one and 
contains a picture of St. Cecilia, given by Gen'l. Murray, which is highly 
esteemed. We took an early dinner, of which an eel, caught here, formed 
a part, and as we had just finished our repast al fresco, the Bishop of 
Caps, who resides in this village, came to wait on Coll. Simcoe. He is a 
man more esteemed for his learning than religion; being once accused 
of having Voltaire's works in his library, he replied: " Les meilleurs m6de- 
cins tiennent les poisons en leur boutique" (The best doctors keep poisons 
in their dispensary). He apologized for not inviting us to his house, as 
it was repairing. 

We waited until near six for the tide, when we embarked, and passed 
some beautiful high banks covered with wood. At Jacques Cartier, on 
the north shore of the river, eight leagues above Quebec, between Three 
Rivers and Quebec, are mills on a river which flows into the St. Lawrence 
from between two very high hills much enriched by wood. It is an ex- 
ceedingly strong pass and a picturesque scene. 

The evening was delightfully calm. My admiration of the setting sun 
on the unruffled surface of this wide river was interrupted by meeting 



a boat, which brought English letters forwarded from Montreal, and the 
satisfaction of reading some of yours (letters from Mrs. Hunt at Wol- 
ford) engaged my attention as long as it was light enough to read. 

It was ten o'clock when we arrived at Cap Sante, on the north shore. 
The man who kept the Maison de Poste was so ill that we could not be 
admitted there, so we walked towards a cottage where the habitants were 
going to bed, but with all possible French politesse the woman removed 
her furniture and children, and presently accommodated 'us with two 
empty rooms, with a thousand compliments and regrets that " des gens 
comme nous" (strangers) should 'be so ill lodged. The apartment was in- 
different enough, but as we travel with a T>oydet, which is a folding camp 
chair as large as a mattress, the " Triton's " cot, blankets, and a mosquito 
net tent to hang over the bed, we soon furnished a room comfortable 
enough for people whom a long day's voyage had given sufficient inclina- 
tion to sleep. The gentlemen slept in a batteau. It was too late to get 
our provisions from the boat, and we supped on the bread, eggs and milk 
the cottage afforded. 

NOTE. Cap Sante is on the west bank of the mouth of the Eiver 
Jacques Cartier. It was here that the French encamped and threw 
up works after the capitulation of Quebec. John Montressor's map 
of 1760 shows the fort on the bank of the river. In his diary he 
says that when serving under that 'mad Murray' he disguised him- 
self (being then a captain of engineers) as a drummer boy of marines 
and went to Jacques Cartier with a flag of truce, by which means he 
was able to examine the works and direct operations against them a 
few days later on. 

Sat. 9th We rose at six this morning, and walked on the hill which 
rises abruptly behind this house. It is a fine turf, with large trees scat- 
tered over it, and has a very park-like appearance. To the east the view 
is finely terminated by the church, which is covered with tin, as is usual 
in this country. It is surprising to me that it does not rust. It proves 
the habitual dryness of the air. The effects of tin roofs and steeples are 
very brilliant. Beyond Cap Sante the tide ceases. We embarked at nine 
and passed the rapids of Richelieu, after which the steeple of the church 
of Deschambault, 12 leagues above Quebec, embosomed in wood, becomes 
a fine spot. Coll. Simcoe wished to examine the ground at Deschambault 
with reference to it as a military position. I went on shore there with 
him while the gentlemen proceeded to the boat. I waited at the Maison 
de Poste (for I was indisposed) while Coll. Simcoe walked to the point, 
and in about an hour we set out in a caleche a small carriage, 'buggy, on 
two wheels, with a hood, goes very fast, and is very light in weight, used 
in the Province of Quebec amongst the habitants and drove nine miles 
through a beautiful woody country, over very rough roads, to Grondines, 
a village 16 leagues above Quebec, on the north shore, where we dined 
and slept at the house of Madame Hamelin, the seigneuresse of this village, 
whom we saw in the evening sitting in the churchyard, amid a large 
audience of peasants, reading and commenting on some handbills dispersed 
by a Quebec merchant (Mr. McCord), a candidate to represent this county 
(Hampshire) at the next election. 

NOTE. Hampshire was one of the original divisions of the 
Province of Quebec in its first Parliament. In the next electoral 
changes in 1829, the name Portneuf was applied to the county. 



John McCord was a leading merchant in Quebec, one of the 
pioneers, son of John McCord, a leader of the English party after the 
cession of Canada. John McCord, Jr., appears to 
have thought of being a candidate for Hampshire 
in 1792, but apparently changed his mind, for his 
name is not given in the Parliamentary lists. His 
brother, Judge Thomas McCord, was, however, 
elected in 1810 for Montreal West, and for Bed- 
ford in 1817, which then comprised a vast tract. 
The McCord family was one of the most prominent 
in Quebec. 

David Ross McCord, K.C., of Temple Grove, 
Montreal, is a great-grandson of John McCord, 
Sr., and grandson of Judge Thomas McCord. 
John McCord, Jr., of whom Mrs. Simcoe writes, JOHN MCCOBD, JR. 
was his great-uncle. 

The ruins of the old church and parsonage at Grondines may 
still be seen on the beach, about half a mile from the newer church 
of 1841. 

Sat. 9th The tone and air decide of the reader, the attention of the 
audience and the Flemish appearance of their figures would have afforded 
an excellent picture. The Canadian women are better educated than the 
men, who take care of their horses and attend little to anything else, 
leaving the management of their affairs to the women. 

I saw here a kind of mespilus, or medlar tree, which bore fruit 
almost pear shaped. They called it " Poire sauvage" and a fruit 
" superbe." " Magnifique " and " superbe " are words the Canadians apply 
on all occasions. Nothing could less call for such an epithet than the 
present fruit. A pretty wild plant, somewhat like buckwheat, called 
" herbe d la puce," is said to blister the hands and faces of those who touch 
it, though it is not equally poisonous to all persona. Here I met with 
an ugly insect of the beetle kind, called " frappc d'abord." which fetches 
blood wherever it strikes. 

Sun. 10th We left Grondines at 8. The current becoming very 
strong, the men were obliged to tirer d la cordelle, or drag the boat by 
ropes on a narrow beach under high, woody banks. We picked up pieces 
of chalk or clay, which drew like crayon, but the strokes were not so easily 
effaced. I saw millions of yellow and black butterflies, called New York 
swallow-tails, on the sand. We dined in the boat and passed St. Pierre les 
Becquets, a village (in Nicolet County) 22 leagues above Quebec, and 
its church on a very bold projecting point nearly opposite to Batiscan (in 
Champlain County). We disembarked this evening at Cap de la Mag- 
delaine, the most dirty, disagreeable receptacle for mosquitoes I ever saw, 
the inhabitants even catching wood pigeons in a most disagreeable manner. 

I take no sketch of a place I never wish to recollect. Mr. Talbot gave 
a shilling to liberate some wood pigeons I must otherwise have seen and 
heard fluttering most disagreeably. I was much obliged to him for this 
polite attention. 

NOTE. Batiscan is in Champlain County, 81 miles above Quebec, 
on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, near Three Rivers, which is 
95 miles northeast of Montreal. 

Mon. llth We rose at four and embarked, and went a league to Trois 
Rivieres, in the County of St. Maurice, a town which takes its name from 



three rivers St. Maurice, Richelieu and St. Lawrence which spring 
from one source and, after having flowed some miles separately, unite and 
fall into the St. Lawrence half a mile below the town. There is a small 
convent here, and they work remarkably well on bark. We paid a great 
price for a bad breakfast at an inn kept by an Englishman, for we were 
not so lucky as to go to the French Maison de Poste, where we should 
have fared better and paid less. Three leagues from hence we reached 
Point du Lac, in St. Maurice County, at the entrance of Lake St. Pierre 
(St. Peter), which is about 15 leagues long. Three leagues farther we 
stopped to dine in the boat near Machiche, in a small cove, where the 
heat was intense and the mosquitoes numerous. From hence we passed 
extremely flat shores and confined scenery. The gentlemen were impatient 
of the heat, and perpetually wearying the conductor of the batteau with 
questions as to 'how far we were from Cap de Loup, complaining of the 
inconvenience of the trajet, meaning journey or voyage. At length he 
would say nothing except " Mais pourtant il ne fait pas froid " ( It is 
nothing compared to the cold), which, indeed, we were all very sensible 
of. Went on shore early this evening at Riviere du Loup. (This village 
and river is the same in name as Riviere du Loup, in Kamouraska and 
Temiscouata Counties.) The village has a pretty bridge, and lies in a 
flat, cultivated country. We were but ill accommodated here, and nothing 
amusing occurred but Mr. Talbot's ineffectual efforts to paddle a canoe 
across the river. The difficulties he met with in this first attempt, and 
the handkerchief tied round his head, a la Canadien, diverted me much. 

Mr. (Lieut.) Grey cut his finger, and applied the turpentine from the 
cones of the balm of Gilead fir, a remedy for wounds greatly esteemed. 
Collins the nurse girl's slow manner, characteristic of the Western States, 
diverted us. Being desired to make haste, she replied, " Must I not put 
the sugar in the children's breakfast?" in the true American tone. 

NOTE. Machiche is a village on the river of the same name in 
St. Maurice County, Quebec. The spelling Machiche is the common 
abbreviation of Yamachiche, from the Algonquin, meaning a muddy 
stream or river. 

Tues. 12th We embarked at four, and soon after we left Lake St. 
Pierre, stopped at Sorel (on right bank of River Richelieu, at mouth of 
Lake St. Peter), and took some refreshment at Mr. Doughty's, a clergy- 
man whose wife is from New York, and the house was the cleanest and 
the neatest I have seen. 

NOTE. The Rev. John Doughty was chaplain in the King's 
Royal Regiment in the war of 1775. He was formerly a minister of 
the gospel at Schenectady on the south side of the Mohawk River 
in the State of New York. In 1781 he went to England; but 
returned to Canada and officiated as a missionary at Sorel. 

The situation of Sorel is so flat that nothing relieves the prospect but 
the masts of a few small ships building here. We dined in the boat, and the 
heat was excessive, but the evening calm and so very pleasant as almost to 
persuade me it is worth while to cross the Atlantic for the pleasure of 
voyaging on this delightful lake-like river, the setting sun reflecting the 
deepest shades from the shores and throwing rich tints on the water. 
This repose is finely accompanied by the songs of the batteau men, which 
accord in time to the regular stroke of the oars and have the best effect 
imaginable. No wonder Spenser, Ariosto, etc., dwelt on the delight of 
sailing in a boat on lakes, and make it the approach to islands of delight. 
After a day of fatigue, where strong currents require peculiar exertion, 
they sing incessantly and give a more regular stroke with the oars when 
accompanied by the tunes. This practice has been learned from Grand 



Voyageurs, or Canadians who are hired by the North-West Company to 
take canoes to the Grand Portage beyond Lake Superior. Now and then 
an Indian halloo breaks the often-repeated notes, and enlivens the sound. 
We admired one of their songs, " Trots filles d'un Prince " (Three 
Daughters of a Prince), so much that we desired it to be often repeated. 

NOTE. Edmund Spencer, a celebrated English poet, 1552-1595). 
Ariosto Ludovico, 1474-1533, a celebrated Italian poet, author of 
"Orlando Furioso." 

Our attention was engaged by hearing firing from the shore. The 
batteau men said, "Com we il faut a Mon'sr le Oouverneur" (It is a wel- 
come to Monsieur, the Governor), but who paid this respect we did not 
find out. 

We reached the Maison de Poste at Dautray (Dautre) on north shore, 
just out of Lake St. Peter, west, before sunset, pitched the little tent, and 
admired rich tints and deep reflections from the opposite shore. We met 
with tolerably good rooms here. Mr. Littlehales, Coll. Simcoe's Military 
Secretary, overtook us here, and brought with him letters from you (Mrs. 
Hunt) which made me very happy. He travelled post from Quebec, where 
he arrived in the last vessel. 

NOTE. Major E. B. Littlehales, who was Military Secretary to 
Governor Simcoe during the period of his residence in Canada, was 
an excellent official of the Crown as well as of 
Governor Simcoe, in preparing plans and obtain- 
ing information respecting the newly settled 
country, the affairs of which his chief was called 
upon to administer. He was also an author of 
some repute, being the writer of the " Journal 
of an Exploring Excursion from Niagara to 
Detroit," first given to the public in 1834, though 
the expedition took place in 1793. 

Major Littlehales, who returned to England 
on the recall of Governor Simcoe, was shortly 
afterwards promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and in 1801 became Under-Secretary of 
the Military Department in Ireland, which position SIB E B B\KKR 
he held until 1820. In 1802 Lieutenant-Colonel 
Littlehales was created a Baronet, and by Royal License in 1817 
assumed the surname of Baker in lieu of that of Littlehales, on 
inheriting the property of Ranston in Dorsetshire, thus being for 
the rest of his life Sir Edward Baker Baker. His grandson, Sir 
Randolph Littlehales Baker, M.P. for North Dorset and residing 
at Blandford, Dorset, England, is the present baronet, 

Wed. 13th We set out at four in the morning. In the afternoon we 
saw the Blue Mountains of Chambly, a village in Chambly County, on the 
Richelieu River, five leagues from Montreal, and Beloeil Mountain, a con- 
siderable elevation in the County of Rouville, seven leagues from Mont- 
real, both of which we noticed with pleasure, not having before seen any 
distant view during our voyage. 

We passed Varennes (in Vercheres County), a large village and hand- 
some church on the shore, six leagues below Montreal. That of Cap 
Sante". twelve leagues above Quebec, was built in imitation of it. At eight 



we reached Pointe aux Trembles (En haut), on the island of Montreal, and 
ten leagues from Dautray. Here we went on shore, intending to go by 
land the remaining three leagues to Montreal. We found Capt. Stevenson 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

just arrived in Mr. Frobis'her's phaeton, sent for me, as a hired caliche 
is a wretched conveyance on the excessive rough roads around Montreal. 
Notwithstanding the merits of the phaeton and the river, I every moment 


(From a Draicing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

expected to have been thrown out by the violent jerks in passing over the 

ruts in this bad road. 

At eleven o'clock we arrived at Montreal, and after a little delay, 

occasioned by the lateness of the hour, we got into Government House, 
and I was delighted with the size and loftiness of 
the rooms, which are so much better than any I have 
been in at Quebec. On the road we passed a group 
of Indians sitting around a fire near the river, which in 
this dark night afforded a good subject for a picture. 

NOTE. Joseph Frobisher was one of those 
who in the winter of 1783-4, with Simon Mc- 
Tavish, formed what has been known in Canadian 
history as the "North- West Company." He was 
the first to proceed to the great unknown West, 
and went as far as the Churchill River. Up to 
1774, all the Indians of that vast region were 
accustomed to carry their furs to the Hudson's 
Bay. Mr. Frobisher meeting several bands of In- 
dians on the way thither induced them to trade 
with him. He remained two years in the country, enduring great 
hardships, but established a firm trade with the red men. He re- 
turned in 1776, and during these two years, so plentiful were the 




furs and on such advantageous terms were they bought that when 
he arrived in Montreal he had secured what at that time was con- 
sidered a competency. His brother Benjamin, who died in 1787, 
travelled even further west and was the first white man who ever 
reached "Isle a la Croix." 

In 1798, Joseph retired from commercial life. He had come from 
England, and with James McGill was a vestryman of what was then 
called the "Protestant Congregation of Montreal." This afterwards 
became Christ Church, erected in Notre Dame Street, and burned 
down. It is now the English Cathedral on St. Catherine Street. He 
and John Richardson represented the East Ward of Montreal in the 
first Parliament of the Province of Lower Canada in 1792-6. His 
son represented St. Laurent District in 1804. 

(From "Hochelatja Depicta") 

Sun. 17th The joy I felt in finding myself in spacious apartments was 
checked the next day by finding the heat more insufferable than I had ever 
felt. The thermometer continued at 96 for two days, and the heat was 
not ill-described by a sentinel who exclaimed, " There is but a sheet of 
brown paper between this place and hell." In the town are abundance of 
merchants' storehouses, the doors and windows of which are iron, and 
many of the houses, as well as churches, are covered with tin. By these 
circumstances, I believe, the heat is increased. The Government House is 
built on arches, under which are very large offices, which might be made 
very comfortable summer apartments. 

NOTE. The Government House referred to was the building now 
known as the Chateau de Ramezay. The earliest view of the Gov- 
ernment House, Montreal, is found in "Hochelaga Depicta," pub- 
lished in 1839, but it is not very accurate. The elaborate railing 
and coping of the wall shown do not date back so far. . 

It was the residence of Claude de Ramezay, Governor of Montreal, 
from its erection in 1705 until his death in 1724, and although 


Madame de Ramezay made several attempts to get the Government to 
purchase it for a Governor's residence, she never succeeded. So in 
1745 the heirs sold it to "La Compagnie des Indes," which company 
made it the headquarters of the fur trade in Canada, and so it con- 
tinued until the conquest. The company's further trade in 'Canada 
having been interdicted, it sold "India House" to William Grant, who 
in 1774 leased it, and four years later sold it to the Government. 
Governor Haldimand often resided in it, and no doubt others too, 
but there is not much documentary history relating to it from its 
purchase in 1778 until about 1820, when sundry items began to 
appear in the estimates for the repairs and the upkeep of the Govern- 
ment House at Montreal. Later Mrs. Monk, widow of a petty officer 

(From " Montreal After 250 Yearn.") 

in one of the regiments of the line who had been keeper of stores at St. 
Johns, was appointed housekeeper to the Government House. She 
was the mother of the celebrated Maria Monk. 

On the complaint of Lord Aylmer, Governor-General, in 1831, 
that the Government House was in bad repair, and so destitute of 
furniture that it necessitated great expense in moving his furniture 
to and from Montreal every time he visited the place, a bill was passed 
authorizing the expenditure of 300 to 400 in furnishing the Gov- 
ernment House and a large sum to put it in repair. A commission 
was appointed to supervise this expenditure and plans and specifica- 
tions were made for elaborate repairs which included the addition of 
another storey, but the amount required so exceeded the vote that 
little was done and the amount appeared as an unexpended balance 
on the estimates for several years afterwards. 



In 1837, the house was made the headquarters of the special 
council which was appointed during the rebellion and sat there until 
1841. The Governor, then of necessity a regular resident in the 
city, occupied a rented house on the opposite corner. In 1845, when 
the seat of government of the united provinces was moved from 
Kingston to Montreal, the building was set apart for departmental 
offices and Monklands acquired for the Government House. It was 
then that some of the changes that characterize the Chateau de 
Ramezay of to-day were made. In 1894 the Chateau was sold by the 
Provincial Government and purchased by the Corporation of the City 
of Montreal, and in 1895 the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society 
obtained the building for the purpose of founding an Historical 
Portrait Gallery and Museum. 

Monklands was built by the Monk family and was situated at 
Cote St. Antoine on the side of the mountain. The house is now 
called the Ville Marie Convent and is the boarding school of the 
Nuns of the Congregation. On each side the nuns have had large 
additions made but the house still remains just as it was when 
Government House. In the fire which destroyed the Convent some 
years ago, the original building escaped. 

Mon. 18th I was so oppressed by the heat that it diminished the 
pleasure of driving on the mountain of Montreal. A mile from the town 
it rises in the midst of a plain, like the Wrekin, one of the highest points 
in Shropshire. The view from it is remarkably fine, commanding a vast 
extent of river diversified by islands. The towns of Longueuil, on the 
right bank of the river, and L'Assomption, etc., are opposite, and the 
distance terminated by the Blue Hills of Chambly. 

The town of Montreal is large, and the spires of the churches, covered 
with tin, give a brilliancy to the scene and look like mosques. The country 
around is much cultivated, and orchards cover nearly all the top of the 
mountain. Capt. Stevenson carried us two miles beyond the fine prospect 
towards La Chine (Lachine), which is three leagues above Montreal, I 
think merely to show how bad the road was, and we returned about nine 
o'clock to Mr. Probisher's villa on the side of the mountain, and drank 
tea there. 

In going from hence to Montreal we saw the air filled with fire flies, 
which, as the night was dark, appeared beautiful, like falling stars. I 
dined at Mr. Frobisher's house in the town, where the chairs were the 
same as I have seen sold in London for four guineas each. 

NOTE. Mr. Frobisher's villa, or country house, which Mrs. Simcoe 
speaks of as being on the side of the mountain, was named Beaver 
Hall and was situated on the ridge of the Beaver Hall Hill, near 
the present position of Belmont Street, Montreal. It was on the 
line of the latter street and across the line of the present street called 
after it, Beaver Hall, which latter was on the site of Frobisher's 
avenue leading to the house. It blocked the present Beaver Hall 

Tues. 19th I dined with La Baronne de Longueuil at a pretty house 
she and Mr. Grant have built on the north shore of her island of St. 
Helen's, opposite the east end of Montreal. Though the distance is so 
short, the current is so strong that the passage is rather alarming. The 
island is four miles in circumference, and the views from many points 

7 97 


very pretty. Montreal and Longueuil are good objects to view from it. 
La Baronne has the only hothouse I have seen in Canada. Ice houses are 
very general here, but seldom used for the purpose of furnishing ice for 
a dessert. They use the ice to cool liquors and butter, 
and the ice houses are used for larders to keep meat. 

NOTE. The third Baron de Longueuil, Charles 
Jacques Le Moyne, died while on active military 
service in 1755. His infant daughter, Marie 
Charles Joseph, born some months later, inherited 
the title as fourth Baroness. Her mother (Marie 
Fleury d'Eschambault, of a noble French family), 
known as the Dowager Baroness, married a second 
time, in 1770, Honorable William Grant, Receiver- 
General, while the daughter became the wife in 
DOWAGER BARONESS 1781 of Captain David Alexander Grant, nephew 
DE LONGUEUIT.. O f the Receiver-General. 

Shortly after her marriage with Honorable 
William Grant the Dowager Baroness built a resi- 
dence on the picturesque family property on St. 
Helen's Island. It was here Mrs. Simcoe was 
entertained during her first visit to Montreal, and 
where in all probability she met the younger 

It is stated that the fourth Baroness in her 

own right, a much loved person in the family 

and respected in Montreal society of her day, did 

not assume rank until the death of her mother 

in 1818. In her marriage contract, however, she HON. WM. GRANT. 

is styled "Mademoiselle Marie Charles Joseph 

Lemoine de Longueuil, Baroness de Longueuil 
et Dame de Beloeil, fille majeure usante et jouis- 
sante de ses droits," which shows clearly that she 
assumed title on attaining her majority. The 
contract further states that she was sole inheritor 
of the name, arms and estate of the third Baron. 
There is no portrait of the fourth Baroness 
in existence, except the one as an old lady, here 
given, while her mother's picture is from an oil 
painting made comparatively early in life. 

Mrs. M. Arklay Fergusson of Ethiebeaton, 
Scotland, Mrs. Fairclough, wife of Prof. Rushton 
Fairclough, Stanford University, Cal., and Mrs. 
J. Maule Machar, Kingston, Ont., are, on their 
mother's side, great-great-granddaughters of the 

third Baron de Longueuil, while Madame F. Falret de Tuite, Reginald, 

Baron de Longueuil, John Grant de Longueuil and Mademoiselles 

de Longueuil, Pau, France, bear the same relation through their 




father. Mrs. Machar's husband was the only son of the late Rev. 
Dr. Machar, at one time principal of Queen's University, Kingston, 
and only brother of Agnes Maule Machar, the well-known Canadian 
authoress. The nephew of the present Baron is heir to the title 
and property. 

Fri. 22nd We went from Montreal to La Chine (Lachine), ten miles 
of very rough road, in Mr. Frobisher's carriage. The river from Montreal 
to La Chine is so shallow and full of rocks, and currents so strong that 
the boats always go up unloaded, the baggage being sent in waggons. 
Sir John Johnson, the agent for Indian Affairs, has a neat-looking house 
in this village. 

We slept at a very indifferent house, to which, as it bore the name of 
an inn, we did not bring our beds or provisions, and were the worse off as 
to lodging. I disliked the dirty appearance of the bed, and slept on a 
blanket upon the table. Opposite this place and on the other side of the 
river is Caughnawaga, a village of Indians who are Catholics (in Laprairie 
County, on south shore of the St. Lawrence). They have a neat church 

Sat. 23rd We embarked at six. Soon afterwards left Pointe Claire 
and Isle Perrot (15 miles from Montreal, an island in the River St. 
Lawrence, S.W. of the island of Montreal, between the Lake of the Two 
Mountains and Lake St. Louis) to the north, and saw the junction of the 
Ottawa or Grand River, which divided Upper and Lower Canada with 
the St. Lawrence, the former pouring its dirty coloured water into the 
transparent stream of the St. Lawrence at the St. Anne's rapids, above 
the island of Montreal. 

NOTE. Besides the Ottawa or Grand River here mentioned, there 
is another Grand River (known also as the Ouse) in Ontario, which 
empties into Lake Erie. 

We soon arrived at the Cascades, the commencement of the rapids 
above La Chine. The term " rapid " is meant to describe shallow water, 
strong currents and a rocky bottom, which causes the whole surface of 
the water to appear foaming and white, like breakers at sea. The batteau 
men kept as close to shore as possible, and by dint of exertion and labour 
they pole and tow the boat up against the current. We went on shore at 
the Cascades, and walked a mile through a wood and saw the boats pass 
some tremendous rapids near this place, where Gen'l. Amherst lost eighty 
men during the last war by coming down without conductors in the boats. 
Saw a swordfish in a little stream near the mill. After our re-embarking 
we came to a very strong current at Point au Diable (a prominent head- 
land four miles west of the Cedars village). 

The gentlemen walked to lighten the boat. I was tired by the heat, 
and laying my head on a trunk in the boat, I slept till the rapid was past. 
Two leagues from hence we met with one more formidable, so that the 
baggage in the boats was moved into waggons, and we went in a caleche 
as far as the Cedars, a village ten leagues above Montreal, where there is 
a tolerable inn, at which we slept. M. de Longueuil has a seigneurie 
near this place. These properties, estates or grants of land were given to 
the old French families who had settled in the Province of Quebec, by 
Louis XIV. Seigneur was the title for the Lord of the Manor. 

Sun. 24th Seven miles from Les Cedres is Coteau du Lac (or St. 
Ignace, a village in Soulanges County, 37 miles south-west of Montreal), 
where we passed through locks. A few troops are stationed in a house 
here. Opposite to it is an island called Prison Island. It was so called 
from some rebels having been confined on it during the last war, some of 
whom escaped by swimming across the rapids by which it is surrounded. 



NOTE. This island is at the mouth of Lake St. Francis, an 
expansion of the St. Lawrence, midway between the west part of 
Grand Isle and the estuary of the River de L'Isle. 

A few miles beyond this entered Lake St. Francis, and saw a part 
of the blue ridge of the endless mountains. Four leagues from Coteau de 
Lac is Pointe au Bodet, the centre of Lake St. Francis and the commence- 
ment of Upper Canada. 

NOTE. Pointe au Bodet is on the north shore of Lake St. Francis, 
in the Seigneury of Monsieur de Longueuil, and a little east of the 
cove in which is the boundary line between the Provinces of Quebec 
and Ontario. 

We arrived here about sunset, and at a small inn on the Point found 
the principal inhabitants of the Township of Glengarry (Highlanders in 
their national dress). They came to meet the Governor, who landed to 
speak to them. They preceded us in their boat, a piper with them, towards 
Glengarry House, Mr. McDonell's, where the gentlemen went, but the 
wooden awning of our boat being blown off by a violent and sudden squall 
arising, we were glad to make towards the shore as fast as possible at 
Pointe Mouille on Lake Francis, west of Pointe au Bodet, and thought our- 
selves lucky that the boat had not been overset. We met with a miserable, 
wretched, dirty room at a Highlander's, the only house within some miles. 

NOTE. Colonel John Macdonell was a captain in Butler's Rangers 
(his father having first settled in America at the breaking out of the 
Revolutionary War). In 1792 he was elected member for Glengarry 
and was afterwards Speaker of the first House of Assembly of Upper 
Canada. He was lieutenant-colonel commanding the 2nd Royal 
Canadian Volunteers, recruited in 17% and disbanded after the 
Peace of Amiens. He married Helen, daughter of Henry Yates, at 
one time Governor of the State of New York. Colonel Macdonell 
built one of the first stone houses in Ontario at a point on the St. 
Lawrence below Cornwall and west of Pointe au Bodet. The house was 
burned down in 1813 but the ruins still remain and the point is 
known as Glengarry Point or Stonehouse Point. 

Colonel John Macdonell of Glengarry has been frequently confused 
with Colonel John Macdonell who was killed at Queenston Heights 
in 1812. The latter, however, was a nephew of the first Speaker, and 
J. A. Macdonell, K.C., of Alexandria, Ont., is a great-grandnephew 
of Colonel John Macdonell, the First Speaker, and a grandnephew 
of Colonel John Macdonell, the Attorney-General who was also A.D.C. 
to General Brock. He was killed with that officer at Queenston, 
and buried under the monument erected on the Heights. A. McLean 
Macdonell, K.C., Toronto, is also a great-grandnephew of the first 
Speaker of the Legislature of this Province, while A. Claude Mac- 
donell, K.C., M.P., is a near kinsman. 

Mon. 25th We breakfasted with Mr. McDonell, four leagues from 
Pointe Mouille; his new house (Glengarry) he has not finished, and 
resides in that which he first erected on his ground. A Catholic priest, 
his cousin, was there, who has lived five years among the Iroquois Indians 
at St. Regis (near Cornwall). They have a church, and he performs 



divine service in the Iroquois, of which he is a perfect master, and he 
says their attention to the church service is very great," and the women 
sing psalms remarkably well. After breakfast we proceeded a league to 
Coll. Gray's, from whence the Governor went to the Isle of St. Regis, to 
visit the Indians at their village, where they received him with dancing 
in a fierce style, as if they wished to inspire the spectators with terror and 
respect for their ferocious appearance. We slept at Coll. Gray's, at Gray's 
Creek, four miles below Cornwall. 

NOTE. The Catholic priest to whom Mrs. Simcoe refers was the 
Rev. Roderick Macdonell, well known as "Mr. Roderick," a cousin 
of Colonel John Macdonell. He was educated at the Scots College, 
Valladolid, and was first priest in Glengarry, being stationed at 
St. Regis on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, a short distance 
below Cornwall. This was always an Indian settlement. 

James Gray, known as Colonel Gray, was born in Scotland and 
served in the British Army for 26 years. In 1763 he was captain 
in the 42nd or Black Watch Regiment, and was afterwards major 
of the 1st Battalion of the King's Royal Regiment of New York. 
He settled at what is known as Gray's Creek, near Cornwall. He 
died on llth May, 1796. Colonel Gray's son, Robert Isaac Dey Gray, 
was the first Solicitor-General for Tipper Canada. His name was 
second on the list of charter members of the Law Society of Upper 
Canada, 1797. In 1804, he was lost in the "Speedy" on Lake 
Ontario on his way to Presqu' Isle, where an Indian was to be tried 
for murder. 

Tues. 26th Capt. Munro came here and brought a horse of Mr. Dun- 
can's for me to ride. As it would be very tedious to go up the Long Sault 
in the boat, we propose riding beyond that and another rapid called 
Galettes. We set off about ten o'clock. On our way we passed through 
Cornwall (22 leagues south-west of Montreal), a settlement four miles 
from Coll. Gray's. There are about fifteen houses 
and some neat gardens in them; and rode eleven 
miles to Mr. Macdonell's at the Long Sault, his farm 
being very near that Grand Rapid, whidh rapid con- 
tinues a mile; the whole of the river foaming like 
white breakers, and the banks covered with thick 
woods, is a very fine sight. 

NOTE. Captain Munro was the Honorable 
John Munro of Matilda, a member of the first 
Legislative Council. Born in Scotland in 1731, 
he came to America in the 48th Regiment in 1756. 
As a magistrate he had come into fierce opposition 
before the Revolutionary War with Seth Warner 
and Ethan Allan in northern New York. He was 
captain in the King's Royal Regiment of New HON. JOHN MI:NKO. 
York and lost in consequence of the Rebellion a 
large area of land near Fort Bennington, N. Y. In the Canada 
Archives, 1891, will be found a report by him (1784) on the lands 
of New Brunswick. By one daughter who married Colonel Eustache 
de Lotbiniere he was the ancestor of Sir Henry Joly and the Har- 
woods of Montreal ; Major W. F. W. Carstairs of Strathcona, and 



J. S. Carstairs of Toronto, are descendants' of another member of 
his numerous family. 

The Long Sault Rapids are in the St. Lawrence River, between 
Barnhart and Long Sault Island, twelve miles above Cornwall. They 
are about nine miles long. 

Mrs. Macdonell sang Erse songs very pleasingly, and her children and 
servants speak no language but Erse, the language of the descendants of 
the Gaels or Celts in the Highlands of Scotland; Gaelic, belonging to Erse 
(Irish). I wish'd they had not thought it necessary respect to dine very 
late. There are wolves and bears in this part of the country. They some- 
times carry off sheep, calves or pigs, but do not attack men. 

Mr. Duncan's (Oapt. Richard Duncan, late of 55th Regt.) horse 
carried me very well. It is certainly necessary to have a horse of the 
country to pass the bridges we everywhere met with, whether across the 
creeks (very small rivers) or swamps. The bridges are composed of 
trunks of trees unhewn, of unequal sizes, and laid loosely across pieces 
of timber placed lengthways. Rotten trees sometimes give way and a^ 
horse's leg slips through, and is in danger of being broken. The horse 1* 
am now riding had once a fall through an old bridge. He now goes very 
carefully. Coll. Gray tells me that the juice of horehound and plantain, a 
tropical plant yielding fruit extensively serviceable for food, cures the 
bite of a rattlesnake. A negro in Carolina obtained his freedom in the 
last war for the discovery. We had black bass for dinner. Great num- 
bers are caught near the rapids. They are extremely good, nearly as 
large as carp, as firm as a dory and of very good taste, but we dined too 
late to be pleasant. I suppose it was meant for respect. 

NOTE. Honourable Richard Duncan, whose memory still survives 
in Dundas County as "Judge Duncan," and whose daughter's name 
is perpetuated in Mariatown, now really an outlying part of Morris- 
burg, came to America in 1755. He became a captain in Sir John 
Johnson's corps, and married a sister of Captain (afterwards Colonel) 
Thomas and Captain William Fraser. He was a member of the first 
Legislative Council. 

When Mrs. Simcoe was on her way west to Niagara Mr. Duncan 
presented her with a horse named "Jack" which was taken to Navy 
Hall and used during her residence there. 

Wed. 27th We rode ten miles to a tolerable inn, where a dinner was 
prepared, but we were engaged to dine and sleep at Capt. John Munro's, 
who had served in the Revolutionary War, twelve miles beyond this place. 
The first eight we went in the boat, and the remaining four we rode. 

An Irish Captain gave us a basket of wild strawberries, which were 
as large and as well flavoured as the best scarlet strawberries in gardens 
in England. We passed Capt. Duncan's house a mile before we came to 
the Rapid Plat, close to which is Capt. Munro's. His wife is a Dutch 
woman, and the house was excessively neat and clean, and one of his 
daughters very handsome. We went to see Mr. Munro's sawmill, where 
a tree was cut into 16 planks an inch thick in an hour. 

NOTE. In the list of Justices of the Peace appointed June 10th, 
1793, are found the names of William and John Fraser, Richard 
Duncan, John Munro and James Gray. 

The cutting of a log into sixteen planks twelve feet long and an 
inch thick, would in a saw mill to-day take three minutes. 



Thurs. 28th We set out on horseback this morning; took some re- 
freshments at Mr. T. Frasier's, six miles from the Long Sault, and then 
rode five miles to Mr. W. Frasier's, where we dined. His house is just 
beyond Les Galettes (Galoos or Gallops, off Pointe Gallop), the last rapid 
on this side of Lake Ontario. 

NOTE. Colonel Thomas Eraser, born in Scotland, was a son-in- 
law of Hon. John Munro. Before enlisting in McAlpine's Corps, 
in which he served as lieutenant, his record is given as "a farmer 
of property in the Province of New York, lost by the Rebellion." He 
served during the Eevolutionary War, at the close of which he 
received a grant of land in Grenville. In 1796 he was chosen as a 
non-resident member for Dundas. Two of the leading military officers 
of Dundas, John Munro and Richard Duncan, being out of reach, 
the electors determined to select a representative military officer 
residing outside of their townships, and so Thomas Fraser was chosen. 

Captain William Fraser, also a Loyalist, was a brother of Colonel 
Thomas Fraser. 

Thurs. 28th I observed on my way hither that the wheat appeared 
finer than any I have seen in England, and totally free from weeds. Mr. 
Frasier mentioned an instance of the fertility of the soil. One of his 
fields having produced a great quantity of wheat, and that what fell out 
in reaping had the next year produced a very fine crop, without the field 
having been plowed or sown. There are many Dutch and German 
farmers about here, whose houses and grounds have a neater and better 
appearance than those of any other people. This afternoon we proceeded 
in the boat to Monsr. Lorimer's, an agent for Indian Affairs, where we 
had good venison but indifferent lodging. Coll. Simcoe stopped on the way 
to look at Isle Royale. 

NOTE. Chevalier Lorimer was an interpreter of the Indian 
Department in 1797. 

Isle Royale is between Gallop Island and River de la Yielle 
Galette, near Point Patterson. 

Fri. 29th We embarked early and met the 26th Regt. in a brigade of 
boats. We stopped to speak to Capt. Talbot, who is in Prince Edward's 
family. He had been to see the Falls of Niagara, and was returning with 
the 26th Regt. 

NOTE. Captain Talbot was one of Prince Edward's suite, when 
in Canada. He is previously mentioned by Mrs. Simcoe when staying 
in Quebec, as Prince Edward was then residing there, at Montmor- 
ency House, near the Falls. In August, 1790, the 26th proceeded 
to Niagara and in June, 1792, returned to St. John's. Captain Talbot 
was not an officer of the 26th, nor was he related to Mr. Talbot, 
private secretary of Colonel Simcoe. In the Quebec Directory of 
1791, there appears "Captain Talbot, H.R.H's suite 4 Ann St." 

Fri. 29th We passed to-day some rocks beautifully variegated with 
yellow and grey tints. 1 believe clay was among it. We saw a number 
of fine hemlock spruce trees. They are an exceedingly handsome tree, 
like yew, but of a lighter foliage, though as dark a colour, and grow to a 
more immense height than the English people can suppose probable. We 
came to so miserable a house where we were to lodge to-night, within 
a league of Grenadier Island, that we preferred pitching a tent for our- 



selves, letting the children sleep in the boat, and left the house for the 
gentlemen. While the tent was pitching I fished and caught a small 
perch. Many people carry trolling lines, or lines which run out of a 
small fishing wheel or pulley lying out of the stern in their boat, and 
catch abundance of black bass and other fish all the way up the St. 
Lawrence. Capillaire or maidenhair fern and its species grows in great 
perfection throughout this country. Much surprised to find the blankets 
so wet in a tent, although the weather had been dry. 

NOTE. Grenadier Island, one of the Thousand Islands, is four- 
teen miles above Brockville, and is about five miles long. 

Sat. 30th After passing Grenadier Island we came to the Thousand 
islands. The different sizes and shapes of these innumerable isles have a 
pretty appearance. Some of them are many miles in extent, many of 
them only large enough to contain four or five trees, pine or oak, growing 
on a grey rock, which looks very pretty, variegated by the different mosses 
with which the crevices are filled. 

We passed the river Gananowui (Gananoque), and half a mile beyond 
it came to Carey's house, which was so dirty a house that we again pitched 
the tent, which, notwithstanding it rained incessantly the whole evening 
and the greatest part of the night, kept us quite dry, and I slept vastly 
well. I was surprised to find how wet the bed clothes were in the tent 
when I rose, and yet I caught no cold, though these nights were the first in 
which I slept in a tent. In spite of the rain Coll. Simcoe went to the mill 
on the Gananowui River near its mouth, where a harbour might be made 
for shipping. This river has communication a great way back with the 
river Rideau, and by some lakes to the Ottawa River. These and other 
advantages make this one of the most eligible situations for the establish- 
ment of a town, but Sir John Johnson obtained a grant of the land here- 
about, which prevents the probability of any such improvements being 
made by Government. 

XOTE. Judge McDonald, of Brockville, informs me that ac- 
cording to a statement said to have been made in 1854 by one Mrs. 
Charlotte Jameson, then the oldest inhabitant of Gananoque, Joel 
Stone was the first white person who ever resided on the peninsula 

on the west side of the 
Gananoque River. He was 
landed from a French 
bateau and left to his 
own resources. Fortun- 
ately a resident on a 
nearby island espied the 
handkerchief with which 
Stone was signalling for 
help and sent two Indians 
to rescue him. They 
took him over to the is- 
land where a Frenchman 


(From a drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

named Carey, an uncle of 
Mr. Jameson, lived alone in a hut. Eventually Mr. Stone and Carey 
removed to the mainland, and the latter kept a house of public enter- 
tainment. The place was only accessible by open boat, while no bread 
could be obtained except hard biscuits. For Mr. Stone and for 


J i 


travellers, they kept a kind called King's biscuit, while for the others 
they provided navy biscuit. They kept two cows and exchanged the 
milk with the bateau men for biscuit, and exchanged the latter again 
with the Indians for fish, venison, game and wild fruit. Carey 
had been formerly a waiter and knew how to cook and wait upon 
gentlemen, so that he and Stone were tolerably comfortable. One 
day when they were all absent, the building and Mr. Stone's effects 
were burned, and this was the means of breaking up their family 
arrangement, as Carey took a farm two miles above Gananoque at 
Jameson's or Sheriff's Point, and lived there with his sister, Mrs. 
Sheriff, and a little girl, afterwards Mrs. Jameson. The picture 
shown is of Carey's house at Gananoque. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

Sun. July 1st We rose very early this morning in order to take a 
view of the mill at Gananowui before we proceeded on our way to Kings- 
ton. The scenery about the mill was so pretty that I was well repaid for 
the trouble of going. Then we returned to our large boat and proceeded. 
After passing Grande Island and Isle Cauchois, we drew near to Kingston, 
which we were aware of before we saw the houses, as we discerned the 
white waves of Lake Ontario beyond, looking like a sea, for the wind 
blew extremely fresh. 

NOTE. Wolfe Island, three miles from Kingston, was called by 
the French Grande Island. General Simcoe in his proclamation, 
1792, directed it to be called Wolfe Island. Howe Island, nine miles 
from Kingston, was called by the French Isle Cauchois, and was 
named by General Simcoe or his advisers, Howe Island, after Lord 



Kingston is six leagues from Gananowui, and is a small town of 
about fifty wooden houses and merchants' storehouses. Only one house 
is built of stone. It belongs to a merchant. There is a small garrison 
here and a harbour of ships. They fired a salute on our arrival, and we 
went to the house appointed for the commanding officer, at some distance 
from the barracks. It is small but very airy, and so much cooler than 
the great house in Montreal that I was very well satisfied with the change. 
The Queen's Rangers are encamped a quarter of a mile beyond our house, 
and the bell tents have a pretty appearance. The situation of this place is 
entirely flat, and incapable of being rendered defensible. Therefore, were 
its situation more central, it would still be unfit for the seat of govern- 



Kingston in 1792 was the most important spot on the map of 
Canada, west of Montreal. It was not only the military but the 
commercial centre of the new province and occupied that position 
for many years. The Legislature of the Province of Canada after 
the Union Act of 1841 held three sessions there from 14th June, 
1841, until 5th March, 1844, when the seat of government was re- 
moved and the settlements west on the lake secured in natural course 
the trade that from humble beginnings has to-day a volume ever 
increasing with the great tide of population. 

Kingston is situated at the head of the St. Lawrence at the outlet 
of Lake Ontario. The harbor is an excellent one, and ships of any 
size can be accommodated in perfect safety. In 1672 the place was 
known as Cataraqui, and visited by De Courcelles, the Governor of 
New France. He was succeeded by Count Frontenac and the fort 
was built by him and named in his honor. This fort was held by 
the French until 1758, when it fell into the hands of the British 
under Colonel Bradstreet. 

In 1783 a number of Loyalist emigrants under Captain Michael 
Grass settled in what is now the Township of Kingston. The sur- 
veys were made by Deputy Surveyor John Collins. The town plot 
was laid out in 1783. The first picture of Cataraqui showing what 
was left of Fort Frontenac, was made in 1783. It was styled "a 
southwest view of Cataraqui drawn by James Peachey, Ensign 60th 
Regiment. Takan by Louis Kotte." 

About 1788 Kingston was selected by the British Government as 
a military and naval station the principal one on Lake Ontario. 
Surveyor Collins in his report to Lord Dorchester did not favor the 
selection of Kingston as the best situation for vessels, "as it lies 
open to the lake and has not very good anchorage near the entrance, 
so that vessels are obliged to run a good way up for shelter from the 
most frequent winds." Collins, therefore, proposed Carleton Island, 
as it "afforded the best shelter." Lord Dorchester thought other- 
wise, and Haldimand Cove between Point Frederick and Point 
Henry, opposite Kingston, was selected as the site for the dockyard 
and storehouses. 

In 1792, according to Mrs. Simcoe, the town contained about 
fifty houses. In 1795, the Duke de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt vis- 
ited Kingston and wrote that it had "about 129 or 130 houses." 

Mrs. Simcoe made three pictures of the town, dated 1792, 1794 
and 1796. The first is a sketch from the water-front, evidently made 
from a distance. The view in 1794 is al?o from the water-front, but 
shows distinctly the principal houses, including the steeple and belfry 



of the first church, known from 1820 as St. George's, while her latest 
picture was taken from a point between Fort Frederick and Main 
Street, Kingston, looking toward the northwest. 

Mon. 2nd We went across the bay this morning to see the shipyard. 
There are two gunboats lately built on a very bad construction. Coll. 
Simcoe calls them the " Bear " and the " Buffalo," as they are so unscien- 
tifically built, and intends they shall aid in carrying provisions to Niagara. 
The present establishment of vessels on this lake consists of the " Onon- 
daga " and " Mississaga," named after the Indian tribes, top-sailed 
schooners of about 80 tons, and the "Caldwell," named after Coll. Cald- 
well, which is a sloop. They transport all the troops and provisions from 
hence for the garrison of Niagara, Forts Erie and Detroit. They land 
them at Niagara, from whence those for the higher ports are forwarded 
nine miles across a portage by land to Fort Chippawa, three miles above 
the Falls of Niagara, from whence they are embarked in boats and 


No. 1 represents a small house, but of the owner or occupant nothing 
is known. It is near the site of the old Recollet Church, which appears to 
have been removed or destroyed. 

No. 2 represents the Commandant's house, which was on the line of 
Queen Street not far from Bagot Street. 

No. 3 represents the barracks built by Count Frontenac inside the fort, 
the walls of which are designated by No. 4. The barracks appear to have 
been on the north-west side of the fort. The wall of the fort in the original 
picture is partly dark shaded and partly light. The light part represents 
the south-west side of the wall, the dark the south-east side. 

No. 5 is a round tower built within the bastion at the corner of the 
fort. This was the south bastion. The tower was built of strong rubble 
masonry, and continued in existence until 1832, when it was razed to the 
ground. The site of the tower, indicated by the circular stone work, is 
distinctly visible to-day in the barrack square close to the ball alley. 

No. 6 is a three-cornered building, which was built of stone in front 
of, and a protection to, the entrance to the fort, which was on the north- 
east side, facing Barriefield. One angle pointed towards Barriefield, and 
the building was constructed in this shape in order to divert the fire of 
guns which might be directed against the gate. 

No. 7 represents a storehouse with a wharf in front of it, which 
formerly belonged to Mr. Forsythe. 

No. 8, further east, represents the storehouse owned by the Honorable 
Richard Cartwright, with a wharf in front of it. The adjoining building 
also probably belonged to him. Beyond this storehouse the land runs to 
a point and then sweeps into the left, forming a bay, which has now 
been nearly all filled up, on which are the Montreal Transportation Com- 
pany's shipyard, Anglin's mill and other works. The other houses are 
probably engineers' or officers' quarters, or houses occupied at the time 
by inhabitants. 

NOTE. This drawing or sketch was taken twenty-five years after 
the bombardment of the fort by Bradstreet (1758), and the walls 
bear traces in the picture of the bombardment. Bradstreet's batteries 
were placed one to the west of the house marked "I," another on the 
high ground behind the house marked "2," No. 1 being about the 
site of the present market-place, and the other on the high ground, 
on Queen Street, near the corner of Bagot Street. 

It is claimed by some old inhabitants of Kingston that Forsythe's 
wharf was at the foot of Brock Street where Folger's Wharf now is. 



carried 18 miles to Fort Erie, from whence vessels take them to Detroit, 
at the extremity of Lake Erie, which is about 250 miles in length. 

Coll. Simcoe went on board the " Onondaga," and says we shall find 
tolerable accommodation in her when we go to Niagara, though he is much 
disposed to row round Lake Ontario in a boat, but everybody about us 
opposes the scheme as tedious and dangerous. Probably those who are of 
the party do not like the trouble of such a voyage, and I suppose Coll. 
Simcoe will go at last in a vessel rather than oppose these Sybarites of 
Italy, devoted to luxury and pleasure. 


(From a Dratving by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

I gathered a very sweet and pretty white flower, the petals of the 
texture of orange flowers, five petals, ten chives, tipped with orange colour, 
the style pink, the leaves a light green, growing from the root, eight or 
ten flowers on short foot stalks on a long stalk, seed vessel round and 
small. Some ladies came to see me in the evening. I walked. 

Tues. 3rd There are Mississaga Indians here. They are an unwar- 
like, idle, drunken, dirty tribe. I observe how extremes meet. These 
uncivilized people saunter up and down the town all day with the ap- 
parent nonchalance, want of occupation and indifference that seems to 
possess the London beaux in Bond Street. 

Sat. 7th I walked this evening in a wood lately set on fire by some 
unextinguished fires being left by some persons who had encamped there, 
which in dry weather often communicates to the trees. Perhaps you have 
no idea of the pleasure of walking in a burning wood, but I found it so 
great that I think I shall have some woods set on fire for my evening 
walks. The smoke arising from it keeps the mosquitoes at a distance, 
and where the fire has caught the hollow trunk of a lofty tree the flame 
issuing from the top has a fine effect. In some trees where but a small 
flame appears it looks like stars as the evening grows dark, and the flare 
and smoke, interspread in different masses of dark woods, has a very 
picturesque appearance, a little like the poet Tasso's " enchanted wood." 

Sun. 8th The Governor went to church and took the oaths prepar- 
atory to acting as Governor. 

NOTE. The following is an extract from the Minutes of the first 
Executive Council of Upper Canada held on July 8th, 1792, from 



the records of the Archives Department at Ottawa, with reference to 
Governor Simcoe taking the oaths. 


"Kingston, July 8th, 1792. 

"His Excellency John Graves Simcoe, Esqr., Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of the Province of Upper Canada, Colonel commanding the 
forces in the said Province, etc., etc., etc., having appointed the 
Protestant Church, as a suitable place, for the reading and publishing 
of His Majesty's Commissions. He accordingly repaired thither 
attended by 

The Honourable William Osgoode, Chief Justice, 

The Honourable James Baby, 

The Honourable Peter Russell, 

together with the Magistrates, and principal inhabitants, when the 
said Commission appointing His Excellency, (GUY) LORD DOR- 
CHESTER Captain General and Governor-in-Chief, etc., etc., etc., 
of Upper and Lower Canada, and also the Commission appointing 
the said John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province 
of Upper Canada were solemnly read and published. 

"His Excellency then took the Oaths mentioned in an Act of 
Parliament passed in the first Year of His late Majesty King George, 
as altered and explained by an Act passed in the 6th year of the 
reign of his present Majesty, and also made, and subscribed the 
declaration mentioned in an Act of Parliament made in the Twenty- 
fifth year of the reign of Charles II., for preventing the dangers 
which may happen from Popish Recusants. The Oath for the due 
execution of his place and trust was administered to him by the Hon. 
W. Osgoode, Chief Justice, and he also took the Oath, required by an 
Act passed in the 7th and 8th years of the reign of King William III. 
to be taken by Governors of Plantations to do their utmost that the 
laws relating to the plantations be duely observed." 

The Protestant church referred to was opened in 1792. The 
Synod authorities at Kingston state that the earliest minutes of the 
vestry extant, dated 1820, designate the church as St. George's. In 
1827, the building was removed to make room for business houses, 
and the present St. George's Cathedral was erected on the corner of 
King and Johnson Streets. It was, however, called St. George's 
Church until 1862, when Kingston was made the seat of a diocese. 
The Cathedral was enlarged in 1892, the deep chancel and apse being 
added. In 1899 the building was destroyed by fire, only the walls 
remaining. It was rebuilt in 1900. 

The British Whig office, 306-10 King Street, formerly called 
Church Street, now stands where the first church stood. Its front 
was where the rear wall back of the printing office rests. The King- 
ston News of some years ago gives an interesting account of the 
inception and erection of the church, which reads: 



"On April 15th, 1791, a meeting was held in Kingston (the record 
does not say where, but most probably in the house of Dr. Stuart), 
to consider the desirability of building a church and to procure the 
necessary means to do so. Besides the Rev. John Stuart, there were 
present at this meeting, Richard Cartwright, senior; Richard Cart- 
wright, junior; James Richardson, Joseph Anderson and Archibald 
Thomson. It was decided to build a church and the contract was 
awarded to Archibald Thomson, who, by the way, was not a churchman, 
but a Presbyterian, though probably not a very strict one, as for the 
short period he remained in Kingston after the church was opened 
he was a pewholder therein. Archibald Thomson was of Scottish 
birth, having been born at Moudie Hill, Canobie, Dumfriesshire. 
About the middle of the last century, he and two of his brothers, 
Andrew and David, emigrated to the American colonies when they 
were very young men, probably just before the Revolutionary War. 
At its close they left the United States and settled in Upper Canada, 
Archibald, the one we are referring to, coming to Kingston. He 
was father of Hugh C. Thomson, an active business and newspaper 
man in Kingston from 1814 until his death in 1834. Early in 1793 
Archibald Thomson, who was a U. E. Loyalist, left Kingston and 
removed to Markham, where he resided until his death. He is buried 
in St. Andrew's churchyard in Scarborough, some twelve miles from 

"Another meeting was held on October 25th, 1791, at which was 
present the Rev. J. Stuart, Messrs. Christopher Georgen, James 
Richardson, Win. Atkinson and Archibald Thomson. Resolutions 
were unanimously passed as follows : 

"First That the money subscribed for the purpose of erecting 
a church should be immediately applied to that use. 

"Second In consequence of the foregoing resolutions, a car- 
penter is to be employed to erect a frame building of 40x32 feet in 
the clear. To weather board, shingle and floor it; also to ceil and 
sash it. 

"As has been stated Archibald Thomson was the builder, and the 
total cost was less than $600. The church was opened in March, 1792. 
Among the first pewholders were Peter Smith, William Coffin, Allen 
McLean, John Baird, Robert Macaulay, Neil McLean, two pews; 
Honorable Richard Cartwright, who also had two pews. The rent of 
the pews was $4 a year, or one pound, Halifax currency. In 1795, 
Robert Macaulay and Peter Smith were the churchwardens. Nothing 
occurred to mar the harmony that existed among the congregation. 
That was before the days of surpliced choirs and choral services, and 
when it would have been an unheard-of innovation had the clergyman 
preached a sermon less than half an hour in duration. As regards 
the musical arrangements a hundred years since, at first there was a 
barrel organ, which some little time after was replaced by a manual. 
Whether the organist was accompanied by a bass viol and flute, history 
sayeth not, but it is more than likely such was the case. 



-"On June 13th, 1795, a' public meeting was held of the parish- 
ioners, when so much had the congregation increased that it was 
resolved to extend the church by putting in a gallery, and this was 

. The son of Hugh . Thomson, editor of the Kingston Herald, was 
the late Rev. C. E. Thomson of St. Mark's Church, Toronto Junction, 
who in 1903 was the president of the TJ. E. Loyalists Association of 
Ontario. K. G. Thomson of Norwood, Ont., is a son of the late Rev. 
C. E. Thomson, and a great-grandson of Archibald Thomson. 

Tues. 10th The Council met. I walked this evening. Some Indians 
arrived from a distance. They fired a salute with muskets, which was 
returned with a cannon. 

Wed. llth The Indians came to dance before the Governor, highly 
painted and in their war costume, with little clothing. They were near 
enough to the house for me to hear their singing, which sounded like a 
repetition in different dismal tones of he', he', 'he', and at intervals a 
savage whoop. They had a skin stretched on sticks imitating a drum, 
which they beat with sticks. Having drank more than usual, they con- 
tinued singing the greatest part of the night. They never quarrel with 
white people unless insulted by them, but are very quarrelsome amongst 
themselves. Therefore, when the women see them drunk they take away 
their knives, and hide them until they become sober. 

This evening I walked through a pretty part of the wood and gathered 
capillaire and a very pretty, small flower, five white petals of an exceeding 
firm texture, the purple short chives which support the anther of the 
flower proceeding from a purple rim that surrounds a very prominent green 
seed-vessel, on long foot stalks; from the top of the stalk the leaves spear 
shaped, sawed, polished, of the darkest green, and almost as firm as holly; 
numerous. It grows in very shady places, an evergreen. I _was driven 
home by the bite of a mosquito through a leather glove. My arm inflamed 
so much that after supper I fainted with the pain while playing at chess 
with Capt. Littlehales. 

Fri. 13th Mrs. Macaulay, the garrison surgeon's wife, drank tea with 
me. She is a naval officer's daughter, and a very agreeable woman. 

NOTE. Dr. James Macaulay, born in Scotland in 1759, entered 
the army as surgeon to the 33rd Regiment, about 1785. He came 
to Canada with the Queen's 
Rangers and was stationed at 
Kingston and Niagara. Sub- 
sequently he received the ap- 
pointment as deputy inspector- 
general of hospitals. In the 
army list, 1795, he is given as 
"Surgeon James M'Aulay, on 
garrison duty." Dr. Macaulay 
was twice married, first in 
1790 to Elizabeth Tuck Hay- 
ter, and second in 1817 to 
Rachel Crookshank. He had 
issue by his first wife only, 
namely: (Hon.) John Sim- 
coe, Colonel of the Royal Engineers; (Sir) James Buchanan, first 
Chief Justice of Common Pleas, Upper Canada; George, a barrister- 





at-law ; and Allan, a clergyman ; Elizabeth, who married Judge 
Hagerman; Mary, who married John William Gamble, of Wood- 
bridge; Ann, who married Dr. Peter Diehl, and Sarah Hayter, who 
became the wife of John S. Cartwright. Two sons of the last named- 
are James S. Cartwright, K.C., Master in Chambers, Toronto, and 
John R. Cartwright, K.C., Deputy Attorney-General. Of the 
daughters of Honorable John Simcoe Macaulay, Sarah Sophia Bing- 
ham, Henrietta Emma and Mrs. Purcell (Elizabeth Mary) live in 

When Toronto became the seat of government instead of Niagara, 
Dr. Macaulay settled in the former place with his family. . Teraulay 
Street, Toronto, preserves the last syllable of Hayter and the two 
last syllables of Macaulay. 

Sat. 14th Mr. Scadding caught a beautiful green grass snake, which 
was harmless. After keeping it a day or two he let it go. The way of 
clearing land in this country is cutting down all the small wood, pile it 
and set it on fire. The heavier timber is cut through the bark five feet 
above the ground. This kills the tree, which in time the wind blows down. 
The stumps decay in the ground in the course of years, but appear very 
ugly for a long time, though the very large, leafless white trees have a 
singular and sometimes a picturesque effect among the living trees. The 
settler first builds a log hut covered with bark, and after two or three 
years raises a neat house by the side of it. This progress of industry is 
pleasant to observe. 

Sun. 15th I went to church twice. The clergyman, Mr. Stuart, is 
from the United States. He preached good sermons with an air of serious 
earnestness in the cause which made them very impressive. 

NOTE. Dr. John Stuart was born in Harrisburg, Pa., in 1740. 
He was originally a Presbyterian, but later sought for admission 
in the Church of England, was admitted to Holy 
Orders in 1770 and appointed as a missionary to 
the Indians at Fort Hunter on the Mohawk River 
for eight years. He translated part of the New 
Testament and Book of Common Prayer into the 
language of the Mohawks; came to St. Johns in 
the Province of Quebec in October, 1781; was 
appointed chaplain to the garrison at Kingston 
and arrived there in August, 1785, and was the 
first incumbent of the Protestant church in King- 
ston, which was erected in 1791. He died in 
Kingston on 15th August, 1811, and was succeeded 
as Archdeacon by Dr. John Strachan, afterwards 

n f\ j * rf* i TJ_ i j_ f rCE\ . JOHN oTUAHT. 

first Bishop of Toronto. It is somewhat of a co- 
incidence that Bishops Strachan and Bethune, like Archdeacon 
Stuart, were sons of parents who belonged to the Church of Scotland. 
Archdeacon Stuart's son, Rev. George O'Kill Stuart, was born at 
Fort Hunter in 1776; ordained in 1800 by the Bishop of Quebec, 
and in 1801 was sent as a missionary to York, where he became first 
rector of the Anglican church, now St. James Cathedral, Toronto. He 
was appointed rector at Kingston in 1812, was the Bishop of Quebec's 



"official" in Upper Canada and later Archdeacon of York, and was 
the first Dean of the See of Ontario. He died in 1862. 

Mon. 16th We sailed half a league this evening in a pretty boat of 
Mr. Clark's, attended by music, to Garden Island, opposite Kingston. 

NOTE. Garden Island is immediately west of Wolfe Island, 
whose western portion is opposite Kingston. In French maps it is 
called "He aux Forets." 

Wed. 18th We sailed towards the mills. 

NOTE. The grist mills, "Kingston Mills," were in 1782-3 built by 
Mr. Robert Clarke for the Government, some five miles back from 
Kingston, at the site of the first lock of the Rideau Canal, where 
a waterfall furnishes the only water power in this vicinity. 

Thurs. 19th The Governor went to-day to see Carleton Island, nearly 
opposite the shore from Kingston, where there were extensive fortifica- 
tions, now dismantled. The island was afterwards discovered to be 
within American territory. Returned at six with wild raspberries, which 
were exceedingly fine. Carleton Island abounds with them and straw- 
berries and plums, while the air is esteemed so healthy that the people go 
there to get rid of the ague, a complaint which is very prevalent in this 
province. The flowering raspberry grows wild here, and bears a very 
insipid, flat fruit. Mr. Fisher, of the Engineers, is here on his way to 
Quebec from Niagara. He showed us some beautiful sketches he has 
taken of the Falls of Niagara. 

NOTE. Carleton Island lies near Wolfe Island, opposite King- 
ston, close to the south shore of the St. Lawrence. 

Sat. 21st There are no rides about Kingston, or any pleasant walks 
that we 'have met with. Sailing is, therefore, our only amusement. To-day 
we were prevented by rain from going to the mills on the Cataraqui. It is 
in the interest of the people here to have this place considered as the seat 
of Government. Therefore they all dissuade the Governor from going to 
Niagara, and represent the want of provisions, houses, etc., at that place, 
as well as the certainty of having the ague. However, he has determined 
to sail for Niagara to-morrow. 

Mon. 23rd At eight this morning we went on board the "Onondaga" 
(Commodore Beaton, the naval officer who has charge of the armed 
vessels on Lake Ontario. We sailed with a light wind. A calm soon 
succeeded, and we anchored seven miles from Kingston. The men who 
navigate the ships on this lake have little nautical knowledge, and never 
keep a log book. This afternoon we were near aground. The lake is 
beautifully transparent. We saw the bottom very plainly. 

Tues. 24th A wet day and a foul wind. I played at chess or at cards 
all the day. Our Devonshire steward was surprised to find in the ship's 
steward an acquaintance, Charles Trump, who had left Kentisbeare, the 
village six miles west from Wolford, 16 years ago. 

Wed. 25th A clear, cold day; made little way a head wind. I saw 
the spray of the Falls of Niagara rising like a cloud. It is 40 miles 



Thursday, the twenty-sixth of July, 1792, was a day that created 
no little stir in the little hamlet at the mouth of the Niagara River, 
which was to become the home, at least for a few years, of the first 
Governor of Upper Canada. 

Navy Hall had not any charms from an architectural standpoint. 
It was about as primitive in construction as the log cabin of the 
pioneers. Still, the group of four frame buildings that Mrs. Simcoe 
closely scanned as the "Onondaga" came up the river, had at least 
the merit of being well built in every detail. 

The best picture extant of Navy Hall is that of 1792 made by 
Mrs. Simcoe, the original of which is now in the Royal Library in the 
British Museum. There is another view, a water-color, made by 
Mrs. Simcoe, 13th Setember, 1794, on board the sloop-of-war 
"Mississaga," while lying just outside the mouth of the Niagara 

The group of buildings known as Navy Hall stood on the brink 
of the river, just below Fort George, the fortification commenced in 
1796, whose guns commanded the old French fort on the opposite 
side of the river. The buildings were four in number, as shown in 
maps and drawings of 1792-6-9, and also on a map made by Sur- 
veyor-General Chewett in 1804. One building only is shown in the 
plans of 1817-19-35. There is only one map, dated 1851, on which it 
is not called Navy Hall. The old building shown in the picture was 
removed about 1862 from its original site to its present location. 
When the terminus of the Southern Railway, now the Michigan 
Central, was to be changed it was found that the tracks would go 
partly through the oak grove and this old building. In order to save 
the relic of olden time, permission was obtained from the Govern- 
ment to remove the building. It was then removed back into the 
enclosure of Fort George near the old Ferry House. In doing so the 
building was placed parallel with the river instead of an end slanting 
to it. An old lady, a Mrs. Quade, who was born at Niagara in 1804, 
and lived there till 1829, in visiting the town in later years said to 
her children as they passed the old building, "There is the old Par- 
liament House," so that there seems to be no doubt that the building 
is one of the four buildings comprising Navy Hall in 1792-6. 

The principal building, longer than the others, stood nearly at 
right angles to the river, while the remaining three were to the 
northwest and parallel to the river. These buildings were built for 
the use of the commanders of the sloops-of-war on Lake Ontario, 
not so much for residential purposes as for the housing of stores to 



supply the vessels when cruising on the western part of the lake. 
The principal supplies for these vessels were, however, kept at 
Kingston, the colonial naval centre in early days. 

The site is fixed beyond doubt by the report of Captain Gother 
Mann of the Eoyal Engineers, who on 22nd September, 1789, after 
reporting as to the condition of Fort Niagara on what is now the 
American side of the river stated that "a survey of the heights also, 
on the opposite side of the river about Navy Hall, has been made 
with a view to ascertain' the best system of fortifying the same so as 
to establish a permanent post there, and which might also counteract 
the designs of an enemy in his attack on the Fort of Niagara." 
Gother Mann further reported on 1st March, 1790, that "the ground 
above Navy Hall, if chosen for a principal post, will admit a wall 
of good capacity, but, as it will be retired from the river, there must 
be subordinate batteries on the banks thereof to command the passage ; 


(From a Drawing [1887] in the J. Rois Robertson collection.) 

it will be about sixteen hundred yards distant from the Fort at Niag- 
ara, which, though within the distance of annoying an enemy, could 
not prevent his carrying on operations against the Fort." The result 
of this recommendation was the erection of Fort George, the earth- 
works of which are still standing and have received but little care 
from the Dominion Government. 

The buildings of Navy Hall did not favorably impress the Duke 
de -la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt during his visit to Niagara in 1795. 
In his writings he refers to the Governor's residence, where he was 
a guest for some time, as a "small, miserable wooden house, which 
was formerly occupied by the commissaries." There seems to be no 
doubt that all the buildings comprising Navy Hall except one which 
is still standing, .with alas, part of the roof fallen in, were burnt 
by the Americans in 1813. 



Thurs. 26th July At nine this morning we anchored at Navy Hall, 
opposite the garrison of Niagara, which commands the mouth of the 
river. Navy Hall is a house built by the Naval Commanders on this lake 
for their reception when here. It is now undergoing a thorough repair for 
our occupation, but is still so unfinished that the Governor has ordered 
three marquees to be pitched for us on the hill above the house, which is 
very dry ground and rises beautifully, in parts covered with oak bushes. 

A fine turf leads on to woods, through which runs a very good road 
leading to the Falls. The side of our hill is terminated by a very steep 
bank covered with wood, a hundred feet in height in some places, at the 
bottom of which runs the Niagara River. Our marquees command a 
beautiful view of the river and the garrison on the opposite side, which, 
from its being situated on the point, has a fine effect, and the poorness of 
the building is not remarked at this distance, from whence a fine picture 
might be made. 

The Queen's Rangers are encamped within half a mile behind us. 
In clear weather the north shore of Lake Ontario may be discerned. The 
trees which abound here are oak, chestnut, ash, maple, hickory, black 

NOTE. Here Fort George stands. Below, the path slopes from 
Fort George to the river. The part "covered with oak bushes" is 
now (1911) called Paradise Grove. The last troops to occupy Fort 
George were the Eoyal Canadian Bifles, about 1856. 

Sun. 29th There is no church here, but a room has been built for a 
Freemasons' Lodge, where divine service is performed. 

NOTE. There has, for many years past, been a difference in 
opinion as to the exact site of the building in Niagara occupied by 
the Masonic Lodge in 1792-3. It is contended by some that on the 
northwest corner of King and Prideaux Streets, a tavern was built, 
and next to it the Freemasons' Hall. This is borne out by the fact 
that the Land Board of Niagara in 1791 gave permission to erect 
a tavern at the east corner of the town, near the river, and a Masonic 
Lodge next to it. On the other hand however, in the Crown Lands 
Department in a list of the lots of 1795, lot 33 is marked "The Lodge" 
and in another document lot 33 (northwest corner of King and 
Prideaux Streets) is marked "Freemasons' Lodge." The site of the 
present lodge is one block from the first lodge, and it might be 
that although the Land Board gave permission to build, the hall 
may not have been erected there. It is practically an unsolved mys- 
tery where the lodge met the first two years, but certain it is that 
in 1792 there was a Freemasons' Lodge, and both tradition and 
the two documents mentioned point to the north side of the lower 
end of King Street as the place of meeting. 

Mo/i. 30th At eight this morning we set off in caliches to go to the 
Falls, fourteen miles from hence. We stopped and breakfasted at Mr. 
Hamilton's, a merchant who lives two miles from here at the landing 
(Queenstown), where the cargoes going to Detroit are landed and sent by 
land eleven miles to Fort Chippawa. 

We had a delightful drive through the woods on the bank of the 
river, which is exceedingly high the whole way. As we approached the 
landing I was struck with the similarity between these hills and the 
banks and those of the River Wye about Symond's Yat (the name of a 



rising ground or eminence overlooking the Wye), and the lime rock 
near Whitchurch, both in Herefordshire, which differs very little, except 
in the superior width and clearness of the Niagara River. 

NOTE. Honorable Robert Hamilton, son of Rev. John Hamilton, 
was the Deputy Provincial Grand Master of the First Provincial 
Grand Lodge of Freemasons, under Mr. William Jarvis. He was a 
merchant at Niagara, a member of the Land Board in 1791 at that 
place, a member of the first Executive Council of the civil govern- 
ment in 1792, and a man prominent in 
affairs in that part of Upper Canada. He was 
also the first judge of the district of Nassau. 
Lord Dorchester formed western Canada into four 
districts, of which one was Nassau, and it was 
located between the river Trent on the east and 
I ^ny^-j I, a line extending from Long Point north from the 
>^Bdi| western boundary, which included the Niagara 
i[ '", ^n ^m\ peninsula. 

* ^ In 1797, the lodges at Niagara elected Hamil- 

ton as Provincial Grand Master in the place of 
Mr. William Jarvis, although the records after 
that date give the name of the latter officer 
as continuing in the office to which he had been appointed. 
Mr. Simon McGillivray, however, in a letter which he wrote 
to the Grand Master of England, in 1822, states that after Mr. 
Jarvis removed to York "the lodges at Niagara held a meeting 
and elected the late Robert Hamilton Provincial Grand Master," 
but, he added, "Jarvis retained his warrant." It is possible that the 
lodges did this in 1797 and at a subsequent meeting in 1799-1800 
re-elected Jarvis, for in a circular, dated 29th March, 1803, "R. W. 
Bro. William Jarvis, Esq., G. Master," is given. 

During the American revolution, Mr. Hamilton, in partnership 
with Mr. (afterwards Hon.) Richard Cartwright, established a store 
on Carleton Island, near the military post which was known as Fort 
Haldimand, and carried on an extensive trade with the Indians. 
Soon after the close of the war Mr. Hamilton removed to Queenston, 
and was appointed one of the local judges, having Lieutenant-Colonel 
John Butler as his colleague on the bench. 

Captain Patrick Campbell, who visited Niagara in December, 
1790, says: 

"Mr. Robert Hamilton, a gentleman of the first rank and property 
in the neighbourhood, and one of the Governor's Council, came also to 
wait on me and invite me to his house, an honour I readily embraced. 
He and Mrs. Hamilton were so very obliging as to go along with me in 
their oak sled to see the Grand Falls of Niagara." 

Hamilton built a large stone residence at Queenston, a brewery 
and a warehouse. In 1792 he was appointed a member of the Legis- 
lative Council for the new Province of Upper Canada, an office he 
retained until his death. For some time he distinguished himself 
in connection with Mr. Cartwright, his old partner, also a member, 



by opposing Government measures, thereby incurring Lieutenant- 
Governor Simcoe's lively displeasure. In one of the Governor's des- 
patches he denounces Hamilton as an " avowed republican," but when 
it was hinted that certain privileges would be taken away from them 
the opposition ceased. Governor Simcoe acknowledged that he had 
received much valuable information from Mr. Hamilton respecting 
.the commerce of the country and particularly the Indian trade of the 
far West. 

Mr. Hamilton married about 1786, Catherine (Askin) Robertson, 
widow of John Robertson. There were five children by this marriage; 
Robert, of Queenston; (Hon.) George, who in 1812 moved to Bur- 
lington Bay, where he became the founder of the city of Hamilton ; 
James, of London; Alexander and Samuel. Hamilton took as his 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

second wife Mary (Herkimer) McLean, widow of Neil McLean, and 
had issue, Joseph, Peter Hunter and (Hon.) John, of Kingston, one 
of whose sons, Clark Hamilton, was formerly collector of the port of 
Kingston ; while another was the late Judge J. M. Hamilton, County 
Judge of Halton. 

Mon. 30th Mr. Hamilton has a very good stone house, the back 
rooms overlooking on the river. A gallery, the length of the house, is A 
delightful covered walk, both below and above, in all weather. After an 
excellent breakfast we ascended an exceedingly steep road to the top of 
the mountain, which commands a fine view of the country as far as the 
garrison of Niagara and across the lake. From hence the road is entirely 
flat to the Falls, of which I did not hear the sound until within a mile of 



them. They are heard at Navy Hall before the rain when the wind is 
easterly, though the Falls are to the S.W. of Niagara. The fall is said 
to be but 170 feet in height. The river previously rushes in the most 
rapid manner on a declivity for three miles, and those rapids are a fine 
sight. The fall itself is the grandest sight imaginable from the immense 
width of waters and the circular form of the grand fall, to the left of 
which is an island, between it and the Montmorency Fall, so called from 
being near the size of the fall of that name near Quebec. A few rocks 
separate this from Fort Schlosser Fall, on the American side of the river, 
which, passing over a straight ledge of rock, has not the beauty of the 
circular form or its green colour, the whole centre of the circular fall 
being of the brightest green, and below it is frequently seen a rainbow. 

NOTE. By the interposition of two islands the river Niagara is 
separated into three falls, that of the Great Horseshoe on the west 
or British side, and those of Fort Schlosser and Montmorency on the 
eastern or American side. The three falls, with the islands, describe 
a crescent. 

Mon. 30th I descended an exceedingly steep hill to get to the Table 
Rock, from whence the view of the Falls is tremendously fine. Men some- 
times descend the rocks below this projecting point, but it is attended 
with great difficulty and perhaps little picturesque advantage. The 
prodigious spray which arises from the foam at the bottom of the fall 
adds grandeur to the scene, which is wonderfully fine, and after the eye 
becomes more familiar with the objects I think the pleasure will be greater 
in dwelling upon them. After taking some refreshment on Table Rock, 
we went three miles to Chippawa Fort, admiring the rapids all the way. 
The Chippawa River, which falls here into the St. Lawrence, is a dull, 
muddy river running through a flat, swampy country. 

NOTE. The St. Lawrence Eiver may be said to rise at the source 
of the St. Louis, which flows into Lake Superior. It receives different 
names in different parts of its course. Between Lake Superior and 
Huron it is called the St. Mary; between Lake Huron and Erie, the 
St. Clair and Detroit ; between Lake Ontario and Erie, the Niagara ; 
and between Lake Ontario and the ocean it takes the name of St. 
Lawrence. The part of the river below Kingston is called some- 
times "The Lake of the Thousand Islands." 

People cross from Chippawa to Fort Schlosser, but great caution 
is necessary, the current is so extremely strong, and if they did not make 
exactly the mouth of the Chippawa the force of the water below it would 
inevitably carry them down the Falls without redress. Eight soldiers, 
who were intoxicated, met with this accident in crossing the river some 
years since. Their bodies were taken up entire some distance below the 
Falls. An Indian was asleep in his canoe near Fort Schlosser. The canoe 
was tied to a tree; some person cut the rope; he did not wake until the 
canoe had got into the strong current. He found all his endeavours to 
paddle ineffectual, and was seen to lay himself down, resigning himself to 
his fate, and was soon carried down the Fall. 

In the evening we returned to Mr. Hamilton's and slept there. I 
suffered exquisite pain all the day from a mosquito bite, which the extreme 
heat increased, and at night my sleeve was obliged to be cut open. I did 
not see any rattlesnakes, though many ladies are afraid to go to the Table 
Rock, as it is said there are many of these snakes near it. There are 
crayfish in very small pools of water. Mr. McDonnell said that pounded 
crayfish applied to the wound was a cure for the bite of a rattlesnake. 

Tues. 31st Returned to dine in our marquee. Information is received 
from Prince Edward that he will be here the 20th of August, which will 



prevent our going to Detroit immediately, as the Governor had intended. 
Here are numbers of winged grasshoppers. They are hard, scaly and 
ugly as rhinoceros, and the colour of dead leaves. The high grounds 
above Navy Hall are so covered with them that the whole field appears 
in motion. 

Wed. Aug. 1st We dined with Major and Mrs. Smith (the Major was 
afterwards the Colonel of the regiment). He is in the 5th Regt, and 
commands the garrison. Lt. Smith, his son, is married to a beautiful 
Irish woman. A great many officers of the 5th are married. Though the 
buildings look so well from the other side, I found the quarters very 

Mrs. Smith has two tame racoons. They resemble a fox, are exceed- 
ingly fat animals, with bushy tails. It is remarkable that they have a 
joint in the nose. When they eat they use their fore feet, as monkeys do. 
I also saw a flying squirrel, which I did not admire. Its tail was like a 
rat's, and the eyes very large. I thought the ground squirrel much prettier. 
The black squirrel is large and quite black. It is as good to eat as a 
young rabbit. 

NOTE. Major John Smith, afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the 
Fifth Foot, was commandant of the fortress of Niagara, where he died 
in 1795. His son, Lieutenant Smith, was subsequently Sir D. W. 
Smith, Surveyor-General, Upper Canada. Mrs. Simcoe speaks of 
Lieutenant Smith being married "to a beautiful Irish woman," who 
was his first wife, Anne, daughter of John O'Reilly, Ballykilchrist, 
County Longford, Ireland. The 5th Regiment of Foot or Northum- 
berland Fusiliers, of which Lieutenant-Colonel Smith was in com- 
mand at Niagara from 1792 until his death, was formed in 
1674, fought in Flanders and also in the war of the American Revolu- 
tion. In 1774 the regiment landed in Boston; in 1778 was in 
various parts of the West Indies and returned to England in 1781. 
In 1787 the regiment embarked for Canada and in 1790 was quar- 
tered at Detroit, whence it was removed in June, 1792, to Niagara. 
It was here reviewed by H.R.H. the Duke of Kent and General 
Simcoe, who reported to the commander-in-chief that it was the 
"most fit for actual service." The regiment remained at Niagara 
till that fort was given up to the Americans in 1796, when it was 
ordered to Quebec. In 1797 it returned to England. 

Fri. 3rd The Governor set out this evening to sleep at the Landing 
(Queenstown), intending to go to-morrow to Fort Erie, thirty miles. Mr. 
Talbot (Gov. Simcoe's private secretary) drove me to the Landing, and we 
returned to supper at Navy Hall. We saw a fine bald eagle on the wing. 

Sat. 4th The Governor returned to dinner quite unexpectedly, having 
heard that the vessels he meant to have seen had sailed from Fort Erie 
to Detroit. Mrs. Macaulay drank tea with me. The weather is so exceed- 
ingly hot that I am quite oppressed by it, and unable to employ myself. 
I am sorry I have not a thermometer to ascertain the degree of heat. We 
have a very large bower, composed of oak boughs, in which we dine, it 
being greatly cooler than a tent. We like this place much better than 
Kingston. Mrs. Hamilton and her sister, Miss Askin, daughters of Coll. 
John Askin, a wealthy merchant of Detroit, dined with us. They are 
French women from Detroit. 

NOTE. John Askin, or Erskine, a kinsman of John Erskine, 
Earl of Mar, who headed the revolt in 1715 in favor of the Old Pre- 


tender, emigrated to America about 1759 and was a merchant at 
Albany. About 1762-3, he with others, came with supplies to the 
relief of the British besieged by Pontiac at Detroit. In 1764, he 
went as King's Commissary to Michillimackinac and in 1780 returned 
to Detroit to engage in trade. In 1787 Askin was captain of militia 
for Detroit, in 1796 was lieutenant-colonel of militia for the Wes- 
tern District, and in 1801, was colonel in the same corps. He was 
also one of the magistrates of the District. On the evacuation of 
Detroit by the British in 1796 he came to Canada. 
Colonel Askin married first a French lady whose 
name cannot be ascertained and by her had three 
children, John, Catherine (Robertson) who be- 
came the wife of Honorable Robert B. Hamilton, 
of Niagara, and Madeleine, who married Dr. 
Richardson, of the Queen's Rangers. The chil- 
dren by his second wife, Marie Archange Barthe, 
were Therese, who married Colonel Thomas Mc- 
Kee, son of Colonel Alexander McKee, Deputy 
Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs; Ar- 
c change, married Colonel Meredith, of the Royal 

Artillery, afterwards commandant at Halifax; 
Adelaide, married Colonel Elijah Brush, of the Michigan Militia; 
Charles, captain in Colonel Clark's Lincoln Militia, married Monique 
Jacobs; James, colonel of militia; Alexander, artillery driver, 1812- 
15; Eleanor, married Richard Pattison, of Sandwich, captain of 
militia. A. H. Askin, of "Strabane," near Walkerville, is a son of 
Charles; J. "Wallace Askin, of Sandwich, is a grandson of James, 
while William Johnson McKee, of Windsor, is a great-grandson of 
Therese Askin. 

Mon. 6th The Queen's Rangers are encamped at the Landing, and 
are employed in building huts near the river to live in next winter. It is 
a very picturesque place. The Governor crossed the water from thence, 
and ascended a very steep road to see the remains of the French fort at 

From thence there is a fine view towards the head of Lake Ontario, 
50 miles distant. Near this fort are tumuli, or earth mounds, where 
bones have been dug up, and it is supposed to have been an Indian bury- 
ing place. I received some shaddocks, a species of orange, from the West 
Indies, which I considered an excellent fruit. 

NOTE. The original corps known as "Rogers' Rangers" was 
raised in Connecticut and the vicinity of New York by Colonel 
Robert Rogers, under whom it served in the war with the French. 
Their strength was at one time 400, all Americans and all Loyalists. 
In 1776 Rogers was appointed Governor of Michillimackinac. He 
was succeeded in his command of the Rangers by Colonel French 
and afterwards Major Weymess, whom Major Simcoe succeeded. The 
latter reorganized the corps as the Queen's Rangers and it fought 
under him in the war of the American Revolution. It was dis- 
banded in 1782. The Queen's Rangers of Niagara history were a 



different body. They were raised in Canada from old soldiers of 
the regular regiments, strengthened by a detachment of ex-soldiers 
from English regiments, which was drafted and came out to Canada 
with William Jarvis, the first Provincial Secretary, in 1792. They 
were camped at Queenstown in 1792 and in August of 1793 the 
two divisions of the regiment were stationed at York, now Toronto. 
The British War Office ordered the disbandment of the regiment in 
1802. There was a Masonic Lodge in this regiment, known as No. 
3 on the Provincial Masonic Register. Provincial Secretary Jarvis, 
who was the Provincial Grand Master for Upper Canada, issued a 
warrant establishing this lodge in 1793. It ceased work in 1802 at 
the time the regiment was disbanded. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simeoe.) 

Fri. 17th I desired to drive out last evening, though everybody fore- 
told an approaching thunderstorm, which indeed came on with great 
violence when we were half way to the Landing. I feared that the lightning 
would make the horse run away, but he only started at every flash. The 
recollection that it was my own determination brought me into danger was 
very unpleasant. However, we got back safe and in time to save the 
marquees from being blown down. Mr. Grey's and Mr. Talbot's were over- 
set, but the Governor preserved ours by having the cords held until the 
violence of the storm was over. The tents were so near the river that we 
were afraid they would be blown into it. 

We were iso cold and wet we were glad to drink tea. It was quite 
dark, and too windy to allow of our burning candles, and when the forked 
flashes of lightning enlightened the air I was able to drink tea. I wrapped 
myself up in two or three great-coats, and intended, if the tent was blown 
down, to take shelter under the great dinner table. The rain and wind 
did not cease for two hours, and we had no means of drying our clothes 
and were obliged to sleep in a wet tent. However, we have not caught 



1 received a very pretty set of Nankeen china from England to-day, 
and in an hour after it was unpacked the temporary kitchen (an arbour 
of oak boughs) took fire, and in the hurry of moving the china it was 
almost all broken. Luckily the weather was calm, or the tents might 
have taken fire. We are in daily expectation of the Prince. The canvas 
houses are not arrived or Navy Hall finished, and the dilemma has been 
whether to give him the marquees for his residence or the damp house. 
We have decided to take the latter ourselves, so here we came in a cold, 
blowing, dismal night. 

I sat by myself in a miserable, unfinished, damp room, looking on 
the lake, where it blew quite a gale, the " Bear," a gunboat, tossing about 
terribly, and not a cheerful thought passing through my mind, when 1 
had the happiness of receiving a letter from you, which raised my spirits, 
though for some hours after that pleasure I felt more dejected than at all 
other times, from the recollection of absence from my friends. 

The " Bear," a Government sloop, is arrived from Irondiquet Bay 
and the Genesee River, both in New York State, and brought two families 
from Carolina to settle in this province. They have had a most terrible 
passage, being obliged to stay under the hatchway almost all the time. 

Sat. 18th We crossed the river; from a green bank had a very pretty 
view of Navy Hall. 

Mon. 20th Cold weather. We walked. 

Tues. 21st Very cold; we walked by the side of the lake, which is 
quite like a sea beach, only the marine smell is wanting. 

Tues. Sept. 18th Prince Edward came here the 21st of August. He 
went to the Fort at Niagara, and when a salute was fired the Governor 
was standing very near the cannon, and from that moment was seized 
with so violent a pain in his head that he was unable to see the Prince 
after that day, and kept his room for a fortnight. He had a gouty pain in 
his hand before, and it is supposed the shock of the cannon firing so 
immediately above him fixed the disorder in his head. He is now 
recovered, and has a pain in his foot, which perhaps would more effectu- 
ally relieve his head if it were more violent. 

Lord Garlies and Capt. Markham stayed here a week, but the Governor 
was not well enough to see them more than once. 

NOTE. Prince Edward, afterwards Duke of Kent, arrived at 
Navy Hall to visit General Simcoe, August 21, 1792. On the 23rd 
he went to Fort Niagara to review the troops, and 
on the 26th he sailed for Kingston. 

George, Viscount Garlies, was the eldest son 
of the 7th Earl of Galloway. He was in com- 
mand of the "Winchelsea" with Sir John Jervis' 
fleet in the West Indies and was mentioned for 
distinguished conduct. He became 8th Earl in 
November, 1806. He died 27th March, 1834, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son Eandolph. 

John Markham, second son of William, Arch- 
bishop of York, was in command of the "Blonde" 
with Jervis' West Indian fleet and was mentioned 
VISCOUNT GARLIES in ^patc* 168 31st April, 1794, for distinguished 
conduct in the attack on St. Pierre. 

Wed. 19th I send you May apple seeds. I think it is the prettiest 
plant I have seen; the leaves extremely large, of a bright green; the 
flower consists of five white petals of the texture of orange flowers, but 
three times larger; ten yellow chives round a large seed vessel, which 



becomes a fruit of the colour and near the size of a magnum bonum plum, 
the seeds resembling a melon. The flower is on a short foot stalk, one or 
two sitting between the leaves. They grow near the roots of old trees in 
good land. The fruit is ripe in August. Manitou means the " Evil Spirit " 
or "Devil" in the Iroquois language; Niche is "friend," and sago "How- 
do-you-do?" These are the Indian words I have learnt. 

Sun. Nov. 4th We have had a great many whitefish. They are caught 
here from October to April. In summer they go into deeper water. They 
are most exquisitely good. We all think them better than any other fresh 
or salt water fish; they are so rich that sauce is seldom eaten with them, 
but it is a richness that never tires, it is of so delicate a kind. They are 
usually boiled, or set before the fire in a pan with a few spoonfuls of 
water and an anchovy, which is a very good way of dressing them. The 
sturgeon are about six feet long. Those that are caught here are infinitely 
better than those which go to the sea; cooks who know how to dress 
parts of them, cutting away all that is oily and strong, make excellent 
dishes from sturgeon, such as mock turtle soup, veal cutlets, etc., and it 
is very good roasted with bread crumbs. The 5th Regt. have caught 100 
sturgeon and 600 whitefish in a day in nets. 

A great many settlers come daily from the United States, some even 
from the Carolinas, about 2,0'00 miles. Five or six hundred miles is no 
more considered by an American than moving to the next parish is by an 
Englishman. Capt. Duncan has sent me the horse I rode to Mr. Frazier's. 
Mr. Talbot went with Coll. Butler to distribute presents to the Indians 
at Buffalo Creek, near Buffalo. He bought a very pretty fawn skin of one 
of them for me, and I made it into a tippet. He also brought me a cake 
of dried hurtleberries made by the Indians, which was like Irwin's patent 
black currant lozenges, but tastes of smoke. 

The Indians make very long speeches at their councils. One of them, 
named Cowkiller, spoke for five hours in a late debate between them and 
the people of the United States. 

I have seen some translations of speeches, full of well-expressed, fine 
sentiments, marking their reliance on the Great Spirit. They appear to 
have great energy and simplicity in their speeches. 

NOTE. Buffalo Creek is south of Buffalo City, near New Am- 
sterdam, and four miles above Fort Schlosser. 

Cowkiller was a Seneca Chief, and a speaker at a council meeting 
February 7th, 1794, at Buffalo Creek. 

iMon. Nov. 5th The ships sail for Kingston this week, and remain 
there closed up by the ice in that harbour until April. The Governor will 
now have less to write, and, I hope, fewer headaches. The winter express 
indeed will afford an opportunity of sending some despatches. It arrives 
here from Quebec late in January, and after going to Detroit returns here; 
it was established for the use of the merchants, and travels on snowshoes, 
coming by way of Fort Oswego. Capt. Stevenson has gone to England, 
and Mr. Littlehales to Philadelphia, to see Mr. Hammond, the British 
Ambassador to the United States. 

NOTE. George Hammond was sent in 1791 by Lord Grenville, 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs, to Philadelphia to act as Minister 
plenipotentiary to the United States. Although only twenty-eight, 
Hammond was the first British minister accredited to the United 
States. Thomas Jefferson, the American Secretary of State, re- 
garded his arrival as a "friendly movement." The conflicting claims 
of the two countries in giving effect to the Treaty of 1783 involved 



Jefferson and Hammond in very serious controversy. In 1795 
Hammond left America to become Under-Secretary at the Foreign 
Office in London. 

Tues. Nov. 6th I have met with a beautiful blue flower near the 
river. The edges of the petal are finely sawed. The cardinal flower, which 
grows in the wettest and most shady places, is a beautiful colour. I 
am told the Indians use the roots medicinally. 

I send you some seeds of the wild asparagus. It may be eaten when 
very young; afterwards it becomes poisonous. The milky cotton in the 
seed vessel is very pretty, and makes excellent pillows and beds. I hope 
you will ; grow enough to stuff a muff. I do not know how to describe the 
flower, it is so unlike anything I ever saw. 

Mon. 26th We have had very little snow, which is melted; the 
weather is again as the autumn, has continued very mild and pleasant. 
Mr. Bouchette has surveyed Toronto Harbour. It is 35 miles from hence 
across the lake. 

NOTE. Commodore Jean Bouchette was horn at Quebec on the 
5th July, 1736. He was the son of Marc Bouchette, who held a Gov- 
ernment appointment under the French regime. The family is of 
Breton extraction, being, according to tradition, descended from 
Jean Bouchet, who wrote chronicles at the time of Joan of Arc. 
When Sir G-uy Garleton was forced by the Americans to withdraw 
from Montreal in 1775, Bouchette took the 'Governor-General and 
two aides, all disguised as peasants, in an open boat to Quebec. A 
flotilla of eleven boats was captured by .the enemy. 

In 1783, Bouchette was placed in command on Lake Ontario and 
established the Naval Docks at Kingston. He held this position until 
his death in 1804. There appears to have been some difference of 
opinion between General Simcoe and Commodore Bouchette as to 
the respective merits of Toronto and Kingston as the naval base 
on Lake Ontario, the latter declaring that as the 
American base was at Sackett's Harbour, the 
British forces should be concentrated at Kingston. 
Bouchette married in 1772 Angelique Duhamel. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Bouchette, son of 
the Commodore, began his career in the provincial 
navy under his father. He made the first survey 
of the harbor of Toronto in May, 1793, received 
his appointment as second lieutenant in the fol- 
lowing year, serving in the navy until 1796. In 
1797, he commanded an armed row-galley which 
cruised between Montreal and Quebec. His 
reports seem to have led to the arrest of Colonel 
McLean, afterwards executed as a spy. He took 
a military course in 1800. In 1804, he was 
appointed Surveyor-General of Lower Canada, raised a regiment, 
Quebec Volunteers, in 1812, and in 1813 was appointed lieutenant- 
colonel and transferred to staff and intelligence service. In August, 
1814, Bouchette left for England, and while there was nominated 



Surveyor-General under the several articles of the Treaty of Ghent, 
for establishing the boundary between the United States and His 
Majesty's possessions in America. He published maps of Canada and 
two works "Topography of Lower Canada," in one volume, 8vo, 
London, 1815; and "Topography of the British Dominions in North 
America," 3 volumes, 4to, London, 1831-2. He married Adelaide, 
daughter of Charles Chaboillez of the North- West Company, and had 
three sons, Joseph, Deputy-Surveyor-General; Frank, 68th Light 
Infantry, and Robert Shore Milnes, Commissioner of Customs until 
1875. The surviving representatives of the family in Canada are 
Errol Bouchette, F.R.S.C., of Ottawa, a writer on economics and 
sociology, and Robert Shore Milnes Bouchette of Montreal. 

Wed. 28th Went to the Fort this morning. Mrs. Macaulay drank 
tea with me, and I had a party at whist in the evening. The partition 
was put in the canvas houses to-day, by which means I have a bedroom 
in it as well as a sitting-room. These rooms are very comfortable, about 
thirty feet long. The grates did not answer for burning, and I have had 
a stove placed instead, though as yet a fire has not been wanted. The 
weather is so mild that we have walked in the garden from eight till nine 
in the moonlight these last two evenings. 

Mon. 3rd Dec. The Governor went to the Landing, and I went to 
the Fort to see Capt. Darling's stuffed birds. The most beautiful of 
them he called a meadow lark, the size of a blackbird, the colours 
the richest yellow, shaded to orange intermixed with black; the 
Recollect, a light brown with a tuft on its head and the tips of the 
wings scarlet, like sealing wax; a blackbird with scarlet on the wings 
they abound here in swamps; a scarlet bird called a King bird, the size of 
a small thrush; a bird like a canary bird, but the colours much brighter; 
a grand Due Owl. Among the animals there was a skunk like a pole- 
cat, with black and white marks. 

NOTE. Henry Darling was ensign in the 5th Regiment in 1780. 
In April, 1783, he had rank as lieutenant in the army, and in the 
regiment the following September. He eventually became General. 
In September, 1793, he, with Lieutenant Pilkington of the Royal 
Engineers, Lieutenant Givins of the Queen's Rangers, and Mr. Alex- 
ander Aitkin, Deputy Provincial Surveyor, accompanied Governor 
Simcoe to Matchedash Bay. 

iSun. 9th Capt. Brant (Thayendanegea), Chief of the Six Nations 
Indians, dined here. He has a countenance expressive of art or cunning. 
He wore an English coat, with a handsome crimson silk blanket, lined 
with black and trimmed with gold fringe, and wore a fur cap; round his 
neck he had a string of plaited sweet hay. It is a kind of grass which 
never loses its pleasant scent. The Indians are very fond of it. Its smell 
is like the Tonquin or Asiatic Bean. 

NOTE. Joseph Brant's Indian name Thayendanegea denotes 
strength and is translated "Two sticks of wood bound together." He 
was born on the banks of the Ohio in 1742, where his parents were 
engaged in a hunting expedition. The home of the family was at 
Canajoharie Castle, the central of the three castles of the Mohawk? 
in their native Mohawk valley. Brant's father, who was a full- 
blooded Mohawk of the Wolf tribe, died when the lad was quite 




young. The widow married a second time an Indian whose Christian 
name was Barnet, hence the- contraction Brant. Joseph was educated 
at "Moor Charity School" in Lebanon, Connecti- 
cut. He accompanied Sir William Johnson with 
the army during several expeditions against the 
French, and took part in many of the encounters 
between the revolutionists and the Indian tribes. 
His allegiance to Britain so provoked the Ameri- 
cans that the valley of the Mohawks, the original 
home of Brant's people, suffered more than any 
other part of the country during the war. 

In 1776 he visited England and was presented 
to the Court. He proudly declined to kiss the 
King's hand, but remarked that he would gladly 
thus salute the Queen. While in England he was 
initiated into Freemasonry in "The Falcon Lodge" 
in Princess St., Leicester Fields, London, and presented by George 
III. with a Masonic apron. 

After the war, he, with a greater part of the Mohawks, and a 
number of Indians from the other five tribes, withdrew to Canada, 
where the Six Nations subsequently received grants of land on the 
Bay of Quinte and the Grand River. Brant had a grant of land near 
Wellington Square, now Burlington, Ontario, where he built a dwell- 
ing long known as Brant House. 

In 1785 through his efforts a wooden church was erected at the 
Mohawk village near Brantford, where was placed the first " church- 
going bell" that ever tolled in Upper Canada. 

In 1791-2, when Governor Simcoe arrived as Lieutenant-Governor 
of Upper Canada, he was the bearer of a letter of introduction to 
Brant from the Duke of 
Northumberland, who 
had been adopted by the 
Mohawks under the In- 
dian name "Thorighwe- 
geri," or the Evergreen 
Brake. This name in- 
volves the very pretty 
conceit that a titled house 
never dies. 

In the years 1791-2 
Brant was energetically 
negotiating for peace be- 
tween the Indian tribes 
and the United States. 
Governor Simcoe on his 

to Detroit in 1793 


(From a Drawing in the J. fioss Robertgon 

way t( 

had a conference with him at the Council House in the Mohawk 
village on the Grand Eiver. An important conference between the 



United States Commissioners and the Indian chief was held at Navy 
Hall, Niagara, and a subsequent conference was held at Detroit. He 
died in Brant House on the 24th November, 1807, aged 64, and his 
remains were interred in a vault on the south side of the Mohawk 
Church on the Grand River. 

It is noteworthy that Brant, although a chief by courtesy and 
ability, and always so called, was not such by descent. 

Mon. 10th The Governor set out to walk to Burlington Bay (now 
Hamilton, Ont), at the head of Lake Ontario, about fifty miles from hence. 

Sat. 15th Mrs. Macaulay gave me an account of a subscription ball 
she was at, which is to be held in the town of Niagara every fortnight 
during the winter. There were fourteen couples, a great display of gauze, 
feathers and velvet, the room lighted by wax candles, and there was a 
supper as well as tea. 

Sun. 16th I sat up all night to read poems of Louis Velez de Guevara, 
the Spanish poet and dramatist (1570-1644), and the history of Prince 
Ctesiphon, and some pages of "Don Quixote"; went to bed in my clothes 
at six, rose at nine, dressed, breakfasted at ten. 

Mon. 17th The Governor returned at five to-day from his walk to 
Burlington Bay. The shores of the lake are, for a great distance, as high 
as the Falls of Niagara, and several small rivers, falling from that height, 
make picturesque scenes. He was delighted with the beauty of the 
country and industry of the inhabitants. He lodged every night in houses, 
where he was accommodated with a clean room and a good fire. 

Sun. 23rd I left Trojan, my hound, in my room while I went to 
dinner, and he tore to pieces my best map of Canada and the United 
States, which I had taken great pains to draw. I must paste it together 
again, but its appearance is spoiled. The Governor made some very pretty 
verses on the occasion. 

Sat. 29th Coll. Simcoe walked to the Landing and Fort Schlosser, 
opposite Chippawa. The weather is so mild we breakfasted with the door 
open into the garden. 

NOTE. Simcoe must have crossed the river at Queenston Landing 
and thence walked to Fort Schlosser on the American shore, about 
a mile and a half above the Falls, almost opposite Chippawa. It was 
built by Colonel Schlosser of the British Army in 1760 to replace 
the second Fort Little Niagara which had been burned by order of 
General Pouchot, who was in command of Fort Niagara in 1759 when 
the British besieged the greater fort. This second Fort Little Nia- 
gara was a short distance down stream from the site of Fort Schlosser. 
Both forte were at the upper end of the portage which ran from 
Lewiston to that point. Queenston and Lewiston were called the 
Lower Landings, and Chippawa and Schlosser the Upper Landings, 
on the Canadian and American shores respectively. In 1792, the 
first Fort Little Niagara (abandoned in 1751) was merely the 
remains of a blockhouse, and the second Fort Little Niagara but a 
memory. Fort Schlosser, an earthwork fort, was at that time 
garrisoned, though it was never a strong fort. The eleven block- 
houses (shown on the map) built by Montresor in 1764, were in 
1792 in a dilapidated condition, and when given up in 1796 at the 
end of the "hold over" period, were almost useless. There are now 
no remains of Fort Schlosser, which stood near the river bank. A 




Showing First Fort, Little 
Niagara at C, built in 

Second Fort, Little Niagara, 
built 1751, and road ex- 
tended to it in 1763. 

L-leven Block Houses built 
along Portage Road in 
1764 by Montressor, and 
new part of Portage Road, 
built in 1764, marked with 
a dotted line from letter 
H to Fort Schlosser. 





h i 










stone chimney, however, which stood a short distance away, still 

exists. It was moved about a hundred feet from its original site 

and re-erected stone by stone in 1896. Mr. Peter A. Porter writes 

that it was, prior to its removal, the oldest remaining bit of perfect 

masonry on the frontier. It 

was attached to the barracks 

which the French built for 

Fort Little Niagara, and was 

later attached to the mess 

house which the British built 

in connection with Fort 

Schlosser. The frame of that 

mess house was prepared at 

Fort Niagara, at the mouth 

of the river, while the French 

were in possession there. It 

was intended for a Catholic 

church but the British took 

the frame to the site of the new 

fort, and put it up there. 

Judge Porter resided in the 

building from 1806 to 1809. 

It was burned in 1813. The 

sketch of the chimney was 

made for Lossing by Colonel Peter A. Porter, of Niagara Falls, N.Y., 

who was killed in the American 'Civil War. He was the father of 

Mr. Peter A. Porter of Niagara Falls, N.Y., who has done much for 

the research of Niagara Falls history. 

The map gives the relative position of the existing forts on the 
American and Canadian sides of the river in 1792 and the sites of 
first and second Forts Little Niagara. 

Mon. 31st A large party at dinner. Mrs. Hamilton, wife of Hon. 
Robert Hamilton, came to see me. We play at whist every evening. 
Coll. Simcoe is so occupied during the day with business that it is a 
relaxation. I have not. lost one rubber since the 28th of November. We 
usually play four every evening. 

Mr. Chief Justice Osgoode is now in his own house, which is so near 
that he always came in an evening to make up our party. Till within 
this fortnight he resided in our house, not having been able to meet with 
any that suited him, and Coll. Simcoe finds him a very agreeable com- 





Shortly after Major Littlehales' return from Philadelphia in 
January, 1793, Governor Simcoe set out for Detroit, walking with 
his party a greater part of the way. This midwinter trip, which to 
a certain extent was one of exploration, occupied about five weeks. 
Not only did the country west of Niagara impress the Governor 
favorably, but he was convinced that an admirable site for Canada's 
capital would be New London, on La Tranche (Thames) River, now 
London, Ontario. 

Sun. 3rd Feb., 1793 Mr. Littlehales returned from Philadelphia. He 
gave the following journal of his travelling to New York: "Crossed the 
water at Queenstown (the Landing), ascended the mountain which is a 
part of the Alleghany. Six miles beyond the Landing passed the Tus- 
carora village, and forty miles farther the Tonawanda village, on the 
Niagara river, which runs into Tonawanda Creek, and is eleven miles 
S.E. of Niagara Falls. The Tonawanda Creek is navigable for batteau 
nearly to its source; from thence through a thick wood, full of swamps 
and creeks, twenty miles to Butter Milk Falls, so named from the richness 
of the land, to the Genesee River, 95 miles from Niagara; thence to Lake 
Cayuga ferry two miles, 150 miles from Niagara, to Onondaga Lake, two 
miles N.W. of Syracuse, 190 miles to Niagara." Mr. Littlehales travelled 
late; after passing Onondaga Lake lost himself in the woods, and was 
thirty hours without provisions. Whitestown, in Oneida County, N.Y., 
near Fort Stanwix, on the Mohawk River, 250 miles from Niagara, has 
6,000 inhabitants. Seven years ago it was a desert. From Whitestown to 
Schenectady, 80 miles; fine meadows called German Flats, chiefly 
inhabited by Germans. Schenectady, N.Y., is a regular-built, considerable 
town, containing 3,000 Dutch. It is 300 miles from Niagara. New York 
is finely situated. Mr. Littlehales stayed there but two days, and pro- 
ceeded to Philadelphia, 600 miles from Niagara. He left it on the 5th of 
January, and on the 9th reached Northumberland, on the forks of the 
Susquehanna. Each town has a thousand inhabitants. Mr. Littlehales 
forded the Tioga seven times, crossed the Conestoga and Conhocton Rivers, 
then went 60 miles over extremely steep ridges of the Alleghany mountains 
to Williamsburgh, in the Genesee, and arrived at Niagara on the 20th, 
which by this route is but 400 miles from Philadelphia. 

NOTE. There are no entries in the diary from 31st December, 
1792, until February 3rd, 1793. On the 16th of January, 1793, 
Katherine, the seventh child and sixth daughter of Mrs. Simcoe, was 
born at Niagara. This little one died in York and was buried in 
the Military Burying Ground west of the old Fort on the 17th April, 
1794. There is no record in York of the birth or baptism of this 
child. There was no parish register in 1793 ; for the first church in 
York^wa's not erected until 1802, when the parish was constituted. 
Religious services at that time were held in the barracks of the Fort. 
There is, however, a record in the parish book of Dunkeswell. which 



o -> 


s 5 

a I 



states that the daughter Katherine was born 16th January, 1793, 
at York and died at "two years of age" and was buried in York on 
the 17th of April, 1795. There is no doubt as to the birth date, but 
the burial date is an error. Katherine was only a year and three 
months old at the time of her death and burial, which took place 
at York on either the 17th or 18th of April, 1794, while Mrs. Simcoe 
was living there. It could not have occurred in April, 1795, for 
Mrs. Simcoe was then at Kingston. 

It is odd that Mrs. Simcoe makes no reference in the diary -to the 
birth of her daughter, but in a letter to Mrs. Hunt, dated February, 
1793, she writes "I have the pleasure to inform you my little Kath- 
erine goes on well; eats, sleeps and grows fat, so I hope she will not 
feel the want of a wet nurse, which was what I could not procure for 
her. Will you do me the favor to join with Mrs. Montagu, in ans- 
wering for the little stranger. I shall be happy further to cement 
our friendship by this mark of it. I have already had her privately 

The Montagus and Gwillims were cousins. Mrs. Simcoe evidently 
wished both Mrs. Montagu and Mrs. Hunt to "answer" or act as god- 
mothers for the little Katherine. 

The record in the Dunkeswell Parish register is undoubtedly 
incorrect as regards the place of birth, age and date of burial of the 
child. It was probably inserted by Mrs. Hunt, who apparently 
forgot that Mrs. Simcoe was in Niagara at the time the child was 

A small headstone of marble was sent from Honiton about 1795, 
before the Governor left Upper Canada, and placed at the head of 
the grave, but was removed by persons unknown, prior to 1850, for 
it was not standing at that date. 

Mon. Feb. 4th The Governor set off from hence in a sleigh, with 
six officers and twenty soldiers, for the Mohawk village on the Grand 
River (near Brantford), where Capt. Brant and twenty Indians are to 
join him and guide him by the La Tranche river to Detroit, no Europeans 
having gone that track, and the Indians are to carry provisions. 

The Governor wore a fur cap, tippet and gloves and moccasins, but no 
great-coat. His servant carried two blankets and linen. The other gentle- 
men carried their blankets in a pack on their backs. 

Fri. 8th I draw maps, write, read and work so much that the days 
do not seem long, though I am alone. I am so persuaded that the journey 
will be of service to the Governor's health that I rejoice he has under- 
taken it. This evening I received some letters from England, brought 
from Montreal by Indians, who hung the packet so near their fire that the 
edges of the letters were burnt and the dates illegible. I received a letter 
from the Governor, who had proceeded forty miles and had a pleasant 
journey, but it now rains very much, which I fear will spoil the roads. 

Tues. 12th I heard of the Governor's safe arrival at the Mohawk 
village the third day after he left this place. He was much pleased with 
seeing their church and hearing their women sing psalms. The Indian 
Women have remarkably sweet voices. 

The following letter, found in the MSS. at Wolford, was written 
in February 1793, by Mrs. Simcoe to Mrs. Hunt. It is appropriate 



to insert it in the diary at this date, for what it contains might well 
have been written in the diary : 

"Navy Hall, Feby., 1793. My Dear Mrs. Hunt: Expecting an express 
soon from Quebec, I prepare my letters beforehand, that they may be 
ready. I have the pleasure to inform you my little Katherine goes on 
vastly well, eats, sleeps and grows fat, so I hope she will not feel the 
want of a wet nurse, which was what I could not procure for her. Will 
you do me the favour to join with Mrs. Montagu in answering for the 
little stranger. I shall be happy further to cement our friendship by this 
mark of it. I have already had her privately baptized. I long for the 
arrival of the express, as it is some time since I have heard from Eng- 
land. The accounts I have received from every correspondent of the 
great improvement of the little girls under your tuition is a very great 
happiness to me, the greatest that can be next to being an eye-witness of 
it. The whole winter has been like an exceeding fine, dry autumn in 
England; the climate is delightful and the country plentiful, and a 
pleasant society within a certain circle; in short, we have nothing to 
complain of but not seeing the children and the absence of some friends. 
Coll. Simcoe is gone to Detroit, on foot the greatest part of the way, a 
journey of about 400 miles, but as I am convinced the exercise and air 
will do his health and spirits great good I rejoice in his absence, though 
it will be a month or six weeks; he has five officers as companions, a 
dozen soldiers and twenty Indians with him as guides. As it is a service 
of no danger, and I think will afford him amusement, I am quite easy 
about it, and have so much writing, drawing, arranging papers and work- 
ing to do that the days pass very quick; besides, I have now and then 
card parties here and at the Chief Justice's, for I am become a great whist 
player. Francis is the most engaging, pretty child you ever saw at his 
age; he is at present very handsome. Pray give my love to Miss Hunt; 
tell her there are as many feathers, flowers and gauze dresses at our balls 
(which are every fortnight) as at a Honiton assembly, and seldom less 
than eighteen couples. I have not attended them because I was, the 
greatest part of the winter, in daily expectation of being confined. 1 have 
taken the canvas house we brought from England for my own apartment; 
it makes two very comfortable and remarkably warm private rooms; it 
is boarded outside to prevent snow lying on it. The comfort I derived 
from these apartments was extremely great when I lay in, because, being 
in a manner separate from the rest of the house, it was so very quiet. 
The greatest inconvenience in this country is want of servants, which are 
not to be got. The worst of people do you a favour if they merely wash 
dishes for twenty shillings a month. The sergeant's wife I took with me 
I am happy to keep in my house, for she is a very steady person, remark- 
ably fond of the children and attentive to them, and a good worker, and 
Joseph makes himself very useful. 

" Mr. Scadding seems very well satisfied with his sixty pounds a year 
as clerk, and sometimes has the amusement of shooting; he looks as rosy 
as ever, though he leads so much more sedentary a life. Adieu, my dear 
Madam. Believe me, very sincerely yours, 

" E. P. SIMCOE. 
" To Mrs. Hunt, 

"Wolford Lodge, 

" Honiton, Devonshire." 

Sun. 17th I heard that the Governor was well and within four days 
of Detroit. I went to dine with some ladies of the Queen's Rangers at the 
Landing, where the Rangers are quartered in huts. The Governor has 
had a hut built for himself, and we have hung up the tapestry in it 
which came from Stowe (the seat of the Marquis of Buckingham, Eng- 
land), which makes the room very comfortable. I slept here. 



Mon. 18'th Mrs. Hamilton drank tea with me. Mrs. MeGill, wife of 
the commissary, Capt. John McGill, and Miss Crookshank, her sister, are 
pleasant women from New York. I gave a dance this evening. There 
were above ten couples. 

NOTE. The allusion to the two ladies as being 
from New York arose from the fact that they 
were sisters of the Honorable George Crook- 
shank, whose wife was Miss Sarah Susannah 
Lambert of New York. The ladies had been 
visiting in the United States. Honorable George 
Crookshank, was Deputy Commissary-General 
during the War of 1812, and a member of 
the old Legislative Council of Upper Canada. 
His daughter, who resides on Peter Street, 
'Toronto, is the widow of the late Mr. Stephen 
He ward. Miss (Rachel) Crooksfaank referred to 

by Mrs. Simcoe, afterwards became the second 
Miss CEOOKSHANK. ^ of Dr Jflmes MacaulaVj 

Tues. 19th The bugle horns sound delightfully here; they echo among 
the rocks so finely. I called on Mrs. Hamilton on my way to Navy Hall, 
and brought Miss Butler, sister of Coll. Butler, home with me. 

NOTE. There is doubt as to the location of Butler's Barracks. 
In the opinion of Miss Janet Carnochan, President of the Niagara 
Historical Society, Butler's Barracks were on the hill north of Navy 
Hall, not where the present Butler's Barracks are. Buttons from 
the uniform of Butler's Rangers have been found on the hill north 
of Navy Hall. 

Wed. 20th I dined at the Chief Justice's (Osgoode), who had a large 
party to meet me. I played seven rubbers at whist. 

Thur. 21st I received a letter from the Governor, dated Upper Dela- 
ware village, on the La Tranche (now Delaware, Ont.). He had a 
pleasant journey, passed a fine open country, without swamps. The La 
Tranche, at 150 miles above its mouth, is as wide as the Thames is at 
Reading (capital of Berkshire, England). 

Mon. 25th I had company at dinner and cards in the evening. 

Wed. 27th The coldest day we have had this winter. The ther- 
mometer stood at 55 deg. at the Chief Justice's, though the stove was 
almost red hot. 

Fri. Mar. 1st A lady dined with me, and we played at whist in the 
evening with the Chief Justice. 

Fri. 8th Mr. McGill dined with us, A snowstorm the whole day, 
drifted by a high wind; the river so full of ice that it appeared immovable 
for some hours. 

Sat. 9th A fine, clear day; the river full of ice. Towards two o'clock 
it separated and floated down, and a boat came over from the garrison. 

Sun. Mar. 10th The Governor and Mr. D. W. Smith returned. It is 
exactly five weeks since he left this place. He is remarkably well, and not 
fatigued. He went a part of the way in sleighs, but walked the greater 
distance. The Journal does not contain many incidents. The map which 
accompanies it shows the various creeks they passed, or fallen trees, 
which require some care and dexterity to cross. His Excellency's leaving 
Detroit under a salute from all His Majesty's ships lying there is men- 
tioned, 'as also that "His Excellency ordered prayers to be read in the 


woods on Sunday, and forty people attended. His Excellency and suite 
eat raccoons and porcupines, which were good, the latter like pork." The 
porcupine's quills stuck into Jack Sharp's neck (a Newfoundland dog), 
and they were very difficult to extract and made him ill for many days. 

The Governor rose early on the march and walked till five o'clock. 
A party of the Indians went on an hour before, to cut down wood for a fire 
and make huts of trees, which they cover with bark so dexterously that no 
rain can penetrate, and this they do very expeditiously; when the Governor 
came to the spot the Indians had fixed upon the lodge for the night, the 
provisions were cooked; after supper the officers sung "God Save the 
King," and went to sleep with their feet close to an immense fire, which 
was kept up all night. The Governor found his expectations perfectly 
realized as to the goodness of the country on the banks of La Tranche, 
and is confirmed in his opinion that the fork of the river is the most 
proper site for the capital of the country, to be called New London 
(London, Ont.), on a fine, dry plain without underwood, but abounding 
in good oak trees. A spring of real petroleum was discovered on the 
march by its offensive smell. 

NOTE. The section of country referred to is near "Moravian 
Town," a little east of which settlement was a petroleum spring. 
The Moravian village is in the Moravian Reserve, Township of Or- 
ford in the County of Kent, on the direct route from Niagara or 
York (Toronto) to London and Detroit. It lies between Bothwell 
and Thamesville and is a few miles east of the Grand Trunk Railroad. 
There were no white settlers in the township till after 1817, but 
there was a settlement of Delaware Indians from about 1792, in a 
place called "New Fairfield," since better known as "Moravian Town," 
in the north of the township. Old Moraviantown was in the township 
of Zone, Kent County, but the present place known as Moraviantown 
is as stated, in Orford, across the river Thames, and opposite to old 
Moraviantown. It is five miles from the town of Bothwell and is 
about the same distance from Thamesville and Highgate. 

The petroleum spring referred to by Mrs. Simcoe was, no doubt, 
a reality, as the crude oil or petroleum was obtained a century ago 
from the surface of the water of the river Thames in several places 
along the river in this neighborhood. Mr. W. R. Hickey of Bothwell, 
who so kindly furnished me with this information, states that settlers 
seventy years ago used to gather the petroleum from the surface of 
the water and sell it as a medicine. There were several of these 
springs or exudations within the range of three miles east of where 
old Moraviantown stood. When the first oil excitement in Bothwell, 
about 1865-6, was at its height, a refinery was in operation on the 
north bank of the river. The first well that started the oil boom 
in 1865 was drilled about five miles east of the site of old Moravian- 
town, just at the boundary line between the counties of Kent and 
Middlesex, near the location of the Longwoods Road, or London 
Road, as it used to be called. 

The Delaware Indians were the principal remnant of the once 
flourishing congregation of the Moravians or United Brethren 
Church of the United States, who were compelled in 1792 to seek 
an asylum in Canada, where they were favorably received by the 



provincial authorities and were permitted to settle on the River 
la Tranche (Thames). By an Order-in-Council dated the 19th of 
July, 1793, fifty thousand acres of land bordering on the river were 
granted for their use. They built twenty-nine houses and huts and 
a chapel wherein ministered the German missionary supported by the 
Moravian Society. The population was a hundred and sixty-seven 
Indians of the Delaware and Iroquois nations. By a second Order- 
in-Council issued 26th February, 1795, a survey of the original grant 
was made and the land appropriated to the trustees of the "Moravian 
Society" to be reserved forever to the Society, in trust, for the sole use 
of their Indian converts. The first settlement was made on the north 
side of the river Thames. 

The site of old Moraviantown is now occupied by cultivated farms, 
and there are on the north side of the river a few graves, where the 
early Indians had their bury ing-ground. 

The ground is historic, for a battle was fought there on the 5th 
of October, 1813, between the British and Indian forces under Gen- 
eral Procter and the celebrated Indian chief, Tecumseh, and the 
American army under General Harrison. Tecumseh was killed 
after a desperate resistance, and the Indian village was burned by 
the invaders. 

Across the lot where the graves are is a small ravine leading 
to the river, and old residents say that it was there or near there that 
Tecumseh fell. 

After the battle the Indians removed to the opposite side of the 
river. In 1836 these Indians were induced to surrender a large' 
portion of their land, about six miles square, for an annuity of one 
hundred and fifty pounds. 

This second letter found in the MSS. at Wolford is also written 
to Mrs. Hunt. It is a motherly letter showing a great regard for 
Mrs. Hunt and deep affection for the children under her charge at 
Wolford. It reads : 

"Navy Hall, March 13th, 1793. My Dear Mrs. Hunt: The contents 
of your last letters, informing me of Mrs. Graves's quitting Wolford, was 
not any great surprise to me, as I thought such an event not improbable. 
Be assured, my dear Madam, that the confidence we repose in your care 
and attention to our children makes us perfectly indifferent to any expense 
that must necessarily be incurred by your keeping house for them. The 
benefit they will receive from the good and religious principles you will 
instil into their minds will be cheaply purchased, and pray do not be 
uneasy at any trifling expense which you deem proper to be incurred. 
Coll. Simcoe desired Mr. Flood to get a second-hand carriage for yours and 
their accommodation. We are very anxious that they should stay at 
Wolford. I should never be satisfied about their health were they at 
Bath, as I have a great prepossession against that place for children. I hope 
with a carriage (and be as liberal of fires as possible) that you and Miss 
Hunt will reconcile yourselves to Wolford, as we should not be happy to 
have the children removed. It is a great pleasure to me to have them 
brought up so near Miss Burgess, that they may get the habitude, by 
seeing her often, of acquiring a great regard for a friend to whom I am 
so much attached, and I think it much better as you have determined it, 



to be at Wolford than to encumber her house with so many children, 
though the offer was extremely kind of her. 

" As for Mrs. Graves' desire of having Eliza on a visit, we cannot 
refuse it; but it is Coll. Simcoe's and my absolute desire that she does 
not stay above a month or six weeks in these annual visits, because we 
should be sorry the child's education should be stopped, or that she should 
be longer separated from her sisters, which reasons alone determined us to 
deprive ourselves of her company. Besides, I think the child has too 
great a tendency to weak lungs to make it at all proper for her to be longer 
there, was there no other reason. The other children, of course, Mrs. G. 
would not wish to be troubled with; if she did, the same system should 
prevail as with regard to Eliza. 

" Pray give my love to Miss Hunt; tell her I should have answered 
her letter, but I send this by a pacquet as the quickest conveyance to you, 
and letters sent by pacquets cost such sums of money that I will not 
write to her till I send to Mr. Burgess. They are rather longer going 
through the Secretary of State's office, but without there is anything 
material to be speedily answered it is the best way to write, on account of 
the expense. 

" Give my kindest love to the children. Tell them the same reason 
and being greatly pressed for time (as this is an unexpected opportunity) 
hinders my writing to them, and thanking Charlotte for her very pretty 
ruffles, which I value much, and Harriett for her letter. Tell Eliza there 
are no guava trees here. The country is not hot enough, but her father 
thanks her for her thinking of it. Let them know that their father is 
just returned from Detroit; looks remarkably well in health, and is grown 
really fatter, though he has performed a journey of six hundred miles 
in exactly five weeks, and walked a great part of the way. I will write 
them a further account by the first opportunity of sending to Mr. Burgess. 

" I enter exactly into what Miss Hunt's and your feelings have been, 
because I have known and experienced enough of these kind of proceed- 

" I am sure Miss Hunt's instructions are much better than Mr. Pigot's 
few visits. In short, we are quite happy in every account I hear of your 
proceedings with respect to the children, and are only anxious that every- 
thing should go on comfortably to yourself and Miss Hunt. Mr. Flood 
will be of any assistance in his power. Believe me to be, my dear Mrs. 
Hunt, with great regard and confidence in your friendship, 
"Very sincerely yours, 


" Coll. Simcoe desires his best compliments. Eliza or Charlotte have 
not sent me any drawing lately. 1 hope they continue to like drawing; 
she writes vastly even on one line. I wish I was as good an arithmetician 
as you have taught her to be. I think you were quite right to discharge 
a gardener that must be a useless expense. I am glad Melly is still with 
you; I hope she continues to merit your good opinion, for I always liked 
her much. 

" To Mrs. Hunt, 

" Wolford Lodge, near Honiton, 

" Devonshire, England." 

Wed. 13th Coll. Simcoe has gout in his hand. 

Sat. 16th Coll. Simcoe so much better as to walk on the sands. The 
thermometer 72 in the shade. There are thousands of duck fly up the 
river daily. They are called cawines, a species of wild duck. They have 
a fishy taste and are never eaten; their down appears to me exactly the 
same as that of the eider duck. I lately dreamt of being fired at by small 
shot in passing through a wood, and have since had quite a horror of the 
sound of a musquet or anything military. 



I have been much amused by reading Watson (Richard Watson, 
Trinity College, Cambridge) on chemistry, in which there is an account 
of the making of an artificial volcano that I think would please you, an 
experiment of putting diamonds and rubies in separate vessels and expos- 
ing them to a violent fire the diamonds were dissipated and the rubies 
unchanged in weight or colour. 

Mon. April 1st Rode to Queenstown, where we intend to reside a 
fortnight. Mr. Grey and Mr. Talbot are going to New York. 

Tues. 2nd Very warm weather. 

Wed. 3rd The weather extremely warm, but we find the log huts cool 
from the thickness of the timber with which they are built. We do not 
keep house here (Queenstown). As there are not offices belonging to our 
rooms we did not bring many servants, but dine at the mess. Imme- 
diately after I have dined I rise from the table, one of the officers attends 
me home, and the band plays on the parade before the house until six 
o'clock. The music adds cheerfulness to this retired spot, and we feel 
much indebted to the Marquis of Buckingham for the number of instru- 
ments he presented to the regiment. The bugles sound at five every 
morning, and Coll. Simcoe goes out with the troops and returns to break- 
fast at nine. 

Fri. 5th Fahrenheit ther. 78 deg. in the shade, 112 deg. in the sun 
to-day at Navy Hall. " Trojan " has been so ill, in consequence of a blow 
he received on his head since we left Navy Hall, that the servants sup- 
posed him to be mad and shot him, which we regret most excessively, not 
believing he could be mad, as he ran into the water a short time before 
he was killed. I gave a dance this evening. A soldier was pointed out to 
me by the name of Swambergh, a Swede who had distinguished himself in 
a battle where the King of Sweden was present; this incident and the 
admiration I know you feel for Swedes caused me to observe something 
peculiarly fine in his countenance, when, on further enquiry, it proved 
that the man shewn was not Swambergh, but a worthless thief so much 
for my skill in physiognomy. 

Sat. 6th I rode a pleasant horse of Mr. Mayne's to Navy Hall; 
returned here in the evening, but not being expected, found a cold, wet 
room and spent an uncomfortable evening. St. Denis, of the 5th, caught 
yesterday, at Niagara, 500 whitefish and 40 sturgeon; this is common 
sturgeon, one nearly 6 ft. long. 

NOTE. Captain William Mayne belonged to the Queen's Bangers. 
He returned to England in 1797. 

Sun. 7th We dined with Mrs. Hamilton, wife of Mr. Robert Hamilton, 
and walked in the evening where I observed some trees on fire; the 
flames, in part concealed, appeared like stars, and had a beautiful effect. 

Mon. 8th A very warm day. I rode to the Falls; there are still heaps 
of ice below them, but it had not a brilliant or fine appearance, as I had 
expected to see. 

Tues. 9th Mrs. Richardson breakfasted with me. Very wet weather. 
We played at chess all the day. 

Wed. 10th Very cold and some snow. We drove to Navy Hall and 
slept there. 

Thur. llth A very fine day. Went to Queenstown; walked by the 
river half a mile to a beautiful spot among the rocks. The rapid, clear 
water, with a bright tinge of green from the reflection of the high banks 
covered with trees, had a fine effect, and we determined that it would be a 
delightful spot to have a cold dinner at, and the music would sound well 
among the rocks. 

Sat. 13th Returned to dinner at Navy Hall. Jacob and Aron 
(Mohawks) came express from Detroit in eight days; they walked 56 
miles this day. 



Mon. 15th I dined at the Fort, and caught cold by crossing the 
water this very cold day. In a newspaper from the States was the para- 
graph: "His Serene Highness of Upper Canada gives great encourage- 
ment to settlers." 

The " Caldwell " sloop, an armed vessel of the Provincial Government, 
arrived at Kingston from home on the 6th April; the day before the 
harbour had been so full of ice that she could not have got in. An Indian 
who speaks English, being asked at what hour he arrived, pointed to the 
west and said, " when the clock was there." It reminded me of a line in 
Spencer, " The clock in Jones high house." 

Thur. 18th A newspaper is published here, called the " Upper Canada 
Gazette or American Oracle" (first issue April 18th, 1793). As yet it is 
filled with proclamations and advertisements. The only printer to be 
met with was a Frenchman named Louis Roy, and he cannot write good 
English. A surveyor went to the first forks of the La Tranche, and gives 
the most favourable account of the land. 

NOTE. Governor Simcoe's Proclamation of July 16th, 1792, 
which would fain have converted La Grande Riviere into "The Ouse," 
permanently transformed La Tranche into the Thames. 

Fri. 19th Capt. JEness Shaw is arrived, with his wife and seven 
children, from Oswego, where he met his family and spent the winter 
with them. The south shore of Lake Ontario being uninhabited, from 
Oswego they brought with them an Indian to build huts and shoot part- 
ridges and ducks. They came the whole way in a boat. The only alarm 
they met with was from trees falling near their hut one night. The 
children had made fires for diversion too near large trees, without con- 
sidering which way the wind might blow them down, and the hut was in 
danger from their fall. 

Tues. 23rd I thought of you (Mrs. Hunt) as by agreement. I rode 
to the whirlpool, a very grand scene half way between Queenstown and 
the Falls, where the current is so strong that eddies are formed in which 
hewn timber trees are carried down the Falls, from a saw mill, upright. 
Vast rocks surround this bend of the river, and they are covered with 
pine and hemlock spruce; some cascades among the rocks add to the wild 
appearance. These scenes have afforded me so much delight that 1 class 
these days with those in which I remember to have felt the greatest 
pleasure from fine objects, whether of art or nature, as at Blenheim (seat 
of the Duke of Marlborough), the "Valley of Rocks," near Lynmouth and 
Lynton, in North Devon. I met with some pretty flowers and a beautiful 
milliped. I gave a hall this evening. Some small tortoises, cut up and 
dressed like oysters in scollop shells, were very good at supper. 

Wed. 24th I rode to the whirlpool with Mr. Pilkington (Robert 
Pilkington, lieutenant in the Royal Engineers). As we came back it 
was almost dark, and the fires the Indians had made by the waterside for 
the purpose of spearing fish had a picturesque appearance among the 
rocks. The light attracts the fish, and the Indians are very expert in 
spearing them. 

Fri. 26th A very wet night. It rained into the huts, but I found one 
corner of the room dry, and there I placed my bed. Capt. Shaw has given 
me a tea-chest in bird's-eye maple. It is a beautiful wood, the colour of 
satinwood. The tea-chest was made at New Brunswick. Capt. Shaw 
mentioned many instances of persons settled in New Brunswick who, 
having marry'd women from the United States, were persuaded by them 
to quit the country, as they would not live without the apples and peaches 
they had been used to at New York. The Americans are particularly 
fond of fruit. The Indians bring us cranberries in spring and autumn 
which are as large as cherries and as good; the best grow under water. 

11 161 


They also supply us with chestnuts, which they roast in a manner that 
makes them particularly good. 

Mon. 29th Rode before breakfast. At Navy Hall, the " Onondaga " 
arrived from Kingston in 22 hours. There is a large stone house, built 
by the French, in the Fort at Niagara, and from thence it is said to 
take its name, as Niagara, in the Indian language, signifies " great houge." 
Pray take notice we call it " Niagara." 

NOTE. This house is a large stone building which stands within 
the precincts of the American Fort, and was built by the French 
prior to 1750 by order of Governor Vaudreuil. The Fort and its 
defences were completed by General Pouchot, in 1759. The British 
afterwards added a storey with, in the opinion of Mr. Peter A. 


(From a Sketch sent to England about 1830 and copied by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

Porter, a timbered roof. During the War of 1812 the Americans 
are said to have torn it off, made a flat roof, with stone walls pro- 
jecting a foot or so above it, and to have mounted a cannon on the 
roof. After the war they evidently restored the timbered roof, and 
the present cupola was put on in 1823. As it is not supposed the 
British ever used any brick at the Fort, the erection of the brick 
chimneys is fixed at a date subsequent to the War of 1812. 

The origin of the name Niagara is disputed. Some say that 
the word is of Indian origin, meaning "thunder of water," and 
others derive it from Onghiara, the name of the old Indian village 
near the Falls. 

Tues. May 2nd Coll. Simcoe set off, accompanied by seven officers, to 
go to Toronto. He means to go round by the head of the lake in a batteau. 

Wed. 3rd I borrowed Sir Joshua Reynolds' " Discourses." They 
amuse me very much. 



NOTE. Mrs. Simcoe refers to "Discourses Delivered to the Stu- 
dents of the Royal Academy" by Sir Joshua Reynolds, Knight, with 
introduction and notes by Roger Fry. 

Fri. 5th A very cold day. 

Tues. 9th I am feverish and ill. I caught cold by sitting late with 
the windows open after a very hot day, and the dew falls here most 

Sat. 13th Coll. Simcoe returned from Toronto, and speaks in praise 
of the harbour, and a fine spot near it covered with large oaks, which he 
intends to fix upon as a site for a town. I am going to send you some 
beautiful butterflies. 

NOTE. This was the Governor's first visit to the site of Toronto. 
The "fine spot" was on the bay front, east of the present George Street 
as far as Berkeley Street. The lower part of the present Berkeley 
Street, from the present King south to Palace (Front Street), was 
later called Parliament Street, as it led to the Legislative Buildings. 
Berkeley Street, north of King, was not opened until some years later. 

According to the plan made by Aitkin in 1793, the original town 
of York was divided into ten blocks, five south and five north of 
King Street, the west boundary being George Street, the east Parlia- 
ment (Berkeley), the north Duke Street, and south Palace (Front 
Street). Although the streets were not named in 1793, the plan shows 
the location of the present George, Frederick, Sherbourne (Caroline), 
Princes, Ontario, and Berkeley (the first "Parliament" Street) all 
running from the south to the north, and Palace (Front Street), King 
and Duke, all running from the west to the east. 

The area covered by the Aitkin plan was not extensive. The 
number of feet from the south side of Palace (Front Street) at the 
east side of George Street to the north side of Duke Street was 740 
feet. From the west side of George to the east side of Parliament the 
measurement was 1770. When the streets were laid out on this plan 
Front was known as King and in a later plan as Palace Street. The 
modern King was Duke Street, and the modern Duke, Duchess Street. 
These street names were intended as compliments to King George III., 
and the Duke and Duchess of York. George Street was named after 
the Prince of Wales, Frederick after the Duke of York himself, Caro- 
line in honor of the niece of George III., who, in 1795, married her 
cousin the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV. Princes Street 
commemorated collectively the male members of the Royal Family, 
the Dukes of Clarence, Kent, Cumberland, Sussex and Cambridge. 
It will be noted that the correct orthography of the present Princess 
Street is "Princes" Street. 




The life at Navy Hall was enlivened by many pleasant incidents 
during the years of its occupancy by Governor Simcoe and his wife. 
Prominent people from Britain touring the western continent who 
brought letters of introduction, always had a generous welcome and 
a pleasant time as long as they occupied the guest chambers of that 
primitive residence, the pioneer Government House. Americans 
in official positions who visited Niagara ofttimes expressed their 
gratification with the kindly reception accorded them by the Governor 
and his wife. 

It is true that the Governor had, to a greater or less extent, his 
likes and dislikes, and sometimes was rather frank in expressing his 
opinions, but he never forgot the requirements of his official position. 
So that whatever the Governor's sentiments might be regarding the 
United States and its Government, all guests from the Republic 
were made to feel as much at home as if they were seated at their 
own fireside. Accordingly the best of treatment was accorded the 
American Commissioners who came to Niagara to discuss the Indian 
boundary question with Governor Simcoe and a deputation of fifty 
Indians headed by Brant. The negotiations at Navy Hall and 
subsequently at Miami came to naught, as the redskins insisted that 
the settlers on their side of the Ohio Eiver should be evicted. 

Sun. 14th Three commissioners, who are appointed by the United 
States to treat with the Indians at Sandusky, Ohio, are arrived here, and 
Intend to stay at our house until 
they receive further orders from 
Philadelphia. Mr. John Randolph, 
a political friend of President 
Jefferson, is a Virginian. Ben- 
jamin Lincoln and Coll. Timothy 
Pickering are both of Massachu- 
setts, New England. Coll. Simcoe 
calls the latter my cousin; his 
ancestor left England in Charles 
Ist's reign, and this gentleman 
really bears great resemblance to 
the picture Mr. Gwillim (a rela- 
tive of Mrs. Simcoe) has of Sir 
Gilbert Pickering. 

If the proffered mediation of 
England with respect to this 
treaty of Sandusky had been 
accepted by the States, and Washington had gone thither, Gov. Simcoe 
would have gone to meet him. I am not sorry that the circumstance 
is avoided. 





NOTE. John Randolph of Roanoke, an American orator, was 
born in Virginia in 1773. He claimed to be a descendant of Poca- 
hontas, the Indian princess. He studied for short periods at Prince- 
ton and Columbia College. In 1799 he was elected to Congress and 
re-elected many times. He gained a high reputation as a debater. 
He became estranged from Jefferson about 1806 and tried to defeat 
the election of Madison and opposed the War of 1812. He was de- 
feated at the election in 1813, but was again elected in 1815. He was 
a man of genius and was distinguished for his ready wit, which, joined 
to his mastery of the weapons of sarcasm and invective, rendered him 
a formidable opponent in debate. 

General Benjamin Lincoln was born in Massachusetts in 1733. 
He was originally a farmer. He was a member of the Provincial 
Congress assembled in 1775 at Cambridge and Watertown and one 
of the secretaries of that body, and also a member of the committee 
of correspondence appointed to communicate with the several towns 
in Massachusetts and with other colonies upon the circumstances of 
the time. In 1776 he was appointed a major-general of militia and 
joined the army of Washington in 1777. He was appointed to the 
chief command of the Southern department about September, 1778, 
and defended Charleston against Prevost in 1779. Later Lincoln was 
besieged by Sir Henry Clinton in that place and compelled to 
surrender. In October, 1781, he became Secretary of War and retired 
in 1784. He was elected Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts in 
1787 by the Federalists. He died in 1810. 

Timothy Pickering, an American statesman, was 
born in Massachusetts in July, 1745. He graduated 
at Harvard in 1763 and became Judge of the Com- 
mon Pleas in 1775. He joined the army of Wash- 
ington in 1776 and took part in the battles of 
Brandywine and Germantown in October, 1777. 
He was appointed Postmaster-General of the 
United States by Washington in 1791 and Secre- 
tary of War in 1794. From 1814-1817 he was a 
member of the national House of Representatives. 

There are no entries in the diary between Sun- 
day, May 14th, and June 14th, for between these 
dates Mrs. Simcoe was on a visit to Fort Niagara TIMOTHY PICKERING. 
and apparently did not continue her diary during 
that period. But to revert to the Commissioners' stay at Navy Hall 
the 4th of June was a gala day at Niagara, for the second session 
of the Legislature was in progress, and the day was the anniversary 
of the birth of His Majesty the King. 

The Upper Canada Gazette in its issue for the second week in 
June (1793) says: "On Tuesday last, the fourth of June, being 
an anniversary of His Majesty's birthday, His Excellency the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor held a levee at Navy Hall. At one the troops in 
garrison and at Queenstown fired three volleys. The field pieces above 



Navy Hall under the direction of the Royal Artillery, and the guns 
at the garrison, fired a royal salute. In the evening His Excellency 
gave a ball and elegant supper in the Council Chamber, which was 
most numerously attended." 

Of this ball and supper another notice is extant. The three dis- 
tinguished Americans, General Lincoln, Colonel Pickering and Mr. 
Randolph, were amongst the guests at the ball and supper. General 
Lincoln in his private journal, since printed in the Massachusetts 
Historical Collections, Vol. V., 3rd Series, makes the following note 
of the entertainment: 

June 4th " The King's birthday. At eleven o'clock the governor 
had a levee at his house, at which the officers of government, the mem- 
bers of the legislature, the officers of the army, and a number of 
strangers attended. After some time the governor came in, preceded 
by two of his family. He walked up to the head of the hall and 
began a conversation with those standing in that part of the hall, and 
went around to the whole, and I believe spoke with every person 
present. This was soon over and we all retired. At one o'clock 
there was firing from the troops, the battery and from the ship in the 
harbor. In the evening there was quite a splendid ball, about twenty 
well-dressed and handsome ladies, and about three times that number 
of gentlemen present. They danced from seven o'clock till eleven, 
when supper was announced and served in very pretty ta/te. The 
music and dancing were good, and everything was conducted with 
propriety. What excited the best feelings of my htirt was the ease 
and affection with which the ladies met each other, although there 
were a number present whose mothers sprang from the aborigines of 
the country. They appeared as well dressed as the co^Dany in 
general, and intermixed with them in a measure which /inced at 
;once the dignity of their own minds, and the good sense of the others. 
These ladies possessed great ingenuity and industry, and have great 
merit; for the education they have acquired is owing principally to 
their own industry, as their father, Sir William Johnson, was dead 
and the mother retained the manners and dress of her tribe. Governor 
Simcoe is exceedingly attentive in these public assemblies, and makes 
it his study to reconcile the inhabitants, who have tasted the pleasure 
of society, to their present situation in an infant province. He 
intends the next winter to have concerts and assemblies very fre- 
quently. Hereby he at once evinces a regard to the happiness of the 
people and his knowledge of the world; for while the people are 
allured to become settlers in this country from the richness of the 
soil and the clemency of the seasons, it is important to make their 
situation as flattering as possible." 

The American guests were evidently impressed with the function, 
and the tribute they paid to the beauty of the Canadian ladies who 
were present could 'not fail to please the Governor, who some time 
later had the pleasure of reading this extract from the private journal 
of the gallant General who had been his guest. 





The compliments paid to the daughters of Sir William Johnson 
were well deserved. Their mother, with whom Sir William had con- 
tracted an Indian marriage, was Mary Brant, or, as she was 
familiarly known, "Miss Molly," sister of Chief Joseph Brant. 

Sir William Johnson, Bart., was the eldest son of Chris- 
topher Johnson, of Warrentown, County Down, Ireland. His mother 
was Anne Warren, sister of the brothers Oliver and Peter Warren, 
whose names are identified with the naval glory of England. Sir 
William was born in 1715 and came to America in 1738. He settled 

on the banks of the Mohawk. 

About 1740, he married 

Catherine Weisenberg and had 

one son, afterwards Sir John 

Johnson, and two daughters, 

Mary and Nancy. Mary mar- 
ried Colonel Guy Johnson, 

nephew of Sir William, and 

Nancy (Ann) married Colonel 

Daniel Glaus. 

In 1756 Sir William 

exerted himself to revive the 

waning friendship of the 

Mohawks towards the British 

as against the French. He 
succeeded, became their captain, and was called Warraghiyagey, 
signifying "Superintendent of Affairs." The Indian tribes then 
united with Johnson at their head. There is no trace of when he 
attained the rank of colonel, but it must have been about 1746. In 
a letter /ritten in that year, Governor Clinton addresses him as 
"Colonel William Johnson at Albany." In November of 1747 he 
had command of the northern frontier of New York. His manage- 
ment of the Indian Department was most favorably recognized by 
the British Government. 

In 1750 Colonel Johnson was appointed to a seat in His Majesty's 
Council for the Province of New York, in the room of Philip Liv- 
ingstone, deceased. This was the first step towards the prominent 
and influential position he was destined to occupy in later years. 
In 1755, during the war against the French, he was made a major- 
general and was created a baronet in November of the same year. 
In July, 1759, General Prideaux, while besieging Fort Niagara, was 
killed by the bursting of a shell carelessly discharged by one of his 
own gunners, and Sir William Johnson took command. The fort 
was attacked, and after a terrific siege and the defeat of the French 
General D'Aubry, who was hastening to the relief of Niagara, General 
Pouchot surrendered and the flag of Britain was raised over its 
walls. General Prideaux was buried in the chapel of the fort. "I 
was the chief mourner," writes Sir William Johnson in his private 
diary. The jurisdiction of Sir Willam extended over all the tribes 



of the northern colonies. He died in July, 1774, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Sir John, who had been knighted during his 
father's lifetime. The third baronet was Sir 
Adam Gordon Johnson, the eldest surviving son 
of Sir John. Sir Adam Gordon dying without 
issue, Sir William George Johnson became fourth 
baronet, and he was succeeded by his nephew, the 
present holder of the title, Sir Edward Gordon 
Johnson, of Montreal. 

Johnstown, in Fulton County, New York, 
originally (1798) named Caughnawaga, was 
founded by Sir William Johnson, who resided 
there during the later period of his life. Sir 
William erected in 1764 a fine mansion house 
about a mile from and on ground gently elevated 
SIR JOHN JOHNSON, above the village of Johnstown. The hall itself 
is built of wood, but the buildings or wings on 
each side are of stone, pierced with loopholes for musketry. When 
Sir William occupied these buildings he had them surrounded by 
a stone breastwork. While in possession of the Johnson family this 
was a place of resort for the Sachems of the Six Nations, and all 
the Mohawks repaired thither to receive their presents from the 
British Government. 

Sir William Johnson's sons-in-law were both interested in the 
Indians. In 1761 Colonel Guy Johnson was appointed one of the 
Deputy Superintendents of the Indian Department, and in 1774, 
shortly before his death, Sir William wrote the King asking that 
Colonel Guy be allowed to succeed him as 
Superintendent. The request was granted, 
Colonel Daniel Glaus becoming his brother- 
in-law's Deputy. The commission held by 
Sir William came from the colony of New 
York and the other colonies which were 
leagued together against the Indians. After 
the Revolutionary War, however, this com- 
mission held by Colonel Guy as Sir William's 
successor was dropped, and Sir John John- 
son became Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
in British North America. 

Fri. 14th June I am just returned to Navy 
Hall after spending a month with Mrs. Smith, COL. GUY JOHNSON. 
wife of Lieut. Smith, of the 5th, at the Fort. The 

cold I caught the 9th of May turned to dumb ague (that is, but little of 
the cold fit and a continual fever). With this indisposition I found 
myself extremely inconvenienced by the Commissioners' residence in our 
small house, and I accepted Mrs. Smith's friendly invitation to visit her, 
and her nursing and great attention to my health enabled me to recover as 
soon as I have done. Commodore Grant, who commands the vessels on 
Lake Erie, was staying at Major Smith's. The Queen's Rangers have 
left the huts at Queenstown, and are encamped on the mountain above. 



It is a fine, dry, healthy spot, and the tents look extremely pretty among 
the large oaks which grow on the mountain. 

NOTE. Honorable Alexander Grant, born 1734, was second son 
of Patrick, seventh laird of Grant of Glenmoriston, Inverness-shire. 
He served in the Royal Navy as a midshipman, and was with Amherst 
in the Lake Champlain expedition in the Seven 
Years' War. Later he was placed in command of 
lake vessels from Niagara to Mackinaw, and was 
known as Commodore Grant. He was a member 
of the first Executive and Legislative Council, 
and Administrator of Upper Canada from llth 
September, 1805, to 24th August, 1806, during 
the interval between Lieutenant-Governor Hunter 
and Lieutenant-Governor Gore. In 1774 he mar- 
ried Therese Barthe, by whom he had eleven 
children one son, Colonel Grant of Brockville, 
and ten daughters. His fifth daughter, Archange, 
married Thomas Dickson of Queenston. His 
sixth daughter, Phyllis, married Alexander Duff, 
of Amherstburg. His seventh daughter, Isabelle, married Cap- 
tain Gilkinson of Brantford, with issue, seven sons including 
Archibald, County Court Judge, Picton, and Colonel Jasper of 
Brantford. Nancy, the eighth daughter, married George Jacob, 
of Kent County. The ninth daughter, Elizabeth, married James 
Woods of Sandwich, two of their sons being the late Joseph 
Woods, M.P. for Kent, and the late Judge R. S. Woods, of 
Chatham. Another daughter, Jean Cameron, married William 
Richardson of Brantford, and their daughter became the wife of the 
late Henry Racey of Brantford, proprietor of the Brantford Expositor. 
Grant's wife was a sister of the second wife of Colonel John Askin. 
The Commodore's death took place in May, 1813, at his residence at 
Grosse Point, called Grant Castle, on Lake St. Clair, which was 
noted for the courtesy of its host and his open-handed hospitality. 
Here Tecumseh and his warriors were frequent guests of the Commo- 
dore, who was a man of commanding presence, a good officer and a 
general favorite. There are many great-grandchildren and great- 
great-grandchildren. A mural tablet to the memory of Grant was 
erected by his grandson, the late Judge Woods of Chatham, in St. 
John's Church, Sandwich. 

Sun. 23rd Mr. Talbot went to Sandusky to deliver papers to Coll. 

NOTE. Colonel Alexander McKee, who was Indian Agent at 
Pittsburg before the Revolutionary War, was imprisoned at that 
place during the outbreak by the Revolutionists. He escaped, how- 
ever, and later became Deputy Superintendent-General of Indian 
Affairs, the Superintendent-General being Sir John Johnson. Colonel 
McKee was a Justice of the Court of Common Pleas at Detroit. He 
died on 14th January, 1799. His son, Thomas Alexander McKee 



(known as Colonel Thomas or Colonel Alexander McKee), who mar- 
ried Therese Askin, daughter of Colonel John Askin, was one of the 
members for Kent in the Second Legislature of Upper Canada, 1796- 
1800, and one of the members for Essex in the third Legislature. 
It is a coincidence that in the Legislature of Ontario from 1894- 
1902, William Johnson McKee of Windsor, his great-grandson, and 
consequently great-great-grandson of Colonel Alexander McKee, 
represented the county of Essex. 

Wed. 26th The Indian Commissioners went to Fort Brie. Coll. Pick- 
ering gave me a receipt to make chowder of salmon, sea biscuit and pork; 
it is stewed for twenty minutes. 

Thurs. 27th We dined alone for the first time since we left Quebec. 
The Governor having no business to attend to, and the weather delightful, 
we crossed the water, and drank tea on a pretty green bank, from which 
there is a good view of Navy Hall, and we enjoyed this half-holiday amaz- 

Fri. 28th We rode to Queenstown and slept there. The thermometer 
was 86 to-day. 

Sat. 29th Breakfasted in the camp and rode on to the Falls, seven 
miles; dined there, and went to Burch's Mills, two miles above the (Falls. 
We returned to tea in the camp, but the heat was so excessive we were 
obliged to stop on the road and drink milk and water, and eat fruit at 
Mrs. Tice's, wife of Lieut. Tice, of the Indian Department, who lived at 
the Falls. The thermometer has been at 96 to-day. We slept in the hut, 
but I determined in future to sleep on the mountain. I saw a stuffed 
rattlesnake, which was killed near Queenstown in the act of swallowing 
a black squirrel. The snake measured five feet six inches long, and had 
seven rattles. 

NOTE. John Burch had a saw and grist mill near the Falls on 
lot 174, township No. 2, in the year 1786. In 1791 he was a member 
of the Land Board and in 1795 was Justice of the Peace. In Lundy's 
Lane Cemetery is an inscription "In Memory of John Burch, Esq., 
who departed this life March 7th, 1797, aged 55." His son, John 
Burch, Jr., was Grand Secretary of the Provincial Grand Lodge 
of Freemasons of Upper Canada at Niagara, 1817-1819. 

Gilbert Tice came to Niagara in 1786, where he was a member 
of the Land Board in 1791. He is given as Captain Gilbert Tice 
in the list of United Empire Loyalists in the Indian Department, 
with a wife and four children. He was a veteran of the French 
War, and, under the patronage of Sir William Johnson, kept a large 
inn at Johnstown, N. Y., before the Loyalist migration. 

Sun. 30th Returned to Navy Hall in a boat the Commissioners left 
here, which is a very good one, with an awning and green curtain. The 
heat excessively great. 

Tues, July 2nd Jacob Lewis and Aaron Hill, the two Indians who 
carried mails from Detroit, came here. The latter was well dressed and 
looked very handsome. Lewis' wife was with him; a very pretty woman, 
the only handsome woman -I have seen among the Indians. We treated 
them with cherries. The Indians are particularly fond of fruit. We have 
thirty large May Duke cherry trees behind the house,, and three standard 
peach trees, which supplied us last autumn for tarts and desserts during 
six weeks, besides the numbers the young men eat. My share was trifling 
compared with theirs, and I eat thirty in a day. They were very small 



and high flavoured. When tired of eating them raw, Mr. Talbot roasted 
them, and they were very good. 

Fri. 5th Francis has been very ill, and the extreme heat of this place 
is thought to be prejudicial to him. It is, therefore, determined that I 
shall take him to the camp on the mountain. I shall have an establish- 
ment of two marquees, a tent and two sentries. The Governor will come 
to see us whenever he has leisure; my dinner is to be sent every day from 
Navy Hall. This day I embarked at one o'clock on board the gunboat with 
Francis and Sophia, and Mr. Mayne, of the Rangers, attended me. I left 
the thermometer at 90, but it is pleasant on the water. It requires a 
strong, steady wind to carry vessels to the Landing, as the current runs 
four knots an hour against them. The gunboat, not having top sails, 
catches but little wind between the high banks. It blew fresh when we 
embarked, but soon became calm. Mr. Bouchette, for the honour of his 
vessel, declared we were going on, but as it was not apparent to Mr. Mayne 
and myself that we made the least way, we had the boat let down, and 
proceeded the remaining three miles in it. I was much fatigued in 
ascending the mountain; we reached the camp about five o'clock. I dined 
alone. The Governor came to supper. The mosquito net was not brought, 
and I passed a most wretched night. Mr. Talbot returned from the Miami, 
where a fort had been built by order of the Governor-General, Lord Dor- 
chester. The Indians have sent a deputation to the Commissioners, to 
desire to converse with them at Niagara before they proceed to the 
Miami, as Wayne's army has advanced nearer to them than they expected. 
Sat. 6th The Governor returned to Navy Hall, as did the Commis- 
sioners and some Indian chiefs. 

Sun. 7th The Governor came to supper. The Indians have demanded 
whether the Commissioners have full powers to fix a boundary; they 
are to reply to-morrow. The " Mississaga " arrived with 270 Indians 
from St. Regis. They belong to the tribes called the Seven Nations of 
Canada. They speak French, are much civilized, and have a good deal 
of the manners of Frenchmen. 

NOTE. The term "Seven Nations" is an error. There were the 
" Six Nations " but not " Seven." The Mississagas were for a time 
encamped near the "Six Nations" and they were called by some 
people the "Seven Nations." 

Mon. 8th Another Indian Council held to-day at Navy Hall, at which 
the Commissioners declared that they had full power to fix a boundary. 

Tues. 9th It was determined in the Indian Council to-day that the 
Commissioners and Indian deputies shall go to Sandusky to treat. The 
Seven Nations having no conductor or officer with them, Mr. Talbot will 
accompany them to Sandusky. The House of Assembly (the second 
session of the first Legislature) was prorogued to-day. 

My marquee commands the most beautiful view of the river and lake 
seen between the finest oak trees, among which there is always a breeze of 
wind. The music tent is at such a distance as to sound pleasantly. Mrs. 
Hamilton and Mrs. Richardson were with me in my arbour when we 
heard so violent a clap of thunder as made us all stoop our heads; the 
lightning followed instantly. We ran into the tent, and stayed until a 
violent torrent of rain had abated. On coming out I observed an oak, 
which had stood close to the arbour, was much blasted by the lightning. 
Mrs. Hamilton took Francis home with her, lest he should catch cold from 
the damp of the tents after the violent rain. I drank tea and slept at 
Mrs. Hamilton's. 

NOTE. The First Legislature of Upper Canada met from Sep- 
tember, 1792, to June, 1796, at Navy Hall, Niagara. The following 
is a list of the Sessions with dates of meeting: First Session, 17th 



September-15th October, 1792; second session, 31st May-9th July, 
1793; third session, 2nd June-9th July, 1794; fourth session, 6th 
July-lOth August, 1795; fifth session, 16th May-3rd June, 1796. 

Mrs. Eichardson, wife of Dr. Richardson, surgeon of the Queen's 
Rangers, was Madeleine Askin, second daughter by his first wife 
of Colonel John Askin of Detroit. They were married on the 24th 
of January, 1793, by the Rev. Robert Addison, who had been sent 
to Niagara by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and 
was afterwards first Rector of St. Mark's Church there. Although 
the church was not opened until August, 1809, parish records were 
kept from 1792, and one of these shows that on "24th January, 
1793, Dr. Robert Richardson, blr., and Madeleine Askin, spinr.," 
were married. Mrs. Richardson became the mother of Major John 
Richardson, Canadian novelist, author of "Wacousta." 

Thurs. llth I walked to the camp. The Governor went to Navy Hall. 
I drank tea with Mrs. Hamilton, and saw the Seven Nations pass. 

Fri. 12th Mr. Talbot dined with me on his way to Fort Erie. 

Mon. 15th A wet day, which is very dismal in a tent; but to see the 
light again, and feel the air dry, is such a pleasure that none can judge 
of but those who have felt the reverse. 

Tues. 16th We dined in the hut, and Mr. Mayne, of the Rangers, 
drove me to Navy Hall in the afternoon in a gig we have had made, in 
which he drove two horses tandem; it is so light that we went to Navy 
Hall, which is seven miles, in three-quarters of an hour, and returned to 
the Landing by eight o'clock. The road is good but for the stumps of trees 
on each side, which it requires attention to avoid; but my charioteer left 
Westminster, the school for boys in Dean's Yard, Westminster, last year, 
so you may conclude him to be a steady person. He is a protege of Lord 
Amherst's. He supplies Mr. Talbot's place when he is absent. 

Thurs. 18th The weather being very hot, we went again to the camp. 
In the evening we rode to Mrs. Tice's, a pleasant situation, like some in 
Epping Forest; it is three miles from the camp. 

Fri. 19th Went to Navy Hall; caught cold by going out this evening 
without a fur tippet, which the great dew renders necessary after the very 
hot days. 

Sat. 20th Capt. Shaw and 100 men set off in batteau for Toronto. 
Sometimes these batteau sail around the lake by the south shore to the 
head of the lake, and then by the north to Toronto, but in fine weather 
they cross the lake going direct. I drank tea at the fort (across the river). 

Sun. 21st Extremely hot weather. Rode to the camp this evening, 
and found it cooler and less damp than at Navy Hall. The mountain is 
covered with a sweet, purple flower, the roots of which, infused in brandy, 
make a wholesome cordial. It is called Oswego bitter. Mr. Russell (Hon. 
Peter Russell) says it is a wild balm of Gilead, and that an oil may be 
extracted from it. The leaves, dried, are good in pea soup or forced 
meat. By some mistake my dinner did not arrive from Navy Hall one 
day last week, but I had some of the excellent New York biscuits, which 1 
eat, and said nothing about my dinner, feeling a pleasure in being able to 
be independent. 

Mon. 22nd We crossed the water to the Ferry House (Lewiston, 
N.Y. ), opposite Queenstown, and breakfasted in an arbour covered with 
wild vines and beautifully situated on the bank of the river. We rode 
up the hill to the spot where the French had a fort built about 1750. We 
saw a very extensive view towards the head of the lake. On our return 
we found the arbour so cool and pleasant that the Governor sent for his 
writing-box, and we stayed here the whole day. After dinner I ascended 



the hill again and made a sketch. We supped in the camp. The " Cald- 
well " sailed, with Capt. Smith, for Toronto. 

Tues. 23rd Excessively hot weather. The Governor went to Navy 
Hall. Francis is much better, but weak. I see him almost every day, but 
did not choose to pay Mrs. Hamilton so long a visit, tho' I feel greatly 
obliged to her for keeping the child. I have just heard that the " Onon- 
daga " is arrived at Navy Hall to take us to Toronto. Whether we shall 
remain there, and the regiment build huts for their winter residence, is 
not yet decided. 

Thurs. 25th Went this evening to Navy Hall. 

Sat. 27th I went to church. Drank tea at the fort. My Marvel of 
pine is in great beauty (evidently a plant or shrub). 

Sun. 28th An experiment of firing shells from cannon was made at 
the Fort by the Governor's orders. 

Mon. 29th We were prepared to sail for Toronto this morning, but 
the wind changed suddenly. We dined with the Chief Justice, and were 
recalled from a walk at nine o'clock this evening, as the wind had become 
fair. We embarked on board the " Mississaga," the band playing in the 
ship. It was dark, so I went to bed and slept until eight o'clock the next 
morning, when I found myself in the harbour of Toronto. We had gone 
under an easy sail all night, for as no person on board had ever been at 
Toronto, Mr. Bouchette was afraid to enter the harbour till daylight, when 
St. John Rosseau, an Indian trader who lives near, came in a boat to 
pilot us. 

NOTE. The Governor, it seems, was not one of the passengers on 
this occasion, for although Mrs. Simcoe uses the word "we," she 
continues by saying that "no person on board had ever been at 
Toronto." The Governor had visited Toronto on Tuesday, the 3rd 
May his first visit and was at that port until the 12th, when he 
returned to Navy Hall. He was in Niagara on the 28th July and in 
York on the 6th of August. There is no entry in the diary as to 
the date he left Niagara or of his arrival in York. 

St. John (St. Jean Baptiste) Rousseau lived in 1793 on St. 
John's Creek, later known as the Humber. He settled in Ancaster 
in 1795, where he built the first grist and saw mill on the site of 
the present village. He was a member of Masonic Lodge, No. 10, 
in the township of Barton, known to-day as Barton Lodge, No. 6, 
Hamilton. He died in 1815. 

Tues. 30th The Queen's Rangers are encamped opposite to the ship. 
After dinner we went on shore to fix on a spot whereon to place the 
canvas houses, and we chose a rising ground, divided by a creek from 
the camp, which is ordered to be cleared immediately. The soldiers have 
cut down a great deal of wood to enable them to pitch their tents. We 
went in a boat two miles to the 'bottom of the bay, and walked thro' a 
grove of oaks, where the town is intended to be built. A law spit of land, 
covered with wood, forms the bay and breaks the horizon of the lake, 
which greatly improves the view, which indeed is very pleasfng. The 
water in the bay is beautifully clear and transparent. 

NOTE. The "rising ground" where the party camped was east of 
the site of the present Old Fort, at the Queen's Wharf, Toronto. 
The "Creek" known now as the Garrison Creek ran from the north- 
west, along the east side of the Fort, but now the creek is drained. 
Bellwoods Park is a portion of its old bed. The grove referred to 



was situated on that part of Toronto bounded by George Street on 
the west, Parliament Street on the east, Queen Street on the north 
and Toronto Bay on the south. Early pictures of that part of the 
city show oak trees along the line of Palace Street, the present Front 
Street. The spit of land is the present island, in 1793 a peninsula. 

Sun. Aug. 4th We rode on the peninsula opposite Toronto, so I called 
the spit of land, for it is united to the mainland by a very narrow neck 
of ground. We crossed the bay opposite the camp, and rode by the lake 
side to the end of the peninsula. 

NOTE. The party crossed the bay of Toronto from their camp 
on the shore near the site of the Old Fort, and landed at the present 
Hanlan's Point, known in the early days as Gibraltar Point. This 
point is shown in all the Government maps from 1796 as "Gibraltar 
Point." When Mrs. Simcoe writes later on that the "Onondaga" 
on her way from Kingston to York was "off Gibraltar Point at York" 
when passing the present Lighthouse Point, she wrote in error. 
The peninsula in 1793 joined the mainland at the foot of the 
present Woodbine Avenue. In 1854 the waters of Lake Ontario broke 
through and created the present Island. Later the eastern channel 
was made, now used by the largest lake boats. 

4th We met with some good natural meadows and several ponds. 
The trees are mostly of the poplar kind, covered with wild vines, and 
there are some fir. On the ground were everlasting peas creeping in 
abundance, of a purple color. I am told they are good to eat when boiled, 
and some pretty, white flowers, like lilies of the valley. We continued 
our ride beyond the peninsula on the sands of the north shore of Lake 
Ontario till we were impeded by large trees on the beach. We then walked 
some distance till we met with Mr. Grant's (the surveyor's) boat. It 
was not much larger than a canoe, but we ventured into it, and after 
rowing a mile we came within sight of what is named, in the map, the 
highlands of Toronto. The shore is extremely bold, and has the appear- 
ance of chalk cliffs, but I believe they are only white sand. They appeared 
so well that we talked of building a summer residence there and calling 
it Scarborough. 

NOTE. The party rowed east on Lake Ontario, to the present 
highlands known from the name given them by Governor Simcoe as 
Scarborough Heights. The summer residence was not built at the 
Heights, but a couple of miles up the Don River at the place known 
as "Castle Frank." 

4th The diversity of scenes I met with this morning made bhe ride 
extremely pleasant. The wooded part of the peninsula was like shrubbery. 
The sands towards the lake reminded me of the sands at Weymouth, and 
the sight of the highlands presented a totally different country to anything 
near the bay, tho' I was not more than four miles from it. I was very 
near riding into what appeared a quicksand, which, with a little rain 
and wind we met with for half an hour as we rode from the shore to the 
Mississaga, were the only unpleasant incidents that occurred this day. 
After dinner we left the Mississaga, and slept to-night in the canvas house. 

NOTE. The canvas house was one of three or four large and small 
tents that Governor Simcoe bought in London at the sale of the effects 
of Captain Cook, the explorer. The original drawings of these tents 



are in the British Museum, and facsimiles will appear in my biog- 
raphy of Governor Simcoe. 

Mon. 5th The children came on shore; this afternoon we walked two 
miles to the old French Fort, but there are no remains of any building 
there. It rained very hard, and I was as completely wet as if I had 
walked through a river, for being in a shower in the woods is quite 
different from being exposed to it in an open country; every tree acted as 
a shower bath, as the path was just wide enough to admit of one person. 
We passed some creeks and unhewn trees thrown across, a matter of 
some difficulty to those unaccustomed to them. I should think it might 
be done with less danger of falling with moccasins on the feet. 

NOTE. The "old French Fort" was Fort Rouille, erected about 
1750 and named after the French Colonial Minister of that name. It 
was a stockade trading post, popularly known as Fort Toronto, but 
officially as Fort Rouille, and the site was at the foot of Dufferin 
Street, Toronto, now marked by a monument. Mrs. Simcoe's calcu- 
lation of distance seems to have been erroneous, for it is less than a 
mile from the camp, which was east of Garrison Creek, to the ruins 
of the French Fort. Probably the pathway to the ruins was circuitous 
and as they were walking through the woods the distance may have 
led Mrs. Simcoe to the belief that they had gone two miles. 

Tues. 6th Having been -wet thro' these last two days, I declined 
going with the Governor to see a mill on St. John's Creek, six miles 
towards the head of the lake. The Governor brought me some very good 
cakes. The miller's wife is from the United States, where the women 
excel in making cakes and bread. 

NOTE. In November of 1678, the Franciscan Friar La Motte 
and Hennepin sailed from Fort Frontenac for Niagara. On the 
26th they arrived at the Indian village of Taiaiagon, near Toronto, 
probably a few miles west of the mouth of the Humber River, where 
they ran their vessel for safety into the mouth of the river, which 
Parkman says was "probably the Humber." The site of this Indian 
village is shown in a manuscript map sent to France by Intendant 
Duchesneau and is now in the Archives de la Marine in Paris. The 
word "Taiaiagon" means a portage or landing place, and it is very 
doubtful if Hennepin in its use intended to refer to the site of 
Toronto. There is no certainty as to the derivation or meaning 
of the word Toronto. In early maps Lake Simcoe is called "Lac 
Tarento" and "Lac Taronthe." Toronto evidently denoted Lake Sim- 
coe and the surrounding region. In LaHontan's map the Humber 
River is marked Tanaouate. By others it was called Toronto River. 

In the maps of 1756 the river Humber, two miles west of Toronto, 
is given as St. John's Creek. It is, however, given as the Humber 
by D. W. Smith, A.S.G., on 31st January, 1798, in a plan of Humber 
Mills, while State Papers H. 1, 1798, are entitled "Papers re Humber 
Mills." They contain a letter from John Wil?on offering to pur- 
chase the Government Saw Mills on the Humber, and "a statement 
of annual income arising from the Government Saw Mills on the 
Humber, commencing May, 1794, and ending December 31st, 1797," 



signed by John McGill, Superintendent Saw Mill Accounts. A map 
of the Province of Upper Canada describing all the new Settlements, 
Townships, etc., with the Counties adjacent, from Quebec to Lake 
Huron, compiled at the request of His. Excellency Major-General 
John Graves Simcoe, First Lieu tenant-Governor, etc., by David William 
Smyth, Esq., Surveyor-General, London, Faden, 1800, is the earliest 
map in the Archives Department, Ottawa, giving the name Humber. 
The Government Mill was situated about the site of the ruins of the 
present "old mill." It is believed that after the War of 1812-4 it 
was never used. The Surveyor-General spelt his name indifferently 
"Smith" and "Smyth." 

Wed. 7th I rode on the peninsula from one till four. I saw loons 
swimming on the lake; they make a noise like a man hollowing in a 
tone of distress. One of these birds was sent to me dead at Niagara; it 
was as large as a swan, black, with a few white marks on it. At a dis- 
tance they appear like small fishing boats. The air on these sands is 
peculiarly clear and fine. The Indians esteem this place so healthy that 
they come and stay here when they are ill. 

Fri. 9th Some Indians of the Ojibway tribe came from near Lake 
Huron. They are extremely handsome, and have a superior air to any 1 
have seen; they have been living among Europeans, therefore less accus- 
tomed to drink rum. Some wore black silk handkerchiefs, covered with 
silver brooches, tied right round the head, others silver bands, silver arm 
bands, and their shirts ornamented with brooches; scarlet leggings or 
pantaloons, and black, blue or scarlet broadcloth blankets. These Indians 
brought the Governor " a beaver blanket to make his bed," as they ex- 
pressed themselves, apologized for not having done it sooner, and invited 
him to visit their country. 

NOTE. The territory occupied by the Ojibway nation was the 
largest in extent of any Indian possessions of which there is a definite 
knowledge. When the Champlain traders met the Ojibways in 1610, 
their eastern boundary was marked by the waters of Lakes Huron 
and Michigan. The mountain ridge lying between Lake Superior 
and the frozen bay (Hudson Bay) was the northern barrier. On 
the west stretched a forest, beyond which was a vast prairie. On 
the south, a valley, by Lake Superior, thence to the southern part 
of Michigan. The land within these boundaries has always been 
known as the country of the Ojibways. 

Sat. 10th I went to my favourite sands; the bay is a mile across. 
The Governor thinks, from the manner in which the sandbanks are formed, 
they are capable of being fortified so as to be impregnable; he therefore 
calls it "Gibraltar Point," tho' the land is low. 

Sun. llth Lt. Smith of the 5th Regiment who is here as Acting 
Deputy Surveyor-General read prayers to the Queen's Rangers assembled 
under some trees near the parade. This evening we went to see a creek 
which is to be called the River Don. It falls into the bay near the penin- 
sula. After we entered we rowed some distance among low lands covered 
with rushes, abounding with wild ducks and swamp black birds, with red 
wings. About a mile beyond the bay the banks become high and wooded 
as the river contracts its width. 

Lt. Smith has drawn a fine map of the La Tranche River. From what 
has been surveyed, it is proved that Charlevoix, the French explorer's 
map, describes the country with great truth. If the line from the road 



to the river La Tranche was laid down according to its true bearings on 
any map but Charlevoix's, it would strike Lake Erie instead of La Tranche. 

NOTE. The Indian name of the Don River was "Wonscoteonach," 
signifying "back burnt grounds," that is, the river coming clown 
from the back burnt country, which had previously been swept by fire. 
The term is merely descriptive and not a proper name. The creek 
which Mrs. Simcoe states is "to be called the River Don," was so named 
by the Governor on this visit to Toronto. He very often discussed the 
naming of places in the Province with his wife. This is gathered 
from letters at Wolford. 

Sir David William Smith, only child of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John Smith, of the Fifth Foot, 
was born 4th September, 1764. He was ensign 
in his father's regiment and afterwards captain. 
He was a member of the Executive Council and 
of the three first Canadian Parliaments. He 
was also Surveyor-General of Upper Canada. In 
1821 he was created a baronet. He died in Eng- 
land in the spring of 1837. 

Tues. 13th An Indian named Wable Casigo sup- giB D. W. SMITH. 
plies us with salmon, which the rivers and creeks on 

this shore abound with. It is supposed they go to the sea; the velocity 
with which fish move makes it not impossible, and the very red 
appearance and goodness of the salmon confirms the supposition; they are 
best in the month of June. I brought a favourite white cat, with 
grey spots, with me from Niagara. He is a native of Kingston. His 
sense and attachment are such that those who believe in trans- 
migration would think his soul once animated a reasoning being. He 
was undaunted on board the ship, sits composedly as sentinel at my 
door, amid the beat of drums and the crash of falling trees, and visits the 
tent with as little fear as a dog would do. There has been a fever at 
Niagara. This place is very healthy, and I think it probable we shall 
spend the winter here. 'Mr. Talbot is still in Philadelphia; Mr. Grey at 
Quebec. He has broken his arm there. The Governor has the gout in 
his foot very slightly. He has just received a letter from Prince Edward, 
lamenting his not obtaining leave to go to England. 

Sat. 24th The Governor has received an official account of the Duke 
of York (1763-1827) having distinguished himself in an action in Flanders 
by which the French were dislodged and driven out of Holland. The 
Governor ordered a royal salute to be fired in commemoration of this 
event, and took the same opportunity of naming this station York. There 
are a few twelve or eighteen pounders, which were brought here from 
Oswegatchie or from Carleton Island. The " Mississaga " and " Onon- 
daga " fired also, and the regiment. 

NOTE. It is doubtful whether this refers to Old Oswegatchie, the 
fort that was originally built by the French at Ogdensburg in St. 
Lawrence County, New York, on the banks of the Oswegatchie River. 
The name is a corruption of the Huron word meaning "black water." 
The fort was occupied by the French during the Seven Years' War, 
but was captured by the British in 1760, when they were en route 
down the St. Lawrence to attack Montreal. Directly opposite 
Ogdensburg is tHe Canadian town of Prescott, and northeast of Pres- 
cott is the township of Augusta in the County of Grenville, in which 




was situated a district known as New Oswegatchie. Near the present 
village of Maitland, in 1758, defensive works were erected by the 
French, and because timber was easily procured, a shipyard was 
established. The original French fort with its pickets was in exis- 
tence in 1785. It is more than likely that the 
' 2^ guns came from Carleton Island. 

("/ \\ Sat. 24th There were a party of Ojibway In- 

dians here, who appeared much pleased with the 
firing. One of them, named " Great Sail," took Fran- 
cis in his arms, and was much pleased to find the 
child not afraid, but delighted with the sound. 

NOTE. On the 26th August, 1793, was issued 
over the signature of E. B. Littlehales, the major 
of brigade, an official order to the effect that the 
Lieutenant-Governor having received information 
of the success of His Majesty's arms under H.R.H. 
gail) the Duke of York, by which Holland was saved 
from the invasion of the French, the Governor 
had determined to change the name of "Toronto" to that of "York" 
in honor of the Duke. This order was effective from 27th August, 
when the two-cross Flag was raised and a salute of twenty-one guns 
fired to commemorate the event. 

Sun. 25th The Abbe des Jardins and a Monsr. de la Corne arrived 
here. They are sent by some French emigres to examine whether a suit- 
able establishment could be allotted for them in this country. The Abbe" 
appears a cunning, clever man, whose manners are those of one accustomed 
to live in the best society in Paris. La Corne is a Canadian who has 
been some time resident in France. The Governor received them with 
great civility; has ordered a marquee to be pitched for them. He has 
recommended them to travel towards Burlington Bay, at the head of the 
lake, where the country is open and the climate very mild. The soil and 
local circumstances they may judge of when on the spot. 

NOTE. L'Abbe Philippe-Jean-Louis Desjar- 
dins was born in France 6th June, 1753. He 
became a priest in December, 1777, and was one 
of the forty-four priests who fled from France 
during the French Revolution. Shortly after 
his arrival in Canada in March, 1793, he was 
sent to Niagara. Afterwards he became a direc- 
tor of the Ursuline Convent in Quebec, where he 
was a well-known ecclesiastic. It was owing to 
his efforts that many valuable paintings were 
brought to Canada. He died in Paris on 21st 
October, 1883. 

Late in 1792, the British Government 
selected four persons to go to Canada to make L ABEE DESJARDINS - 
the necessary preliminary arrangements for settling there some of 
the emigres. These envoys were Philippe-Jean-Louis Desjardins, for- 
merly vicar-general of Orleans; Jean-Marie Raimbeau, priest of the 
diocese of Bayeux; M. Gazil, doctor and formerly principal of the 



College of Navarre; and the Chevalier Frangois-Josue Saint-Luc 
de la Come, formerly post captain in the French Navy. These 
gentlemen were given 200 by the Government and 80 by 
the Relief committee. They were instructed to embark on His 
Majesty's packet for New York, and, having arrived there, to 
seek out His Majesty's agent, Sir John Temple, who was 
directed to give them all the needful assistance in prosecuting 
their journey to Quebec. The envoys reached that city on 
March 2nd, 1793, and presented their credentials to the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor. On August 3, 1793, M. Desjardins and the Cheva- 
lier de la Corne left for the Upper Province. They were received 
with great cordiality, were entertained for several weeks in the 
capital of the Province, Newark, now called Niagara, and appar- 
ently expressed a wish for land in this vicinity. They also visited 
York. As a result the Executive Council set aside for them a town- 
ship at the west end of Lake Ontario near Burlington Bay. 

Wed. 28th I walked with the Governor on Gibraltar Point this even- 

Thur. 29th The gunboat arrived from Niagara. An officer from 
Detroit came in her, who says the Indian Commissioners returned to the 
States without making peace with the Indians, as they refused to give up 
what the Indians had invariably made the terms of accommodation. 

Fri. 30th The " Mississaga " came from Niagara in four hours. Mr. 
Russell came in her. 

Wed. 4th Sept. I rode to St. John's Creek (the Humber River). 
There is a ridge of land extending near a mile beyond St. John's House, 
300 feet high and not more than three feet wide; the bank towards the 
river is of smooth turf. There is a great deal of hemlock spruce on this 
river; the banks are dry and very pleasant. I gathered a beautiful large 
species of Polygala, which is a genus of annual and perennial herbs 
and shrubs of the order of Polygalacae. 

1 found a green caterpillar, with tufts like fir on its back. I acci- 
dentally touched my face with them, and it felt as if stung by a nettle, 
and the sensation continued painful for some time. It was extremely 
oalm when we set out, but on our return we were almost seasick, the water 
was so rough. A little breeze on this lake raises the waves in the most 
sudden manner. 

Fri. 6th I have read Alfred's letters. I never expected to have been 
so much entertained by a political book or to have comprehended so much 
of the politics of Europe. Mr. Osgoode, the Chief Justice, suspects it to 
be written by Mr. Burgess. (A friend of Governor Simcoe's, whose por- 
trait is at Wolford.) 

I went to-day to ride to Gibraltar Point. 

NOTE. Three letters (signed Alfred) to the people of Great 
Britain and particularly to those who signed the addresses on the 
late changes of administration and the dissolution of Parliament. 
London, 1785. 

Wed. llth We rowed six miles up the Don to Coons', who has a farm 
under a hill covered with pine. I saw very fine butternut trees. The 
nuts are better than walnuts; gathered berries of cockspur thorns. I 
landed to see the shingles made, which is done by splitting large blocks 
of the pine into equal divisions. We found the river very shallow in 
many parts and obstructed by fallen trees. One of them lay so high 
above the water that the boat passed under, the rowers stooping their 



heads. It looked picturesque, and a bald eagle sat on a blasted pine on 
a very bold point just above tbe fallen tree. The Governor talks of 
placing a canvas house on this point for a summer residence. Vencal 
rowed a very intelligent man, born in Sweden. 

NOTE. Coon's farm was on the east bank of the Don Biver 
about where Chester is to-day. 

Fri. 13th Mr. Pilkington coasted the lake from Niagara, and arrived 
here in two days, about 100 miles. 

NOTE. Bobert Pilkington (1765-1834) obtained his commission 
as second lieutenant in the Boyal Artillery in 1787. He was trans- 
ferred to the Boyal Engineers in 1789 and was stationed at Quebec; 
was first lieutenant in January, 1793, and captain in 1801. He was 
on General Simcoe's staff from 1793-6 and built the fort on the 
Maumee by instructions of Governor Simcoe. The building of this 
fort was one of the causes of friction between Governor Simcoe and 
Lord Dorchester, the Governor-General at Quebec. The Governor 
had advised against the erection, but was ordered to carry out in- 
structions. Pilkington remained in Canada until 1803. He became 
major-general in 1825 and was inspector-general of fortifications 
in England in 1830. He died in 1834. His wife was Hannah, 
daughter of John Tylee, and by her he had two sons, one of whom 
died shortly after birth, and four daughters. The surviving son, 
Bobert John Pilkington, married Jane, daughter of Andrew Shaw, 
of Montreal, a daughter being Mrs. J. W. Molson of that city. 

Sat. 14th We walked to the spot intended for the site of the town. 
Mr. Aitkin's (the surveyor) canoe was there; we went into it, and himself 
and his man paddled. We went at the rate of four knots an hour. I 
liked it very much; being without the noise of oars is a great satisfaction. 
I gathered purple berries from a creeping plant, seeds of lilies and spike- 
nard. To see a birch canoe managed with that inexpressible care and 
composure, which is the characteristic of an Indian, is the prettiest sight 
imaginable. A man usually paddles at one end of it and a woman at the 
other; but in smooth water little exertion is wanting, and they sit quietly, 
as if to take the air. The canoe appears to move as if by clockwork. I 
always wish to conduct a canoe myself when I see them manage it with 
such dexterity and grace. An European usually looks awkward and in a 
bustle compared with the Indian's quiet skill in a canoe. 

NOTE. Alexander Aitkin was the Deputy- Surveyor, who by order of 
Governor Simcoe, made the first survey and map or plan of the orig- 
inal town of York (Toronto). This plan was made in June, 1793, 
after the Governor had selected the site. The Governor, who retained 
the plan with other official documents, sent it to the war authorities 
in London, on his arrival in England from Canada in 1796. Many 
times during the past century search for this plan was made in the 
War Office, in the Colonial Office, and in the British Museum, but 
without avail. In October, 1900, however, I discovered it in the 
Public Becord Office, Chancery Lane, London, just 107 years from the 
date of its making. Aitkin was a very active official and was a 
favorite with Governor Simcoe. During the latter years of his life 
he resided in Kingston, U.C., where he died about 1830. 






Mon. 23rd I rode on the peninsula. My horse has spirit enough to 
wish to get before others. I rode a race with Mr. Talbot to keep myself 
warm. I gathered wild grapes. They were pleasant, but not sweet. Capt. 
Smith is gone to open a road, to be called Dundas Street, from the head 
of the lake to the River La Tranche. He has 100 men with him. 

Tues. 24th 1 hear that they kill rattlesnakes every day, yet not a 
man has been bitten, altho' they have been among them for six weeks. 
Capt. Smith sent two of the snakes in a barrel, that I might see them; 
they were dark and ugly, and made a whizzing sound in shaking their 
rattles when I touched them with a stick. We dine in a marquee to-day. 
It has become too cold in the arbour; the canvas house we use as a bed- 
room, but the other is going to be erected for a winter dining-room. I 
have gathered most beautiful white berries, with a black eye, from red 
stalks. I cannot find out its name. 

Wed. 25th The Governor set out, with four officers, a dozen soldiers 
and some Indians, to visit Lake Huron. 

Sun. 29th 1 walked on the sand bank and gathered seeds of Toronto 

Wed. Oct. 2nd The Governor's horses returned from the Mississaga 
Creek, now the Holland River, from whence he sent me some seeds. I 
received the outside garment sent from England by Mr. G. Davison. The 
ground mice are innumerable and most troublesome here. We want the 
edict published in Spain to excommunicate and banish them. I send you 
a bat remarkable for its size, and a beautiful black and yellow bird. 

Fri. 25th I send a map to elucidate the Governor's journey, which 
was attended with danger as well as with many pleasant circumstances. 
The western side of the lake is drawn from Mr. Pilkington's sketches, the 
eastern from former accounts. Mr. Pilkington, who was one of the party, 
says the scenery was fit for pictures the whole way, and from his drawings 
I should suppose so. They rode 30 miles to the Miciaguean Mississaga 
Creek, then passed a terrible bog of liquid mud. 

The Indians with some difficulty pushed the canoe the Governor was 
in through it. The Governor went to the habitation of Canise, the Indian 
who held Francis in his arms during the firing when " York " was named. 
Canise and his eldest son were lately dead, and their widows and children 
were lamenting them. Young Canise gave the Governor a beaver blanket, 
and made speeches of excuse for not sooner having made his bed. The 
Governor went to see a very respectable Indian named " Old Sail," who 
lives on a branch of Holland's River. He advised him to return by the 
eastern branch of it to avoid the swamp. They proceeded about thirty 
miles across Lac aux Claies, now named Simcoe, in which are many 
islands, which Coll. Simcoe named after his father's friends and those 
gentlemen who accompanied him. The river from thence to Matchedash 
Bay afforded the most picturesque scenery, from the number of falls and 
rapids upon it. Some of them were avoided by carrying the canoes on 
the shores; others they risked going down. 

NOTE. There have been great changes in recent years on the 
Severn River owing to the placing of dams at the various water- 
falls. McDonald's Rapids have been almost obliterated by blasting, 
done by the Dominion Government and by the Town's power dam 
at the Ragged Rapids, but in the recollection of Mr. C. H. Hale of 
Orillia, who has kindly furnished me with information regarding 
the Severn pictures, the principal cascade of McDonald's Rapids was 
as shown in the sketch made by Lieutenant Pilkington in 1793. 

Holland's River is named, after Surveyor- General Samuel Hol- 
land. The town of Holland Landing, thirty-eight miles from 
Toronto, is situated on this river. 



O 8 


Lake Simcoe, originally Ouentaronk Lake, sometimes called Sin- 
ion or Shiniong, afterwards called Lac aux Claies, was given its 
present name by Governor Simcoe out of respect for his father. 

The three principal islands in Lake Simcoe are now known by 
the names of Snake, Georgina and Thorah Islands. Georgina and 
Thorah Islands were formerly known as Graves and Canise Islands, 
respectively, but have come to be called by the names of the townships 
to which they are adjacent. Snake Island, from the time of the 
earliest white traders down to the present, has had the name it now 
bears. There was an attempt more than a century ago to rename the 
islands after friends of Governor Simcoe, but none of the designations 
came into general use. Smith's Gazetteer, published in 1799, and 
in its second edition published in 1813, gives Snake Island as Dar- 
ling's Island, named after Captain (afterwards General) Darling, 
one of the friends of Simcoe who accompanied him on this trip to 
Lake Simcoe and Matchedash Bay. These names, however, had only 
a temporary application on paper, and the names in use among the 
traders and early settlers were not superseded by the proposed ones. 

Matchedash Bay is an inlet at the southeast extremity of Georgian 
Bay, Lake Huron also spelled Machedash and Matadash and means 
muskeg or marshy ground. Waubaushene is situated at its mouth, 
nearly opposite where the Severn enters Georgian Bay. 

25th In passing a rapid an Indian in the Governor's canoe fell over, 
and the canoe passed over him. He rose up on the other side and got in 
again without seeming discomposure. On returning one of the soldiers 
cut his foot near Holland's River. Mr. Alexander McDonnell and an- 
other gentleman stayed with him, as he was unable to travel. The 
" Old Sail " received them hospitably, and shot ducks for them. A small 
quantity of provisions being left with them, and an Indian who carried a 
large cargo quitting the party, reduced the stock so much that the Gover- 
nor set out with only two days' provisions and the expectation of five days' 
march to bring them to York. The Indians lost their way, and 
when they had provisions for one day only they knew not where they 
were. The Governor had recourse to a compass, and at the close of the 
day they came on a surveyor's line, and the next morning saw Lake 
Ontario. Its first appearance, Coll. Simcoe says, was the most delightful 
sight, at a time they were in danger of starving, and about three miles 
from York they breakfasted on the remaining provisions. 

NOTE. The Big Chute is now being developed by the Simcoe 
Power, Light and Eailway Company, and for many years there 
has been a lumbermen's dam at this point. At the right side of the 
river, going down stream, in the neighborhood of the Big Chute, there 
is considerable indentation caused by the dams raising the water. 
This indentation was not apparent in 1793, before the inroads of 

25th Had they remained in the woods another day it was feared that 
" Jack Snap " would have been sacrificed to their hunger. He is a very 
fine Newfoundland dog who belonged to Mr. Sheehan, near Niagara, but 
has lived at Navy Hall from the time of our coming there, and walked to 
Detroit with Coll. Simcoe. He has been troublesome enough on this excur- 
sion, as his size was very unsuitable to a canoe, but he is a great favourite. 



Coll. Simcoe had the satisfaction of finding Matchadash Bay such as 
gave him reason to believe would he an excellent harbour for very large 
ships. A bay near Prince William is called Penetanguishene, a fine har- 
bour. The fever at New York and Philadelphia amounts almost to the 

ISToTE. There was a terrific visitation of yellow fever at Xew 
York and Philadelphia in 1791-2 and 1793. Many thousands of 
persons died of the pestilence. 

Sun. 27th A road for walking is now opened up three miles on each 
side of the camp. I can, therefore, now take some exercise without going 
to the peninsula. Mr. McDonell arrived with the soldiers from Holland's 
River. He brought some wild ducks from Lake Simcoe, which were 
better than any I have ever tasted; these birds are so much better 
than any in England from their feeding on wild rice. Capt. Smith 
is returned from cutting the road named Dundas. It is opened for 20 

They met with quantities of wild grapes, and put some of the juice 
in barrels to make vinegar, and Capt. Smith told me it turned out very 
tolerable wine. They killed numbers of rattlesnakes every day, but nobody 
was bitten by them. Capt. Smith brought two in a barrel to show me, as I 
had never seen any alive. 

NOTE. This shows that the road known as Dundas St. was in 
October, 1793, opened for twenty miles, that is, as far as Port Credit. 
It was named after Henry Dunda?, who became Home Secretary, 
1791, and Secretary for War, 1794. He was raised to the peerage 
as Viscount Melville, December 24th, 1802. 

Mon. 28th The weather has been very cold for some days and the 
frost very severe, notwithstanding which we feel it quite mild in the 
woods. To-day we walked two miles to a pretty spot by the side of a 
creek, where we had a fire made of many large trees and wild ducks 
roasted by it, and we dined without feeling the least cold. Coll. Picker- 
ing's, the American Indian Commissioner's dish, chowder, is also easily 
dressed in the woods, being prepared in a kettle before we left our house. 

XOTE. Sparrow Lake Chute, two or three miles below McLean's 
Bay. : has been considerably affected by dams built on the Ragged 
Rapids, to such an extent in fact, that at one time it was navigable 
by steamers. 

Gloucester Pool is an enlargement of the Severn River five miles 
from its mouth. The Severn empties into Georgian Bay at Port 
Severn on the east side of the Bay at its southern extremity. Civili- 
zation has so completely altered the aspect of this landscape that it 
is a difficult matter after a hundred years to identify places. 



g - 

I ! 

s I 


It was in the last days of October, 1793, that General Simcoe 
determined to select a site for a summer home near York. 
Frequent excursions by boat up the Don as far as navigable, and 
walks through the woods that skirted its banks, created a love for 
that part of the country, a sentiment which was always retained 
by the Governor and his wife. Years after their return to England 
she often spoke of "that pretty spot, Castle Frank." Mrs. Simcoe 
made many sketches of her summer home both from the high ground 
on which it stood and from the approach up the river. Two of these 
drawings have been preserved. She writes : 

Tues. 29th The Governor having determined to take a lot of 200 acres 
upon the River Don for Francis, and the law obliges persons having lots 
of land to build a house upon them within a year, we went to-day to fix 
upon the spot for building the house. We went six miles by water from 
the Fort and east along the bay shore to the Don, and up that river, landed, 
climbed up an exceedingly steep hill, or rather a series of sugar-loafed 
hills, and approved of the highest spot, from whence we looked down 
on the tops of large trees and, seeing eagles near, I suppose they build 
there. There are large pine plains around it, which, being without under- 
wood, I can ride and walk on, and we hope the height of the situation will 
secure us from mosquitos. We dined by a large fire on wild ducks and 
chowder, on the side of a hill opposite to that spot. Our long walk made 
it late before we had dined, so that, altho' we set out immediately after- 
wards and walked fast, it was nearly dark before we reached the sur- 
veyor's tent. From there we went home in a boat, as the stumps and 
roots of trees in the road were so troublesome to walk among in the dark. 
Mr. L,ittlehales and some gentlemen lost their way in attempting to return 
to the camp after us. They slept in the woods about a mile distant. 

The following description of Castle Frank is from Robertson's 
Landmarks of Toronto, Vol. 1, p. 3-5. 

"During the spring of 1794, the Governor built Castle Frank as 
a summer residence and named it after his son Francis. It was in the 
woods on the brow of a steep high bank overlooking the valley of 
the Don, at a point just beyond the fence which is now the north 
bounds of St. James' Cemetery. A large portion of the land formerly 
belonging to Castle Frank is now part of the burying ground. Below 
and to the south of the dwelling was a deep ravine down which 
between hog-back formations ran a stream named Castle Frank 
brook, which flowed into the Don, just above a small island on the 
west side. The marshes gave way on the right at this point to good 
land covered with elm, butternut and basswood trees. The site of 
the building is marked with a stone. The ground on each side of it 
has a steep descent on its north side to the Don, and on the south 



to the bottom of Castle Frank brook ravine through which the tiny 
rivulet runs. The view from the dwelling was hemmed in by the 
trees that covered alike the surrounding level land and the steep- 

hillsides that could only be climbed with difficulty. No pret- 
tier spot could have been selected for a summer home. Some of the 
white pines that stood there a century ago are still to be seen, but 
many look as if they were second growth. To the east the view was 



down upon the valley of the Don, and to the west over the ravine 
now in the cemetery. The modern entrance to the ravine is by 
Castle Avenue and Castle Frank Crescent. 

"Castle Frank was not occupied permanently by the Governor 
and his family, but many excursions were made and week ends spent 
by the friends who enjoyed pleasant hours in the little settlement 
during Governor Simcoe's administration. The building was about 
fifty feet in depth and thirty feet in width, the latter being the 
frontage, which faced south. The front elevation was not unlike 
that of a Greek temple. The trunks of four large, well matched, 
unbarked pine trees answered for columns supporting the pediment 
or the projection of the whole roof. The main doorway was in the 
centre of the front, but no windows on either side. On the east and 
west sides were four windows with shutters of heavy double planks 
running up and down on one side, and crosswise on the other, and 
thickly studded with the heads of stout nails. Of a similar con- 
struction was the door. A chimney arose from the middle of the 
roof. The walls were built of rather small, carefully hewn logs, of 
short lengths, clap-boarded. They presented a comparatively finished 
appearance on the outside, but after a time took the weather-stained 
color that unpainted wood assumes. Inside the finish was rough, 
in fact the interior was never fully completed. A slight attempt 
at a division into rooms had been made, but was never entirely 
carried out. Entering the front door the visitor found himself at 
once in an apartment extending the width of the building and about 
half its length. On one side was a big fireplace. At the rear of this 
was another room of similar dimensions with a fireplace in the 
opposite wall. This cleared space in front of the building was but a 
few yards across, and from it to the site of the town ran a narrow 
carriage-way and bridle-path cut out by the soldiers and graded, 
traces of which may still be found. 

"Castle Frank received its title from the five year old son of 
Governor Simcoe, although the Rev. Dr. Henry Scadding, one of my 
old school masters at Upper Canada College and from whom I 
obtained all the information here given in regard to the building, 
points out that there was a 'Castle-franc' near Rochelle, which figures 
in the history of the Huguenots. The Iroquois had honored the 
Governor with the title of 'De yonyn hokrawen,' signifying 'One whose 
door is always open,' and on his little son, who appears to have been 
a great favorite with them, as he sometimes was attired in Indian 
costume, they conferred the honour of chieftainship, and named him 
Deyoken, which means 'Between the two objects/ A warrior's fate 
befell the young chieftain, for at the age of twenty-one, while serv- 
ing with his regiment during the Peninsular "War, he fell in the breach 
at Badajoz in 1812. In spite of the unavoidable discomforts of life 
at Castle Frank and at York, many were the compensating pleasures, 
especially for the soldier pioneers who formed almost the entire 
male population. Governor Simcoe's mind was absorbed with 



schemes of government and war. Those who were fond of 
sport might gratify their desire to the full in the forest which 
surrounded York, where bear, deer and wolves and small game 
abounded. Woodcock and snipe were plentiful on the peninsula 
and east and north of the east end of Toronto Bay. In the early 
days salmon was speared at night in the Don, and the bay and Lake 
Ontario were filled with fish of all kinds. Until Governor Simcoe's 
departure in 1796, Castle Frank's rough roof covered many a gay 
party, brought up by canoes and rowboats from the Fort, or on 

"After Governor Simcoe's return to England Castle Frank was 
occasionally used by President Peter Russell and his family for a 
picnic, excursion party or ball, when the guests were in summer taken 
up the Don in boats and in winter by the same route in sleighs. 
That these trips must have given great enjoyment to those concerned 
is evident, for there is a letter extant from Mr. Russell, written 
in December, 1796, in which he says: 'I hope the ladies may be able 
to enjoy the charming carioling (sleighing) which you must have 
on your bay and up the Don to Castle Frank, when an early dinner 
must be picturesque and delightful.' Captain John Denison, an 
officer in the English militia, came to Canada from Hedon, York- 
shire, in 1792. He first settled in Kingston, but in 1796 he moved 
to York, and during the summer months he lived at Castle Frank 
by permission of the Honorable Peter Russell." 

Colonel Talbot in a letter to 
General Simcoe dated July 17th, 
1803, writes of a trip to York 
and a visit to Castle Frank. He 
says : "I paid a visit of duty to 
Castle Frank, which I am sorry 
to add is uninhabited and going 
to ruin. Some rascals had, a few 
days before I saw it, broken off 
the window shutters and gone 
down to the lower apartment, 

NEAB CASH* FRANK. where the -X, broke down the chi ,^ 

ney in order to carry away the 

(From a Drawing !,>/ Mrs. Shncue.) i_ j? j.i j. j. j -j. 

bar of iron that supported it." 

In 1807, Mrs. Simcoe, the widow of the late Governor, wrote 
to Sir David W. Smith, Bart., who resided at Alnwick and in 1798-9 
was Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, con- 
cerning the Scarborough lands of her late husband. Sir David 
replied that he understood that the Government long before he left 
Canada made some entry in the Council books, and that he considered 
Castle Frank as making up the residue of this land. But, added 
Sir David, the General told me that the person who made out the 
deed of the Castle Frank property mistook 'G' for Graves and 



called the property, registered in the name of Francis, 'Graves' 
instead of 'Gwillim.' 

After 1807, Castle Frank was tenantless. The building began 
to show further signs of decay, and in 1829 it was accidentally burned 
through the carelessness of some amateur fishermen, and so a build- 
ing that would to-day be a genuine relic of the olden time passed 
out. The only relic I know of in connection with Castle Frank is 
a Masonic gavel made out of a piece of ash, and which was presented 
to me by Orient Lodge A. F. and A. M., Toronto, in 1892, during 
my term as Grand Master of the 'Grand Lodge of Canada, in the 
Province of Ontario. 

Wed. 30th Oct. We have received, from Montreal a birch bark canoe, 
such as is used by the North-West Company to transport their goods to the 
Grand Portage. It requires twelve men to paddle, is large enough to con- 
tain four or five passengers to sit very commodiously in the centre under 
an awning. An Indian woman came to-day with pitch, which is made by 
the Indians from fir trees, to gum the canoe if any part of it is worn off 
by bringing it hither. She held a piece of pitch in her hand, and melted 
it by applying a piece of burning wood. Her figure was perfectly wild and 
witchlike, and a little fire, with a kettle on it by her side, in a stormy, 
dark day, the waves roaring on the beach near which she stood, formed a 
scene very wildly picturesque. 

Fri. Nov. 1st I walked this morning. At eight this dark evening 
we went in a boat to see salmon speared. Large torches of white birch 
bark being carried in the boat, the blaze of light attracts the fish, when 
the men are dexterous in spearing. The manner of destroying the fish 
is disagreeable, but seeing them swimming in shoals around the boat is a 
very pretty sight. 

The flights of wild pigeons in the spring and autumn is a surprising 
sight. They fly against the wind and so low that at Niagara the men 
threw sticks at them from the fort and killed numbers; the air is some- 
what darkened by them. 1 think those we have met with here have 
been particularly good. Sometimes they fix a bullet to a string tied to 
a pole, and knock them down. Coll. Butler, of the Rangers, was observing 
that they build where there are plenty of acorns, but do not feed within 
20 miles of the place, reserving that stock of provisions till the young 
ones can leave their nests, and then scratch the acorns up for them. 

Pigeons have been shot with rice in their craws on the Mohawk River. 
Rice does not grow nearer than Carolina. Therefore, it is presumed (con- 
sidering the supposed time of digestion) that they must have flown 200 
miles a day. 

Fri. 8th We have had a week of incessant rain. 

Sat. 9th I went to-day for the first time in the North-West canoe. A 
beaver blanket and a carpet were put in to sit on. We carried a small 
table, to be used in embarking, for the canoe cannot be brought very near 
the shore, lest the gravel or pebbles injure her, so the table was set in 
the water and a long plank laid from it to the shore, to enable me to get 
in or out, the men carrying the canoe empty into the water and out of it 
up on their shoulders. We have less than " boards between us and 
eternity," for the canoe is formed of birch bark fixed on to thin ribs of 
very light wood with the gum or pitch the Indians make from fir trees, 
and of which they always carry some with them, lest an accident rub off 
any, or the heat of the sun melt it. 

We dined in a meadow on the peninsula, where I amused myself with 
setting fire to a kind of long dry grass, which burns very quickly, and 
the flame and smoke run along the ground very quickly and with a pretty 

14 209 


effect. I was delighted with the swift and easy motion of the canoe and 
with its appearance. 

Thurs. 14th I went again in the canoe until we came in sight of the 
Highlands, but it was so very cold I was very glad to walk part of the 
way back. We dined on the peninsula. I passed a spot on the peninsula 
where it was supposed an Indian had been buried lately. A small pile of 
wood was raised, a bow and arrow lay on it, and a dog-skin hung near it. 
Some Indians sacrifice dogs, other tribes eat them when extremely ill. 

Tues. 19th At this season of the year there is usually a fortnight of 
foggy weather; the air is perfectly dry and hot, and smells and feels like 
smoke; it is called Indian summer. I have never heard these smoky fogs 
well accounted for. 

Wed. 20th We dined in the woods and eat part of a raccoon; it was 
very fat and tasted like lamb if eaten with mint sauce. 

Thurs. 21st An owl was sent to me, shot at Niagara; it measured 
five feet from wing to wing when they were extended. 

Fri. 22nd Mr. Littlehales went on horseback to Niagara. 

NOTE. This journey was made by travelling west from York 
along Dundas Street and then through a track in the woods along the 
north shore of Lake Ontario to Burlington Bay, where a stop was 
made at the government inn known as "The King's Head." The 
journey from Burlington Bay to Niagara was made through the 
woods, skirting the south shore of the Lake. 

Fri. 29th An Indian came here who, by way of being in mourning 
for a relation, was painted black round his face. 

Mon. Dec. 2nd The " Great Sail," his wife and ten children came 
here; they grouped themselves like Van Dyke's family pictures. They 
brought us deer. Francis handed plates of apples to them. He shakes 
hands with the Indians in a very friendly manner, tho' he is very shy 
and ungracious to all his own countrymen. A Mississaga, called the 
" Man of the Snakes," was here also. The Mississagas dress very indif- 

NOTE. Earlier in the autumn, Canise, otherwise known as "Great 
Sail/' and his son had died, for on 25th October Mrs. Simcoe writes 
that they are " lately dead." She also refers to " young Canise," no 
doubt a grandson, "who gave the Governor a beaver blanket and 
made speeches of excuse for not sooner having made his bed." The 
"Great Sail" here mentioned was in all probability a successor to the 

Sun. Dec. 8th The " Onondaga " was left under the care of a young 
lieutenant and ran aground. It is feared she cannot be got off until the 
spring, and then perhaps not without injury. 

NOTE. In 1793, the "Onondaga," 12 guns, 80 tons burthen, an 
armed vessel of the Provincial Government went ashore on the west 
side of Gibraltar Point, now Hanlan's Point. After being abandoned, 
the vessel was pulled off by Mr. Joseph Bouchette. For this act he was 
promoted second lieutenant in the provincial navy. 

Mon. 9th The Governor went to the west shore of the peninsula at 
Gibraltar Point to view the " Onondaga " in such rough weather that the 
waves came into the boat and made everybody wet. 

Thur. 12th Mr. Grey has just received orders to join Sir C. Grey in 
the West Indies. He is to go by way of New York. The Governor and 



Mr. Talbot set out with him this morning to accompany him as far as 
Niagara. Fine, calm weather. 

NOTE. The foregoing entry has reference to Lieutenant Thomas 
Grey, who had come to Canada with Governor Simcoe, joining his 
father, Sir Charles Grey, first Earl Grey, who was in this year (1793) 
appointed with Jervis (subsequently Earl St. Vincent) commander 
of an expedition to the French West Indies. They reduced Martinique 
in March, and St. Lucia and Guadaloupe in April, 1794. 


(From a Drawing by Mm. Simcoe.) 

Mon. 16th An exceedingly rough day. At eight o'clock the Governor 
and Mr. Talbot returned. They left Niagara at one o'clock yesterday, 
rowed till four in the morning, slept a few hours at Jones' farm at the 
" head of the lake." They arrived at Niagara on Friday in such rough 
weather that there was great difficulty in turning Mississaga Point. (At 
the mouth of the Niagara River.) 

Thur. 19th I walked to the Don. There are great hopes of getting 
the " Onondaga " afloat. 

Sat. 21st A hard frost. The bay is half-frozen over. The " Man of 
Snakes " came here. 

Sunday 22nd The bay is quite frozen over. Mr. Talbot skated to 
the other side. I walked to-day. 



Mon. 23rd Very cold weather. 

Tues. 24th Thunder and lightning last night. Extreme hard frost 
this morning. 

Thur. 26th Wright and Herring returned from Niagara in a boat. 
Jt is found to be practicable to walk and ride thither throughout the 
winter, therefore we are not in as isolated a situation as it was expected 
we should find it. We received news of Admiral Gardner's having taken 
two 44-gun ships off Sandy Hook and some privateers near Halifax. 

NOTE. Edward Wright emigrated to America before the Revo- 
lutionary War. On its expiration he returned to the old land, where 
he remained for several years, but in 1792 came to Canada with the 

Queen's Rangers. His son, 

Edward Graves Simcoe Wright, 

who in after years kept the 

Greenland Fisheries Tavern, 

north-west corner of Front and 

John Streets, Toronto, was the 

first white child born at York, 

1794. Edward H. Rodden, To- 
ronto, is a great-grandson of 

Edward Wright of the Rangers. 
Richard ' Herring, also a 

Queen's Ranger, was a juryman 

in one of the three memorable 

trials that took place in the 
York Court House in 1818 in connection with the North-West Com- 
pany and the dispersion of Lord Selkirk's Red River Settlement. 

Admiral Alan Gardner was prominent in many naval exploits 
and was created a baronet for his services in Howe's victory in 1794. 
As first Baron Gardner, he was created a peer of the United Kingdom 
in 1806. 

Fri. 27th The weather so cold that some water spilt near the stove 
froze immediately. 

Mon. 30'th I walked to the " Old French Fort " and returned by the 
Creek. I caught cold. 





Castle Frank, although in an unfinished state, was habitable in 
1794, for early in the year the Governor and his family resided 
there In the spring, however, Mrs. Simcoe returned to Niagara, 
where life at Xavy Hall was more enjoyable and varied than at 

York, Mon., Jan. 6th, 1794 The skin of a cross fox, marked yellow, 
black and white, with a dark cross on the back, was brought here and 
sold for four dollars; sometimes they are sold for two dollars. 

I sketched a likeness of the " Great Sail," who came here to-day. The 
Indians call the stars we name Ursa Major, a marten (sable) with a 
broken tail. I received from Detroit a stone carved by an Indian into a 
head, and when it is known that they have no tools but the commonest 
kind of small knife, it is surprising to see it is so well done. 

I sketched a Caughnawaga Indian to-day whose figure was quite 
antique. He was from the settlement of that tribe on the south side of 
the St. Lawrence, opposite Lachine. I have often observed (but never had 
more reason to do so than to-day) that when the Indians speak, their air 
and action is more like that of Roman or Greek orators than of modern 
nations. They have a great deal of impressive action, and look like the 
figures painted by the Old Masters. 

Thur. 14th There is a great deal of snow on the River Don, which Is 
so well frozen that we walked some miles upon it to-day, but in returning 
I found it so cold near the lake that I was benumbed and almost despaired 
of ever reaching my own house, and when I came near the hill was fright- 
fully slippery. Near the river we saw the track of wolves, and the head 
and hoofs of a deer. The workmen, who reside in a small hut near the 
place, heard the wolves during the night, and in the morning saw the 
remains of the deer. The Indians do not kill wolves; they seldom take 
trouble that does not answer to them, and the wolves 
are not good to eat and their skins are of little value. 

Sat. Jan. 18th The Queen's (Charlotte of Meck- 
lenburg-Strelitz, Consort of George III.,) birthday. The 
weather is so mild that we breakfasted with the win- 
dow open. An experiment was made of firing pebbles 
from cannon. A salute of 21 guns and a dance in the 
evening in honour of the day. The ladies much 

Sunday 19th The weather so pleasant that we 
rode to the bottom of the bay, crossed the Don, which 
is frozen, and rode on the peninsula; returned across 
the marsh, which is covered with ice, and went as 
far as the settlements, which are near seven miles 
from the camp. There appeared some comfortable log 
houses, inhabited by Germans and some by Pennsyl- 
vanians. Some of the creeks were not frozen enough to bear the Gover- 
nor's horse, but mine passed very well. He excels in getting over difficult 
places and in leaping over logs, which I like very much. 



NOTE. Mr. William Berczy was born in Saxony in 1749. He 
visited England in 1791 and became agent for an association that 
were owners of a large tract of land in Genesee, N. Y. The inten- 
tion was to settle Germans on the lands of the association. But 
owing to differences between Mr. Berczy and the chief manager of 
the association in Philadelphia, Berczy withdrew his people from 
New York and settled them by arrangement with Governor Simcoe 
in Markham, near Toronto. Mr. Charles A. Berczy, son of William 
Berczy, was born at Niagara in 1794, and died in Toronto in 1858. 
He was an acting deputy assistant commissary general during the 
War of 1812, and was postmaster of Toronto from about 1840-52. 
He married Miss Finch of Greenwich, England, and by her had a 
large family. Two of his daughters were noted for their beauty. 


(From a Draunng by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

Sat. 25th Two soldiers went to Niagara. These expresses are to go 
at regular periods by way of a post. 

Sun. 26th We went to the Don to see Mr. Talbot skate. Capt. 
/Eneas Shaw's children set the marshy ground (the marsh at Ash- 
bridge's Bay) below the bay on fire; the long grass on it burns with great 
rapidity this dry weather. It was a fine sight, and a study for flame 
and smoke from our house. At night the flames diminished, and 
appeared like lamps on a dark night in the crescent at Bath. 

Mon. 27th I walked below the bay and set the other side of the marsh 
on fire for amusement. The Indians have cut holes in the ice, over which 
they spread a blanket on poles, and they sit under the shed, moving a 
wooden fish hung to a line in the water by way of attracting the living 
fish, which they spear with great dexterity when they approach. The 
Governor wished me to see the process; we had to walk a half-mile to the 
place. There was no snow on the ice, and we were without cloth shoes. 
The Governor pushed a large limb of a tree before him which kept him 



steady, ana with the assistance of Mr. Talbot I reached the spot where 
they were catching maskalonge, a superior kind of pike, and pickerell. I 
was almost frozen from looking on, tho' the apprehension of falling kept 
me warm while I walked. 

Fri. 31st One of the horses drawing hay across the bay fell into an 
airhole and was drowned. Mr. Scadding*s cottage burned down. 

NOTE. This house was just over the Bon at the Queen Street 
crossing on the Scadding farm site of the Toronto Jail. The 
Scaddings were one of the pioneer families of Toronto. They 
were of Bevon origin and resided near Honiton. John Scadding 
was the manager of Wolford, the Simcoe estate, and emigrated to 
Canada in 1792, a few months after Simcoe's arrival. A brother, 
Thomas, living in Honiton, never emigrated. The brothers married 
sisters, the Misses Triges. 

John Scadding was a man of excellent execu- 
tive ability and one of the best informed in Eng- 
land on every branch of farm work. Wolford is 
an estate of about 5,000 -acres and at one time 
part of it was divided into over twenty farms. 

He had three sons, John, Charles and Henry. 
John married Emily Playter, daughter of John 
Playter. There was no issue by this marriage. 
Charles married Jane Bright, the issue being 
Henry, William, Edward, Charles, John and So- 
phia. Henry, eldest son of Charles Scadding, 
married Elizabeth Winder Wedd, daughter of 
John Wedd, and sister of William Wedd of Upper 
Canada College. Of their issue there were Charles, Bishop of 
Oregon, and Henry Crawford Scadding, the well-known physician 
of Toronto. Henry (Rev.), third son of John Scadding, of Wol- 
ford, married Harriet, daugh- 
ter of John Spread Baldwin. 
They had a daughter, Hen- 
rietta, who married the late 
Robert Sullivan, a son of the 
late Judge Sullivan. Mrs. 
Sullivan lives in Toronto. 

The Rev. Br. Henry Scad- 
ding' \vas more in the public 
eye than the other members 
of the Scadding family, and 
his familiar face will long be 
remembered by the people of 
Toronto. He was born in 
Bevonshije in 1813 and came 
to Canada at the age of eleven 
years. His father after settling in Canada returned to England and 
brought out his wife and family. Br. Scadding was educated at 
Upper Canada College and was the first head boy under Br. Harris. 







He graduated at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1837, and was 
an intimate personal friend of Mrs. Simcoe, widow of the first 
Governor. He was the incumbent of Holy Trinity Church, Toronto, 
for many years, and also principal of Upper Canada College. He 
died in Toronto on 6th May, 1901. 

Sat. Feb. 1st I am in great spirits to-day, as the Governor talks of 
going to Detroit in March and spending a month there very gaily; but 
the greatest amusement will be the journey. We shall ride to the Grand 
River, from thence to the La Tranche, where canoes will be built, in which 
we shall go down to Detroit in a few days, and we shall take Lake Erie 
on our return. This scheme particularly pleased me, as it will prevent 
our going to Detroit in July, which I had dreaded on account of the 
extreme heat of that season. 

Sun. Feb. 9th The weather damp, mild and dirty. When will the 
end of March arrive? I am quite impatient to set out for Detroit. 

Thurs. 13th We rode to town. I galloped on the sands several times. 
I saw a Chippawa woman carrying a linen bundle tied up like a doll. I 
was told it was "customary for them to carry about this thing for some 
months after the death of their husbands. When an Indian intends to 
express his determination to get thro' any difficulty he says " Garistakaw," 
and after that always pursues the object. 

Fri. 21st Mr. Bouchette (son of the Commodore) has got the " Onon- 
daga " off the shoal, and she is not injured by the ice. Mr. Littlehales 
came from Niagara. 

Sat. March 1st The news received of the death of the Queen of 
France. Orders given out for mourning, in which everybody appeared 
this evening, and the dance postponed. 

NOTE. Marie Antoinette was married to the Dauphin of France, 
afterwards Louis XVI. After the fall of the Girondists she was 
condemned to death by the Jacobins and guillotined October, 1793. 

1 Mon. March 3rd- The weather extremely cold. 

Tues. 4th The weather extremely cold. Tho' I wore three fur tip- 
pets I was so cold I could hardly hold my cards this evening. This is 
the first time we have felt the want of a ceiling, which we have not had 
made in our drawing-room because the room was rather low. 

Wed. 5th Very cold. I divided the room by hanging across it a 
large carpet, which made it warmer. There has so little snow fallen this 
winter that it was scarcely practicable to track the deer, in consequence 
of which the Indians have been almost starved. A great many of their 
women and children come to our windows every day for bread, which we 
cannot refuse them, tho' having but a small quantity of flour until the 
spring supply arrives, it is inconvenient to give them what they require. 
There have been apprehensions that the French Republicans at New 
York would attack Lower Canada from Albany this winter, but a mutiny 
on board some of their ships carried them to France. If the Americans 
were to attack this province I should go to Quebec. I have just received 
your (Mrs. Hunt's) letters, in answer to which I can only say " Que diable 
avait elle a faire dans cette galere?" What nonsense about the books. 
Did people but consider their happiness, the first point of their creed 
would be, not to consider things as serious which are of no consequence. 

NOTE. "Qu'allait-il faire dans cette galere?" from Moliere's 
"Fouberies de Scapin." Scapin pretends that his young master Leandre 
has been taken prisoner on a Turkish galley, and that the captain 
claims 500 crowns as ransom ; Geronte, a miser, Leandre's father, 
half distracted at the idea of having to lose either his son or his 



money, repeats seven times during the scene, "What did he go into 
that galley for?" a proverbial French expression. 

Fri. 14th As I was riding across the bay I felt the horse sink under 
me, and supposing there was a hole in the ice, I threw myself off; the 
horse lay down to roll in the snow, and as I was falling I struck him with 
my whip, and I believe that prevented him from rolling over me. I was 
not hurt, but much afraid he would repeat the trick. I dreamt some time 
since that the Governor, Mr. Talbot and I were passing a wood, possessed 
by an enemy, who fired ball at us as fast as possible. I was so frightened 
that I have never since liked to hear a musquet fired, and I am quite 
nervous when I hear of the probability of this country being attacked. 
In a magazine we met with a very pretty hymn sung by Sicilian mariners. 
It sounds charming played by a band on the water. The master of the 


(From a Drawing by Lieutenant Pilkington, copied >> M,-*. Si <:) 

band is a German, who boasts of having performed before the King of 
Prussia in the great church at Strasburg. 

Sat. 15th An express is arrived from Lord Dorchester, who orders 
Governor Simcoe, as soon as the navigation of the lakes is open, to go 
and establish a fort on the River Miami, in a country claimed by the 
Americans some distance below Detroit. 

The Governor thinks the order may be put in execution so much 
earlier if he goes down the La Tranche to Detroit that he intends setting 
out t.o-morrow for the Grand River. This order of Lord Dorchester puts 
an end to my scheme of going to Detroit, which is an exceeding great 
disappointment to me. 

NOTE. In September, 1793, Lord Dorchester, the Governor- 
General, who had been on leave of absence in England, returned to 



Canada. He sent Governor Simcoe to erect a fort on the Maumee 
River, in that part of the Indian territory now in the State of Ohio. 
Simcoe was strongly against the establishment of this fort, but he 
had to carry out the instructions of Lord Dorchester, who was com- 
mander-in-chief. Maumee and Miami are, it is said, the same 
word differently spelled by English and French phonetic renderings. 
Its meaning is "Walkers," the term being applied to a tribe of Indians 
who roamed from Wisconsin to Ohio. They preferred to travel on foot 
rather than by canoes. Two rivers, at least, also bore the name, but it 


Fortification looking south across the River. 

(From a Drawing in the J. Rons Robertson collection.) 

is only in recent years that the different spelling has been used with 
regard to the rivers. "Miami" designates a river which joins the 
Ohio in the southwestern part of the State of that name, while 
"Maumee" is a river running into Lake Erie, five miles northeast of 
Toledo. Many historians have, however, written the name of the 
latter river as "Miami," as did both Simcoe and Dorchester. 

Clearly, the fort built by Simcoe was on the north bank of 
Maumee River, five miles from its mouth, where the first rapids occur. 
Mr. Avern Pardoe is of this opinion, and in a paper on " The First 
Chapter of Upper Canadian History" in the Ontario Historical So- 
ciety Papers and Records, Vol. VII., points out that "There is a 



general misapprehension as to the situation of the Fort which 
Simcoe built in the Indian territory. Because it was called Fort 
Miami some have supposed it was on that Miami River which is a 
tributary of the Ohio River. The fort was situated on the Mauroes 
River, not far from Lake Erie, into which the river flows. The 
Maumee is called the Miami on some maps of a date subsequent 
to Simcoe's operation." "A History of the Maumee Valley/' pub- 
lished in Toledo about sixty years ago, says: 

"The fort was built on the left bank of the Maumee (the Maumee 
of Lake Erie) near the lower limits of the present village of Maumee, 
Lucas County, Ohio. Indian Superintendent McKee's agency and 
supply house was a mile and a half above this fort and near the 
lowest rapids of the Maumee. The British also built another fort 
on Turtle Island just outside of Maumee Bay, twenty miles or more 
northeast from their Fort Miami." 

Sun. 16th I walked half-way to the town with Mr. Talbot. The day 
very windy; returned before evening prayers. Mr. Pilkington walked 
from Niagara. I copied some sketches he made going to Lake Huron. He 
says the thermometer was 5 degrees below zero the 5th of this month at 
Niagara. Are you not shocked at the siege of Valenciennes (taken 
by the Allies in 1793) or any real action that has lately occurred, being 
represented on the stage in London? If English minds become hardened 
by seeing such sights as amusements, they will in time be as well able to 
become their friends' executioners as the French have been. 

Mon. 17th A dance to-night. 

Tues. 18th The Governor and Mr. Talbot set out at half-past seven 
for Detroit. 

Wed. 19th This is the month for making maple sugar; a hot sun and 
frosty nights cause the sap to flow most. Slits are cut in the bark of the 
trees, and wooden troughs set under the tree, into which the sap a clear, 
sweet water runs. It is collected from a number of trees, and boiled in 
large kettles till it becomes of a hard consistence. Moderate boiling will 
make powder sugar, but when boiled long it forms very hard cakes, which 
are better. I saw a number of trees slit to-day as I rode with Mr. McGill 
to his farm. 

In a month's time, when the best sap is exhausted, an inferior kind 
runs, of which vinegar is made. Cutting the trees does not kill them, for 
the same trees bear it for many years following. Dr. Nooth. at. Quebec, 
showed me some maple sugar which he had refined, and it became as white 
as West India sugar. The sap of birch trees will make vinegar. 

NOTE. The location of this farm is not known. There is no 
record of land granted to McGill in or near York until July, 1809, 
when he was granted Park Lot No. 7, one hundred acres extending 
from Queen to Bloor Streets and from the west side of Mutual to 
the east side of Bond Street. Land has increased in value in Toronto 
since the days of 1809. In that year the hundred acres would 
probably be worth about a pound an acre. The present assessment of 
the lot 'is $2,016,075 for the land and $2,680,412 for the buildings, 
or a total assessment of $4,696,487. Add thirty per cent, and the 
real present-day value of this hundred acres is $6,105,433. The 
McGill Square portion of the lot bounded by Bond, Shutcr, Church 
and Queen Streets was sold about 1871 to the Metropolitan Church 



for $25,000. The land is now assessed for $308,280 and buildings 
$138,000, a total assessment of $446,280. These prices show the 
extraordinary increase in value of lands that were part of the pri- 
meval forest a century ago. Mrs. Simcoe, up to the time of her 
death, was much interested in the progress of York. Some letters 
in her manuscripts refer to the development of the town that her 
husband founded. 

Fri. 21st The weather extremely warm. Mrs. Richardson spent the 
day with me. 

Sat. 22nd Abundance of geese and ducks seen, which denotes the 
approach of spring. 

Sun. 23rd A very hot day. 

Tues. 25th I had a party at cards this evening. Some white fish 
were sent me to-day from Niagara and dressed for supper; they were the 
best I ever tasted. 

Thurs. 27th A strong, easterly wind. All the ice went out of the 
harbour in two large sheets, each above half a mile long. 

Fri. 28th Mr. Gamble, the surgeon of the Queen's Rangers, returned 
from the Mohawk village on the Grand River, where he had been to 
attend Chief Brant. He brought a letter from the Governor, who went 
from the head of the lake to Niagara, sending Mr. Talbot to the Grand 
River to order the canoes to be prepared. The Governor expected they 
would be in readiness for him to leave Brant's on the 26th. The ice would 
not allow them to move sooner. Mrs. Richardson spent the day with me. 

NOTE. John Gamble, born in 1756, was son of William Gamble, 
of Duross near Enniskillen, Ireland. He came to America in 1779, 
serving as regimental surgeon during the Revolutionary War, after 
which he settled in New Brunswick. He resided there until 1793, 
when he was appointed surgeon to the Queen's Rangers stationed 
at Niagara. After the regiment was disbanded at Toronto in 1802 
Dr. Gamble moved to Kingston. He died in 1811 and his family 
returned to York in 1820. He married Isabella Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Joseph Clarke. One of their sons was the late Joseph 
Clarke Gamble, barrister-at-law, Toronto, who married, first, Mary 
Sayre, daughter of D'Arcy Boulton, a daughter being Miss Sarah 
Gamble of Toronto. He took as his second wife Harriet Eliza, 
daughter of Honorable John Henry Boulton, and of their issue the 
following survive : F. C. Gamble, Deputy Minister of Public Works, 
Victoria, B.C.; A. W. Gamble, H. Dudley Gamble, K.C., and A. G. 
Gamble, Manager of the Sterling Bank, Toronto; Mrs. C. E. Bowker 
(Elizabeth Sophia), of London, England; and Mrs. I. F. Hellmuth 
(Harriet Emily), of Toronto. 

Sat. 29th Rain and damp weather. 

Sun. 30th I walked on the sands. 

Tues. April 1st I rode to the town; a delightful evening. 

Wed. 2nd I rode. 

Mon. 14th I rode. I saw a fine eagle. 

Tues. 15th A boat came from Niagara, where the river is still full of 
ice. I received some excellent white fish from thence. A boat arrived 
from the Bay of Quinte with pork. 



Wed. 16t.h Walked towards the old French Fort. 
Fri. 18th The " Caldwell " arrived from Niagara. She left it the 
16th. The harbour was open on the 10th of this month. 

NOTE. There is no entry in the diary from Friday, 18th April, 
until 2nd May. It was a time of sorrow for the Governor and his 
wife, for their little daughter Katherine, born in Niagara on 16th 
January, 1793, was buried on the 17th April, 1794. It is rather 
peculiar that Mrs. Simcoe makes no reference to the sad event. 

Fri. May 2nd Governor Simcoe arrived at six this evening from 
Niagara. He rode from the Grand River to the La Tranche, where he 
embarked the 29th of March in canoes, and that day he reached the site 
intended for New London. The 30th he slept at the Delaware village; the 
31st at the Moravian village; the 1st of April at an Indian trader's; the 2nd 
arrived at Detroit; two days the snow fell incessantly, so that they were wet 
thro' in the canoe, which repelled a slight attack of gout the Governor was 
seized with. He saw wild turkeys and eagles, and shot a deer which the 
wolves drove down the river. The Governor stayed four days at Detroit, 
and then went to Captain Elliott's at the River au Raisin; from thence 
rode 30 miles to the River Miami, in Ohio, and stayed at Coll. McKee's, 
of Detroit, a little distance from thence. 

On the way they passed an Indian fort, and swam the horses over some 
creeks. At Coll. McKee's there were very good wild turkeys. On 
his return the Governor saw Turtle Island, at the entrance of Miami Bay, 
and was detained some days among the Bass Islands, at the west end of 
Lake Erie, by contrary winds. They went on some of the islands, and it 
being St. George's Day, gave one of the islands that name. The Governor 
killed seven rattlesnakes with a small stick on one of the islands, and 
Mr. Pilkington shot a sturgeon. The Governor arrived at Fort Erie the 
25th of April. 

NOTE. Captain Matthew Elliott was Assistant Agent of Indian 
Affairs in 1790 at Detroit. In 1795 he became Deputy and in July, 
1796, Superintendent. In 1812 when the British entered the fort 
at Detroit, the regiment of Indians was led by Colonel Elliott. He 
was an intimate friend of Tecumseh and fought at the Battle of the 
Thames, where the latter fell. At eighty years of age he took the 
active command of the Indians at the assault on Fort Niagara in 
1813. His death took place in 1814. One writer paid re-garding 
Elliott that "His Majesty has lost one his most faithful and zealous 

Fri. 9th At seven this morning we set off in a boat for Niagara with 
the children and Mr. Talbot, intending to reach the head of the lake 
to-night, but a very stiff breeze rising ahead about four o'clock, we put on 
shore 12 miles short of it. The tents were pitched and fires made. The 
Governor and I walked some distance on the beach, and Mr. Talbot amused 
himself by barking elm trees as the Indians do, and covering his tent 
with it, for it proved a very wet night. The children and Junk, a nurse, 
slept on the office boxes in the tent. 

Sat. 10th We rose at daylight, breakfasted and set off, but the 
weather was so misty that I saw less of the country towards the " Head of 
the Lake " than I had expected, and was prevented going into Burlington 
Bay. After some hours of wet weather it blew very fresh and cleared up. 
A wave washed into the boat, of which no notice was taken, but Collins, a 
nurse, laid her cloak on the other side. People sometimes cross from the 



16-mile creek to the 40-mile creek (Grimsby), but the Governor does not 
like meeting those breezes which rise suddenly on this lake. 

NOTE. These creeks are designated by their distance from 
Niagara, if on the south side of Lake Ontario, and from Burlington 
if on the north side. Oakville on the 
north shore is situated at the mouth of 
the Sixteen-Mile Creek. 

10th We coasted to the forty-mile 
creek, forty miles from Niagara, and 
passed in at three o'clock. The mouth of 
this creek forms a very fine scene; a very 
bold spur of the high land appears beauti- 
ful in the distance. It is about three miles 
off. Some cottages are pretty placed on 
the banks of the river, and a saw mill 
affords a quantity of boards, which, piled 
up in a wood, makes a varied foreground. 
It was about six before we reached the 
20-Mile Pond, the mouth of another creek. 

NOTE. Twenty-Mile Creek runs 
into Twenty-Mile Pond before it 
reaches the lake. Jordan, Ontario, is 
situated three miles from the lake 
shore, on high ground, having on its 
left a deep valley through which flows 
the "twentv-mile creek." 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

10th A small inlet from the lake carries you into this pond, which 
is two miles long. The banks are very high, of a fine verdure, and the 
summit covered with wood, which was now reflected with the deepest 
shade in the water and had a most beautiful appearance, which was soon 
heightened by the rising moon, giving more force to the shadow. Two 
houses of Coll. Butler's, of the Rangers, were distinguished at a distance. 
We had not eaten since eight this morning. I was, therefore, desirous 
to get something for the children, and while some salmon we bought of 
an Indian as we passed Burlington Bay was preparing for our supper, we 
walked half a mile with the children to a farmhouse, which we found 
inhabited by some Pennsylvanians, whom Governor Simcoe had assisted 
last year at Niagara; we had here excellent bread and milk and butter. 
We then returned to the tents, and Francis lay down on his greatcoat on 
the grass and went to sleep till his tent was ready for him. We supped 
by starlight amid this fine scenery of wood and water; the bright fires of 
the soldiers below the hill, contrasted with a dark sky, now and then 
brightened by a gleam of moonlight, had a beautiful effect. 

Sun. llth We left this beautiful spot about eight o'clock. The 
entrance to the Seventeen, Sixteen, Fifteen and Twelve Mile Creeks 
appeared pretty as we passed them. It blew so fresh we were afraid of 
losing the awning from the boat. It was too showery for me to venture 
in the canoe. It was a pretty sight to see how swiftly she glided through 
the water. We arrived at Niagara at twelve, and before two 1 wished to 
return to York; the heat here was so great, and looking on the land 
seemed to me to add to the heat, and was quite disagreeable after having 
been accustomed to look on the bay at York, and the river here, tho' half 
a mile wide, appears narrow after leaving that expanse of water. 



NOTE. There is no Seventeen-Mile Creek. In all probability 
Mrs. Simcoe referred to the Eighteen. There are no villages at the 
Fifteen, Sixteen or Eighteen, while what was known as the Twelve- 
Mile-Creek is now St. Catharines. 

Tues. 13th I went to see Major Smith's house he has built on this 
side of the river. It is a very good one. The town here is enlarged and 
called Newark. 

NOTE. The house referred to by Mrs. Simcoe as Major Smith's 
(afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel Smith), was built about 1793, by 
his son, D. W. Smith, Surveyor-General of Upper Canada. In his 


(From a Dra-wing by Mrs. Simcoe,) 

"Tour Through Upper Canada" in 1795 La Rochefoucauld writes of 
the house as follows: "In point of size and elegance, the house 
of Colonel Smith, lieutenant-colonel in the Fifth Regiment, is much 
distinguished. It consists of joiners' work, but is constructed, em- 
bellished and painted in the best style; the yard, garden and court 
are surrounded with railings, made and painted as elegantly as they 
could be in England." D. W. Smith owned what is now called Court 
House Square or Market Square, Niagara, his house being situated 
on the west side of King Street between Queen and Johnson. In 1798 
the house was offered for sale for a free Grammar School, with four 
acres as endowment, and again in 1800 at a reduced price. Governor 
Hunter, however, opposed the purchase on the ground that the house 
was in too exposed a position, being opposite Fort Niagara. Miss 
15 225 


Janet Carnochan says it is not known what became of the house, but 
its site was occupied in 1812 by the (government House, which was 
burned in 1813. 

Niagara was called " Newark " by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe 
in 1792, but both names were used either from habit or fancy. In 
1798, however, by Act of the Legislature the name again became 
" Niagara." 


(From a Drawing btj Mm. Simcoe.) 

Wed. 14th Mr. Pilkington goes to-morrow to see and to give orders 
for fortifying the new post at the Miami, the fort Governor Simcoe built 
by order of Lord Dorchester. He gave me some sketches taken on Lake 

Thurs. 16th Some ladies dined here from the Garrison. After they 
went I drove out in the open carriage towards the Landing. The 
apprehension of the war with the United States engages my atten- 
tion very disagreeably; at the same time I reflect that I should not have 
less anxiety in any other part of the world. Had we remained in Eng- 
land probably the Governor would now be going on the European con- 
tinent, where campaign follows campaign without a prospect of peace, 
and here, if a war takes place, the result must be speedily decisive. 

Fri. 16th Drove this evening, after dining at Mr. Peter Russell's, the 
Receiver-General's, towards the two-mile creek; the road horribly bad. 

NOTE. Two-Mile Creek and Pond, where Honorable Peter Rus- 
sell lived, is two miles froon the mouth of the Niagara River, due 
west, and has been a favorite resort for sportsmen. The new military 
quarters lately purchased by the Canadian Government are close 
to it. 

Sat. 17th So cold an east wind that I had a fire; a large party at 
dinner. The new merchant vessel, called the " Governor Simcoe," arrived. 
She sails remarkably well. 

NOTE. The schooner at first known as the "Governor Simcoe" 
and latterly simply as the "Simcoe," was built at Kingston in 1794 



and was of only eighty-seven tons burthen. She was at first intended 
for the North-West Company's lake trade, but in the end her career 
appears to have been purely local and confined to Lake Ontario, as 
she is frequently referred to in the Gazettes of 1797 and 1798 as 
plying between Kingston and Niagara, the latter place being at 
that time oi considerably more business importance than the capital 
of the province, the town of York. The "Simcoe" was so constructed 
that in case of necessity she could be armed with eight four-pounder 
guns and a similar number of swivels. The "Simcoe" was the first 
vessel built for trade on Lake Ontario. Her first captain was Captain 
Murney. John Clarke says in his "Memoirs" (Vol. VII. , Ontario 
Historical Society Papers), with regard to Captain Murney: "I 
recollect a Captain Murney building a schooner in the County of 
Prince Edward, of red cedar, in the year 1800 or 1801, which vessel 
was named the 'Prince Edward.' I was on board the following 
year, and crossed from Kingston to Niagara. He was a noble 
captain of a staunch, good ship. I believe Captain Murney married 
a Miss Smith of Kingston. The captain was father of the late 
Honorable Mr. Murne}', of Belleville. In the year 1812 this schooner 
was in good condition, and was employed as a Government armed 
vessel on Lake Ontario." 

Sun. 18th Very cold. 

Mon. 19th The wind changed and the weather warm. 

Tues. 20th I am always glad to have large parties at dinner, for when 
I sit alone I do nothing but think of the threatened war in this country. 
After the ladies leave me, Mr. Talbot drives me in the gig towards the 
Landing, the weather being usually too warm to walk, and the Governor 
employs two or three hours on writing in an evening. This evening a 
cow was lying in the road, and Mr. Talbot did not turn out of the way, 
expecting she would, and, before he was aware of it, one wheel went over 
her back, but as she lay quite still the carriage did not overset. 

Wed. 21st A large party at dinner. 

Thurs. 22nd The Governor and I dined alone. We fished near the 
wharf at Niagara. 

Sat. 24th We rode in the morning, and were prevented going to the 
garrison in the evening by a great fog. 

Sun. 25th I persuaded the Governor to ride this evening. We had 
not ridden a mile before there came so violent a shower that we were wet 
through in three minutes, and the claps of thunder were so loud as to 
make the horses start. After changing our clothes we sat down to tea, 
and agreed with Mr. Talbot that the rain had been the pleasantest mode 
of taking a shower bath, and the extreme violence with which it fell ren- 
dered us less liable to catch cold than we should have been under a 
gentle shower. 

Wed. 28th All the ladies from the garrison, the fort on the east 
side of river, and Newark, drank tea here previous to the ball which is to 
be given on the 4th of June. 

Thurs. 29th The " Mississaga," the " Caldwell " and the gunboats 
arrived, bringing some of the members of the House of Assembly from 
the lower townships. Capt. John McDonell, of Glengarry, the Speaker, 
etc., etc., dined with us. 

Mon. June 2nd The House of Assembly met to-day. We went to thp 
garrison in the evening and drank tea with Mrs. Smith. The " Missis- 



saga," " Caldwell " and gunboats sailed. Capt. Brooking, of the 17th Regt., 
went in the " Mississaga." 

Tues. 3rd The Governor goes to the fort on the east side of the river 
almost every day, to see the works which the Engineers are repairing. 
I am glad to take the opportunity of crossing the water (and glad he is 
induced to take this little exercise) and walking on the common behind 
the fort, as I consider the air so near the lake, and where the ground 
is high, to be much healthier than our side of the water. The Governor 
stayed so late with the Engineer this evening that it was dark, and 
Francis fell asleep on the common before he returned to us. 

NOTE. Fort Niagara on the east side of the Niagara River was 
not handed over by the British, to the Americans until 179(5. 

Wed. 4th The ball was held in the Council Chamber. The Governor 
and I and Mr. Talbot went into the room after all the company were 
assembled. There were 22 couple. I did not dance. The ladies were all 
well dressed. We supped at twelve in a room as large as the ballroom, 
and we came away at two o'clock. The whole was extremely well managed, 
as Mr. Talbot ordered it himself. 

NOTE. There is no information extant as to the location of the 
Council Chamber. It is believed, however, that it was in a building 
which was an addition to Navy Hall. 

Thur. 5th I was tired by sitting up late, and went to take an early 
dinner at the Fort with Mrs. Smith. The Governor had a large party of 
gentlemen to dinner. Mr. Talbot came for me in the evening, and it was 
so cold we were obliged to wrap ourselves up in great coats and tippets. 

Fri. 6th The Governor went to the Fort Chippawa, and returned at 
night wet through. Mrs. D. W. Smith, wife of the Surveyor-General, has 
added a boy to her family to-day. 

Sat. 7th Francis' birthday was not kept yesterday, as the Governor 
was from home. To-day the little cannon Mr. McDonell gave him fired a 
salute of 21 guns, and tho' they are not two inches long, made a loud 
report and pleased him much. Being three years old, he was dressed in a 
rifle shirt and sash, which gave him somewhat the air of an Indian. He 
found a dead snake, and gave it as a present to one of the gentlemen 
with us. I went to the Fort this morning, and walked in the evening. 
Mr. Talbot went towards the Queenstown Landing in his canoe. 

Tues. 10th Some Seneca Indians came here from the northern part 
of the State of New York. Francis went to see them dance, and after- 
wards imitated their dancing and singing surprisingly well. 

Wed. llth I rode in the morning, and went to the Fort in the even- 
ing, to walk on the common. 

Fri. 13th Mrs. Smith, Commodore Grant and 1 went to the Landing 
in a boat and dined with Mrs. Hamilton; we carried Francis with us. 
Mr. Talbot came to meet us in his canoe in the evening. 

Sat. 14th The "Mississaga" arrived from Kingston. Mr. Brooking 
came in her. 

Mon. 16th Company at dinner. The " Onondaga," 12 guns, sailed 
for Kingston. Capts. Fitzgerald and Cleddowe went in her, by whom I 
wrote letters. 

NOTE. Captain Augustine Fitzgerald had rank in the regiment, 
13th July, 1791, and in the army the previous January. 

Tues. 17th Capt. Charlton, of the 5th Regt., went in the "Missis- 


NOTE. Captain Edward Charlton of the 5th is given in the army 
list as having rank in the regiment 21st July, 1783. He received 
rank as major, 1st March, 1794. 

Thur. 19th I went in a boat this evening. 

Sun. 22nd Capt. Talbot sailed in the " Governor Simcoe." I dined 
at the Fort, and rode on horseback after I came home. 

Mon. 23rd A large party of the members of the House of Assembly 
dined here. 

Tues. 24th Mrs. Mason, wife of Mr. J. M. Mason, of the 5th, and a 
party from the Fort, dined here. We went on the water in the evening. 

NOTE. John M. Mason, ensign in the 5th, became lieutenant 
on 18th October, 1793. 

Wed. 25th A large party to dinner, and on the water in the evening. 
Mrs. Mason saw a rattlesnake in her garden under some radish leaves. 

Fri. 27th I dined at the garrison. 

Sat. 28th Mrs. D. W. Smith dined with me. 

Sun. 29th A rattlesnake seen under the wharf not 100 yards from our 
house, and it is supposed that there is a nest of them there. 

Thurs. July 3rd Mr. Tukel arrived from England. 

Sat. 5th We dined at Major Smith's, and his grandchild was chris- 

Mon. 7th The House of Assembly (the third session of the first Legis- 
lature) prorogued. General Wayne, of the United States, has insinuated 
to the Six Nations that the western nations poisoned those of their chiefs 
who died at the meeting at Sandusky last year. 

NOTE. Mrs. Simcoe must have been in error as to the date of 
tlie prorogation of the third session of the first Legislature, for offi- 
cial records show that it took place on the 9th July and not on 
the 7th. 

Wed. 9th Went this evening to the Fort. Mr. Darling stuffed a bird 
for me called a Recollect. The appearance of red wax on its brown wings 
and the tuft of feathers on its head make it very pretty. (Probably a 
waxwing.) The Indians shoot small birds with such blunt arrows that 
their plumage is not injured. 

Sun. 13th Mr. C. Justice Osgoode sailed for Quebec. The Governor 
dined at the mess. 

Mon. 14th A large party at dinner. 

Tues. 15th Rowed in a boat towards the Four-Mile Creek. Mrs. 
Smith and Mrs. Mason went with me. 

Wed. 16th The weather very hot. We went out in a boat. While we 
were walking in the garden this evening about 50 Indians, men and 
women, landed from their canoes and encamped outside the paling, 
brought on shore their luggage and made fires; they were met by a party 
of Senecas, who sat round their fire. All this passed with so little noise 
or bustle that we scarcely heard there were people near us. What a 
noise would the encampment of 50 Englishmen have made! But " Rien 
de trop " should be the motto of these people. Those who draw best and 
make no smoke without producing a marked effect may be compared to 
Indians who never appear to make one motion that does not effect the 
purpose they intend. We sent some bread and meat to this party. There 
is always an appearance of distinctions among these savages; the prin- 
cipal chiefs are usually attended by apparently inferiors, who walk 
behind them. I call them aide-de-camps. I observe none but the chiefs 
shake hands with the Governor. 



Thur. 17th We dined in a boat a half-mile from hence r under a steep 
rock on the shore of the Niagara River, which affords shade, and to which 
the boat is fastened. Down the side of the rock a fine spring pours 
rapidly and as clear as crystal. 

The Governor was walking on the hill this evening when his shoulder 
and finger were struck by a shot fired by a soldier belonging to the guard 
tent, who fired at an Indian dog which had taken away some pork. A 
shot remained in the Governor's finger, and was very painful. A gentle- 
man walking with him was struck and the dog severely wounded, which 
caused great concern to the Indian women. An Indian was also struck 
by the shot. The Governor immediately gave him the soldier's gun to 
appease him, and reprimanded the soldier. 

Fri. 18th Major and Mrs. Smith dined under the rock with us. 

Sat. 19th The weather still excessively hot, tho' some rain fell. 

Sun. 20th A cold, east wind. I breakfasted at the garrison. 


(From a Drawing by Owen Staples, in the J. Ros* Robertson collection.) 

Sat. 26th As I much wished to visit the Forty-Mile Creek, the Governor 
allotted two or three days for this party of pleasure. Mr. Mayne was 
chosen to accompany us, and Francis was one of the party. At two o'clock 
we embarked with a fresh east wind, which fell almost immediately, but 
has occasioned so much surf that we could not go on shore at the Four-Mile 
Creek; about two miles further we landed and dined (Mr. Servos has a 
house at. the mouth of the creek). We passed Mr. McNab's house at the 
Eight-Mile Creek, and beyond the Twelve-Mile Creek we encamped on a 
point without noticing that the field abounded with a coarse weed, which 
is such a harbour for mosquitcs that the tent was filled with them, and 
we were glad to rise and breakfast at half after three in the morning. 

NOTE. The oldest house in Niagara Township is that owned by 
Miss Mary Servos, daughter of the late Colonel Peter Servos. It 
is built on an eminence commanding a view of the Four-Mile Creek, 
now known as Virgil. The house has been altered, but the principal 
room, with its heavy rafters, dates back to 1783. This room was used 
at one time as a Government store. The Servos family were of Prussian 



origin. Some of the sons were present at the siege of Niagara (1759) 
while grandsons served in Butler's Rangers. Four generations of the 
Servos family have served in capacities as ensign, lieutenant, cap- 
tain and colonel. In 1779, Governor Haldimand gave Daniel Servos 
a commission as lieutenant in Colonel Johnson's company of North 
American Indians, and in 1788 he received a commission from Lord 
Dorchester, to be captain of the first regiment of militia in the Dis- 
trict of Nassau. Mrs. Jarvis, wife of William Jarvis, Provincial 
Secretary, 1792-1817, writes of the Four-Mile Creek, "There is a 
great mill upon it, and the family that it belongs to are Dutch." 


(From a Drawing by Owen Staples, in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

Allan Macnab, born 1768, was ensign in the 71st Regiment and 
afterwards lieutenant in the 19th Hussars. He served with General 
Simcoe in the Revolutionary War, at the conclusion of which he 
settled in Canada. He was subsequently Sergeant-at-Arms in the 
House of Assembly. His wife was Anne, daughter of Peter William 
Napier. Macnab died in 1830. The late Colonel (the Honorable 
Sir) Allan Napier Macnab of Hamilton, Ont., who was the first 
Queen's Counsel appointed in Canada, was a son of Allan Macnab. 
The name Eight-Mile Creek has been replaced by that of Macnab. 

Sun. 27th The weather misty, damp and disagreeable. Francis caught 
cold, and was so ill that we went on shore at the Eighteen-Mile Creek and 
stopped at Sail's, the Indian's house, half an hour. 



We stopped at the Fifteen-Mile Creek, and took a sketch of the mouth 
of that river. We dined on the beach at the Twenty-Mile Creek, and 
went across the pond to one of Coll. Butler's houses, where we slept, after 
taking great pains to smoke the house and fix the mosquito net well, for 
this place abounds so much with mosquitos that the farmer does not 
sleep in his house from June till September, but sleeps in his barn to 
avoid them. The pond is full of wild rice, a marshy weed. The N.B. 
wind has filled up the inlet so much that the boat was obliged to be drawn 
over sand. 

Mon. 28th We rose at six, left Francis with a servant, and set off for 
the Forty-Mile Creek. By the time they had drawn the boat over the 
sand into the lake, a strong N.W. wind sprung up, which was exactly 
ahead of us and prevented our getting to the Forty till two o'clock, tho' 
with a fair wind'we should not have been two hours; the fog excessively 
thick, and perfectly counteracted our schemes of seeing the country. 
However, we walked thro' the village and beyond Green's Mills a little 
way up the mountain, far enough to see where the stream dashes over 
very dark rocks, surrounded by hemlock, spruce and other picturesque 
trees. Green ground the corn for all the military posts in Upper Canada. 
His mill stood five miles east of Hamilton, on the Stoney Creek road. 

A mile further is a mill and small waterfall, and at a season when the 
water is higher the scenery must be wonderfully fine; at present it is 
well worth seeing. I drank tea at Green's, and unwillingly left this fine 
scenery, of which I had so slight a view. We were no sooner in the boat, 
expecting a rapid passage up the Twenty-Mile Creek, v/hen the wind 
veered and came right ahead, so that it was ten o'clock before we arrived 
at the inlet. It was quite dark, and we were another hour getting the 
boat over the sand and rowing to the house. Mrs. Green advised me to 
give Francis crow's foot boiled with milk till it becomes red and thick, 
which she said would cure the present complaint in his stomach. 

There are 100 people settled at the Forty, and there have been but 
seven graves in five years. The Governor promises that I shall ride on 
the mountain above the Forty this season. 

NOTE. In writing of the Forty-Mile Creek, where Green's Mills 
were situated, Rochefoucauld, who visited the place in travelling 
through Canada in 1795, says: "Forty-Mile Creek was one of the 
chief objects of our tour. This stream, which intersects in a straight 
line the range of mountains extending from Queens' Town, flows, with 
a gentle fall, into the plain, and affords some wild, awful, yet very 
pleasing prospects among the mountains. Before it empties itself 
into the lake, it turns a grist mill and two saw-mills, which belong 
to a Mr. Green, a Loyalist of Jersey, who six or seven years ago 
(1788-9) settled in this part of Upper Canada. This Mr. Green 
was the constant companion of the Governor on this journey (along 
the shore of Lake Ontario). He is apparently a worthy man, and 
in point of knowledge far superior to the common caste of settlers 
in this neighborhood. His estate consists of three hundred acres, 
about forty of which are cleared of wood. He paid one hundred and 
t \venty-five dollars for forty acres, through which the creek flows 
that turns his mill, on account of the greater value they bear for 
this reason, the common price being only five shillings ($1) per 
acre. Land newly c 1 eared yields here, the first year, twenty bushels 
of corn. The soil is good, though not of the most excellent quality. 
They plough the land, after it has produced three or four crops, but 


(Frmn a Drawing by Mr*. Simcor.) 


not very deep, and never use manure. The price of flour is twenty- 
two shillings (4.40) per hundredweight; that of wheat from seven 
to eight shillings ($1.60) per bushel. The bushel weighs fifty-two 
pounds upon an average. Labourers are scarce and are paid at the 
rate of six shillings ($1.20) a day." 

Tues. 29th Embarked at nine, rowed a little up the creek among the 
wild rice, and then turned to the lake, the wind exactly contrary and so 
very fresh that we were obliged to go on shore at the Seventeen-Mile 
Creek, where we dined and walked to Schram's farm, where the women 
were making straw hats. I gathered crow's foot. Mr. Mayne had a fit 
of the ague in short, everything went au contraire during the expe- 
dition. We arrived at Niagara before eleven. A fine, clear evening now 
we are returned from our tour. 

Fri. Aug. 1st The weather insufferably hot at Niagara. We walked 
to Mr. Smith's and supped there, which was very pleasant, as the rooms 
are so much larger than ours at Navy Hall. Mrs. Smith now resides on 
this side of the water, for the change of air for a sick child. 

Sat. 2nd The heat extreme. We dined in the boat under the rock. 
A thunderstorm drove us into Mrs. Smith's house. 

Sun. 3rd The Governor went early this morning to the Tuscarora 
village, which is about two miles above Lewiston, N.Y.; dined on the 
water and returned early. The thermometer 96. 

Mon. 4th The thermometer 96, but Mr. Vandeleur, who is just arrived 
from Detroit, calls it cool weather. The thermometer was 101 in Fort 
Lernoult (Detroit). The heat and mosquitos do not affect me in the 
violent manner they used to do. 

Tues. 5th A storm and cold wind. 

Thurs. 7th Rode in the evening. The whortle berries of this country 
are larger than in England, quite black, and if dried in the s\in make as 
good puddings as Levant currants, quite as sharp. The Indians live in 
the woods where they grow at this season of the year, and boil quan- 
tities of them into cakes. 

General Washington was seen last year at the theatre at Philadelphia; 
lights were carried before him to the stage box, where he sat in a front 
row, Mrs. Washington and the aide-de-camps on the seats behind him, the 
music playing " God Save George Washington," to the tune of " God Save 
the King." The gentlemen who gave this account went to the theatre this 
year and discovered General Washington in a back row of the front boxes, 
without attendants, the Vice-President and Mrs. Washington in the same 
bench, and no notice taken when he came into the theatre. The next 
day a paragraph in the papers asserted that if Washington did not tane 
the fort at Presqu'ile he ought to be guillotined. 

NOTE. The projected expedition of the Six Nations to clear out 
the settlers at Presqu' Isle was abandoned as the President of the 
United States interposed to prevent further encroachments by the 
Pennsylvanians in that quarter. 

Frl. 8th The " Onondaga " called, with Mr. Vandeleur on board. 
The " Mississaga " arrived, with the Bishop of Quebec, his brother. Mr. 
Mountain, and his son, who is the bishop's chaplain. Mr. Lemoine arrived 
in his decked boat from Kingston across the lake. She left Kingston on 

NOTE. The Bishop of Quebec to whom Mrs. Simcoe referred was 
the Right Rev. Jacob Mountain, D.D. (the name was originally 
Montaigne), first Protestant Bishop of Quebec. He belonged to a 



French Protestant family who settled in England, in Norfolk County, 
upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He was educated at 
Wyndham and Norwich, and afterwards went to Cambridge. At 
the time of his selection for the see of Quebec 
he was examining chaplain to the Bishop of Lin- 
coln. In 1793, George III. erected the Canadas 
into a diocese of the Church of England, and 
Dr. Mountain was appointed to take charge. He 
arrived in Quebec 1st November, 1793. The 
outlcok was anything but encouraging, for there 
were but six clergymen in Lower Canada and three 
in Upper Canada. However, by indefatigable 
diligence and energy, obstacles were overcome, 
and Bishop Mountain may well be called the 
father and* founder of the Anglican Church in 
Canada. He labored here for thirty-two years, 
BISHOP MOUNTAIN, his death taking place on 16th June, 1825, at 
Marchmont, near Quebec, the seat of the late 
General Sir John Harvey, Bart. Three of Bishop Mountain's sons 
followed the profession of their father. 

In the register of St. Mark's Church, Niagara, an entry on 5th 
June, 1793, records the marriage of Ensign Lemoine to Susan John- 
son, who was Susannah, the seventh daughter of Molly Brant and 
Sir William Johnson. 

Sun. 10th I went to church. The Bishop preached an excellent 
discourse, Romans 1, 16 v., " I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ, for 
it is the cower of God unto salvation to everyone that believeth, to the 
Jew first, and also to the Greek." 

Tues. 12th An express from Detroit. It is now decided that I am 
to go to Quebec next month. The hostile appearance Gen. Anthony 
Wayne's conduct bears makes the continuance of peace with the United 
States very doubtful. 

Thurs. 14th The Governor went with the Bishop to see the Falls of 

Fri. 15th The Bishop sailed for Kingston. I wrote to Mrs. Caldwell 
to take a house at Quebec for me. Should the French and Americans 
assault Quebec this winter I shall find more comfort in Mrs. Caldwell's 
society than in that, of most others, as such a scene would not be new to 
her. She was in the town when besieged by Montgomery, 1775. Coll. 
Caldwell was one of the most active of the defenders of it. 

Sat. 16th I went to the garrison this evening. 

Sun. 17th An express from Detroit. 

NOTE. This means that the Government messengers had arrived 
with letters and official document?. 

Mon. 18th The Governor and myself have colds, which is very 
unusual. Notwithstanding, we crossed the water and rode to the Landing 
at Lewiston. I had not ridden on that side of the river before. We dined 
in the boat opposite Mr. Hamilton's, at whose house we drank tea, and 
returned to Navy Hall in the boat. 

Tues. 19th The Governor had the shot extracted from his finger. It 
was so near the joint that it is feared the finger will always be stiff; it 
was a large shot. 




Wed. 20th A wet day. Mr. Hamilton dined with us; the cannon sent 
to Fort. Erie. 

Thurs. 21st Mrs. Hamilton and Mrs. Richardson here. 

Sun. 24th Mr. Crooks' new vessel, named " The York," sailed for 
Kingston, and Mr. LeMoine's decked boat accompanied her. 

XOTE. Mr. Crooks was the brother of the Honorable James 
Crooks of the Legislative Council, and a member of the firm of W. 
and J. Crooks, West Niagara. His vessel "The York" was after- 
wards wrecked at the Genesee River. 

Mon. 25th Capt. David Shank arrived with the 
detachment from York, to go to the Miamis. 

XOTE. David Shank was gazetted lieutenant 
in the Queen's Rangers, March, 1777, obtaining 
his captaincy October, 1778. He served through- 
out the Revolutionary War, and when his corps 
was disbanded in 1783, he was placed on half 
pay. In 1791, he was recalled to full pa}', when 
he joined the Light Infantry battalion, which 
was also given the name of Queen's Rangers, 
raised in that year in England for services in 
Canada under Colonel Simcoe. Shank became 
brevet-major, 1st March, 1794, and on Simcoe's 
returning to Europe assumed command of the troops in Upper 
Canada in the summer of 1796. He became lieutenant-colonel in 
January, 1798, and took command of his regiment in the following 
April. He remained in the corps until it was disbanded at the 
Peace of Amiens. On September 3rd, 1803, he was appointed to 
the command of the Canadian Fencibles. He became major-general, 
1811, lieutenant-general, 1821, and died in Glasgow, 16th October, 
1831. He acquired in York a large tract of land in what is now 
the north side of Queen Street, Toronto, near 

Trinity College. The portrait is from the 
'' original oil painting at Wolford. 

Tues. 26th I received the finest red water melons 

from York I ever saw. 

Wed. 27t>h More detachments from York for the 


Thurs. 28th Mr. Sheaffe returned from Oswego 

with news that Lord Howe has taken seven sail of 

French ships. 

NOTK. Mr. Sheaffe was Lieutenant Roger 
Hale Sliruffc of the 5th Regiment. He was born 
in 1763 in Boston, and was a son of Mr. William 
Sheaffe, Deputy Collector of Customs at that port. 
He entered the army as an ensign in 1 778 and 
rose to the rank of lieutenant in 1780. He served 
in Canada from 1787-97, and did important work. Under instruc- 
tions from Dorchester and Governor Simcoe, Sheaffe was entrusted 
with a mission in connection with settlements by Americans on the 
16 241 



south shore of Lake Ontario. Both the Governor-General and Gover- 
nor Simcoe protested against these settlements. Sheaffe was made 
a captain in 1795. In 1811 he became major-general. In recog- 
nition of his services at Queenston Heights he was made a baronet 
in 1813. He was in command at York in April, 1813, and was 
severely and, in the opinion of many, justly criticized for his con- 
duct in not remaining in York and assisting the local militia, just 
before the attack of the Americans. He was made a general in 1828. 
In 1810 he married Margaret, third daughter of Mr. John Coffin 
of Quebec, cousin of Admiral Coffin. Sheaffe died in Edinburgh in 
1851, and his wife a few years later. 

Fri. 29th An express from Detroit announces that General Anthony 
Wayne has retired from the Miami Fort after having summoned it to 
surrender. He came within shot of it, and found it stronger than he 
expected and that there was cannon. The match was lighted to have 
fired if he had not retired. Major Campbell, who commanded, showed 
great discretion and propriety of conduct. If the Governor had waited 
until the opening of the navigation of the lakes to have gone to the 
Miamis, as Lord Dorchester proposed, the fort would not have been ren- 
dered defensible enough by this time to have intimidated General Wayne, 
and war would not have commenced with the United States. 

NOTE. After the battle of Fort Recovery, General Wayne, "Mad 
Anthony," marched to within thirty miles of Fort Miami, recently 
built by Governor Simcoe, and on August 20th drove away the 
Indians who, to the number of two thousand, had gathered nearby 
under the command of Little Turtle. After this engagement, Major 
Campbell, who commanded the fort, wrote to Wayne expressing sur- 
prise at the appearance of an American force at 
a point almost within sight of the British guns. 
General Wayne in reply denounced the erection 
of the fortress on American territory as the highest 
act of aggression. Then he set fire to and destroyed 
everything within sight of Fort Miami. 

Governor Simcoe proceeded with Captain Brant 
and 150 warriors to encourage the Indians, but 
they had no relish for another brush with General 
Wayne's forces. Finally in October, 1794, the 
United States Secretary Randolph communicated 
_^_ with the legation in the United States and mat- 

GEN WAYNE * ers were arran o e ^ satisfactorily by a withdrawal 

of the troops and the abandonment of the fort. 
Major William Campbell, who commanded at Miami, was of the 
24th Regiment. He had rank in the army 1st December, 1778, and 
in the regiment, 31st May, 1781. He became lieutenant-colonel in 

General Wayne was brevetted major-general in 1783 and in 1792 
was appointed major-general and comma nder-in-chief of the army in 
the United States. 



Mon. Sept. 1st The merchants gave a dinner to commemorate Lord 
Howe's victory of the 1st of June. The Governor and the officers of the 
garrison dined with them. Mrs. Smith and some ladies dined with me. 

NOTE. Lord Richard Howe obtained a decisive victory off Ushant, 
1st June, 1794, for which he received the thanks of Parliament, and 
two years after he was made admiral of the fleet. 

Thurs. 4th The militia officers dined with the Governor. I dined 
with Mrs. Smith. 

Mon. 8th Mr. Mackenzie, who has made his way from the Grand 
Portage to the Pacific ocean, is just returned from thence, and brought the 
Governor a sea otter skin as a proof of his having reached that coast. 
He says the savages spear them from the rocks, as the Indians here do 
sturgeon. These animals are amphibious, but generally in the sea. Mr. 
McKenzie went down the River of Peace near two degrees north of Lake 
Superior, and came to the Rocky Mountains, on which rise some rivers 
that fall into the Atlantic, and others which empty themselves into the 
Pacific ocean. He went down a river which falls into the latter and rises 
not 700 yards from the River of Peace. He afterwards travelled 17 days 
by land. There are a kind of large sheep on the Rocky Mountains, their 
horns the size of a cow's. The Indians near the coast live on fish, which 
they are very dexterous in catching; they dry salmon in boxes in a kind 
of upper story in their huts. They prepare the roes, beating them up 
with sorrel, a plant with acid taste, till it becomes a kind of caviare, 
and, when the salmon are dried, boil and mix them with oil. These 
savages never taste meat, and think if any was thrown into the river the 
fish would go away. One of Mr. McKenzie's men 
having thrown the bone of a deer in the water, an 
Indian dived and fetched it out, nor would they suffer 
water to be ladled out in a kettle in which meat had 
been boiled. Are these not veritable fish eaters? Mr. 
McKenzie observed those Indians who inhabited the 
islands on the coast to be more savage than the 
others. The otter skins are sold at a great price, 
by those who trade on the coast, to the Chinese. 

NOTE. Sir Alexander Mackenzie was born 
in Inverness, Scotland, about 1755. He emigrated 
to Canada in his youth and became a clerk in the 
North-West Fur Company. From 1781 to 1789, 
he traded with the Indians at Lake Athabasca, 
and in the latter year discovered the river which SIR ALEXANDER 
bears his name, and traced it from its source to 
its entrance into the Arctic Ocean, where he arrived in July, 1789. 
In 1792, he led another exploring party westward to the Pacific. On 
his return to England in 1801, he published his "Voyages from Mont- 
real to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans." He died in 1820. 



There was always war or rumor of war in these pioneer days in 
Canada. Peace between the United States and Canada had been 
declared years before, when the War of the Ee volution gave indepen- 
dence to the American people. But disquieting rumors were always 
floating in the air, and Niagara was a centre where the pros and cons 
were always a ready subject of conversation. Mrs. Simcoe had her 
fears. She had resolved upon a visit to her friends in Quebec, and 
while she felt that she might return to Upper Canada, she was not 
too certain, for if the question of peace or war was not speedily set- 
tled it would be too late for her to return without considerable dis- 
comfort and possibly danger. 

However, she said good-bye to her friends, the ladies of the 
garrison at Niagara, whom she had invited to tea a day or two before 
she determined to sail, but owing probably to adverse winds it was 
not till the morning of the 13th September, 1794, that the anchor of 
the 'Government schooner "Mississaga" was weighed and Mrs. Simcoe 
and her family left Niagara wharf. 

Tues. Sept. 9th Mrs. Smith and the ladies of the garrison drank tea 
with me. The Governor sets off for Detroit to-morrow, and I shall sail 
for Quebec the next day. If I hear, with official certainty, at Quebec that 
peace with the United States is agreed on in England, I may return here 
this autumn, but if that news does not arrive very speedily it will be 
too late for me to return. 


No. 1. The building on the right represents a building on Ontario Street, 

near the piano factory, foot of Princess Street (Store Street). 
No. 2. A building on the site of the late ex-Mayor Gaskin's residence, 

south-east corner Ontario and Princess Streets. 

No. 3. The old Macaulay House, now a butcher shop, standing on south- 
west corner of Princess and Ontario Streets, west side of Ontario 

Street, and south side of Princess Street. 
No. 4. The Protestant Church, back of Masonic Hall of 1792, opposite 

the present Market-place. 
No. 5. In front is a building now in Market-square, and on the site of 

General Bradstreet's batteries. 
No. 6. Indian storehouse, near the water's edge, now the site of Folger 

and Richardson's wharves. 
No. 7. Beyond is vacant space, at present occupied by the Kingston and 

Pembroke R.R., and in front of the City Hall. West of vacant 

space are buildings on Ontario Street. 
No. 8. Site of Swift's wharf at the foot of Johnson Street, near the 

Grand Trunk Railway depot. 



Fri. 12th The Governor set off this morning for Detroit. Mrs. Smith 
came to take leave of me. The " Mississaga " is to sail as soon as the 
wind is fair; that not being the case this afternoon, I was dissuaded 
from going on board, but having so often seen a wind lost by not embark- 
ing before it had risen, I determined to go on board and wait for it, which 
I did at six o'clock. Capt. McGill accompanies me, in order to see that the 
batteau are properly prepared and attended. 

Sat. 13th On board the " Mississaga." At ' six this morning we 
weighed anchor. The Fort and Newark looked very pretty under a rising 
sun as we left Niagara River. The wind is fair, and we keep the south 
shore, so I hope to discern the entrance to the Genesee River. At twelve 
the wind changed, and we kept the north shore. Orders were given for 
my accommodation that no person should have a passage to Kingston in 
the " Mississaga," but I relented in favour of Brant's sister, who was 111 
and very desirous to go. She speaks English well, and is a civil and very 
sensible old woman. 

NOTE. About 1748, Colonel Johnson (Sir William) contracted 
an Indian marriage with Miss Mary Brant, " Miss Molly," sister of 
Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant), and by her had eight children, Peter, 
Elizabeth, Magdalene, Margaret, George, Mary, Susannah and Anne. 
Elizabeth married Dr. Robert Kerr, an eminent surgeon, who settled 
at Niagara. Susannah, as already stated, became the wife of Lieu- 
tenant Lemoine of the 24th Regiment, while three other daughters 
married Captain Farley of the 16th Regiment, John Ferguson of the 
Indian Department and Captain Earle of the Provincial Navy. The 
records of the first Protestant Church (afterwards St. George's), 
Kingston, show that on 16th April, 1796, Mary Brant was buried by 
Rev. John Stuart, but no mention is made of the place of burial. 

Mrs. Grant in her entertaining book speaks of Molly, and says 
that Sir William "connected himself with the daughter of an Indian 
sachem, who possessed an uncommonly agreeable person and good 
understanding and whether ever formally married to him according 
to our usage or not, continued to live with him in great union 
and affection all his life." Colonel Johnson, in his private diary, 
always mentioned Molly kindly. By thus forming an alliance with 
the family of an influential and powerful chief, Colonel Johnson 
evidently aimed at a more extended influence over the Indians. Nor 
did the result disappoint him. 

In his will, Sir William ordered the remains of his " beloved wife 
Catherine " to be deposited in his burial-place, and provided mot 
liberally for his "prudent and faithful house-keeper, Mary Brant" 
and for all her children, whom he calls his "natural children." He 
divided the remaining part of his money and lands between Colonel 
Glaus and Colonel Johnson and their wives, his estate at Fort Johnson 
going -to his son, Sir John Johnson. 

Sun. 14th We have had a very rough night and a head wind, and 
nothing but being on deck the whole day prevented my being very sick. 
In the afternoon, being in the centre of the lake, I discerned both the 
N. and S. shores. I also discerned a high point on the south shore, called 
the Thirty-Mile Creek from Niagara, in sight of the Duck Islands, a few 
miles off Point Traverse (in Prince Edward County) and N.E. of it. 



NOTE. These are two islands, known collectively as The Ducks. 
The larger island is the further to the east in the lake and is called 
the Main Duck, while the smaller island, close to the south-eastern 
extremity of Prince Edward County, is called the False Duck. 
Sailors frequently speak of the islands as the "Main Ducks" and 
"False Ducks," but the name should not be pluralized. The two are 
properly spoken of as The Ducks. They are so named either from 
their shape at a distance they roughly resemble ducks in the water 
or from the fact that wild ducks formerly abounded in the vicinity. 
The trip was slow and must have been rough, for the vessel did not 
reach Kingston until 8 a.m. on the 15th, or fifty hours from Niagara 
to Kingston, a distance of nearly 200 miles. 

Mon. 15th- A very rough night. At eight this morning we anchored 
in Kingston harbour. Capt. McGill went on shore and engaged the only 
King's batteau which was there, and hired one of the merchant's for my 
baggage. Capt. Porter came on board to know my commands, and some 
ladies called upon me. At twelve we got off in the batteau, which had a 
comfortable, low awning of twisted osiers or willow whose twigs are used 
for making baskets, which was more convenient at this season, when the 
weather becomes cold, than the high wooden awnings. In less than half 
an hour it began to rain, and continued the whole day. We went only 18 
miles to Gananowui. Carey's house being shut up, we went to Fairfield's, 
close by the mill. Mr. (Colonel) Joel Stone, a Loyalist, who settled in 
Gananowui about 1790, is building at the mouth of the Gananowui River. 
Capt. McGill slept in the boat. Fairfield accommodated me with a room. 

NOTE. Captain Richard Porter of the 60th was captain from 
26th November, 1784, and major from 1st September, 1795. 

A coincidence in the history of the 60th Regiment in North 
America is that the 2nd and 3rd battalions, as part of the first Eng- 
lish garrison at Quebec, were present in September, 1759, when the 
British ensign was hoisted over the captured city by an officer of 
the Royal Artillery; arid in November, 1871, one hundred and twelve 
years later, a detachment of the 1st battalion of the 60th, the remnant 
of the last English garrison of Quebec, consigned the Imperial flag 
to the keeping of another artillery officer, whilst the flag of the Do- 
minion of Canada was hoisted in its stead. 

William Fairfield, a U. E. Loyalist, was one of the pioneers of 
Ernestown, in all probability settling there about 1788. In 1794 
he appears to have been in the vicinity of Gananoque, where he had 
a grist mill. He was not the original holder of the land at Gananoque, 
but must have rented it from Sir John Johnson, whose grant of 
land was on the east side of Gananoque River. The first document 
registered in the Registry Office at Brockville was on the 13th De- 
cember, 1797, at eight o'clock in the evening, S. Sherwood, Deputy 
Registrar. There could be no deed of land until 1796 or 1797 because 
the first patents were issued then. William Fairfield was for many 
years on the Commission of the Peace and was a member of the 
Provincial Parliament. He died in Ernestown in 1816. 



Joel Stone, a II. E. Loyalist, afterwards known as Colonel Stone, 
was born in Guilford, Conn., 7th August, 1749. He was a de- 
scendant of William Stone, one of the emgirants who sailed from 
London, Eng., in May,1639, landing at Xew 
Haven, Conn., in July. He served uiu'er 
Sir William Howe in the Revolutionary War and 
remained in New York until the evacuation of 
the British in 1783. In July of that year he 
sailed for England to recover a legacy to which 
his wife was entitled. His stay there was pro- 
longed, for he did not return until 1786, arriv- 
ing in Quebec on 6 ton October. In 1792, he 
settled at the junction of the Gananoque and St. 
Lawrence Rivers, the Crown having given him a 
grant of land on the west side of the Gan- COL. JOEL STONE. 
anoque River. He founded the town of Gan- 
anoque. In 1793, his wife died, and in 1799, he married a second 
time. Stone was the first Collector of the Port, and on 2nd January, 
1809, he was appointed colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Militia, 
County of Leeds. He did not remain long in command, feeling 
obliged on account of declining years to resign. This he did in 1812. 
His death took place in Gananoque on 20th November, 1833. 

By his first wife, Leah Moore, Colonel Stone had a son and a 
daughter ; the former died unmarried, but his daughter, Mary, married 
Charles McDonald, of Gananoque (an elder brother of the Hon. 
John McDonald), and of this marriage one of the descendants, a 
grandson, is Mr. Charles McDonald of Gananoque, Civil Engineer. 

Stone's second wife was Abigail Coggswell, widow of Abraham 
Dayton. There were no children by this marriage, but Henrietta 
Maria Mallory, a grand-daughter of the Colonel's second wife, became 
a member of the family, and in due course married John McDonald 
(afterwards Hon. John McDonald). He was a member of the Leg- 
islative Assembly of Upper Canada, and, at the Union in 1841, was 
called to the Legislative Council of the new Province of Canada. 
Of this marriage the sole male representative of the name of McDonald 
is Judge Herbert S. McDonald of Brockville, Ont. Herbert M. 
Mowat, K.C., of Toronto, and John McDonald Mowat of Kingston 
are grandsons on their mother's side. 

Mon. 15th The baggage boat was not arrived at Gananowui, and my 
boudet or canvas stretcher being in it, I was at a loss what to sleep on, 
till I recollected some planks I had in the boat. I laid one of these, sup- 
ported by a small box at each end, and put a carpet over it, on which I slept 
admirably. Collins had a small room within mine for herself and the 
children. Fairfield built the little vessel I saw lying in Kingston Harbour. 
She contains 120 barrels, and is gone for flour to the Bay of Quinte. Fair- 
field told me he had been 36 miles back in the country towards the Ottawa 
River; the Gananowui runs within half a mile of a river that falls into the 
Ottawa. The Indians carry over that portage. He saw many lakes eight 



or ten miles long. He went to catch whitefish, but having no means of 
taking them but spearing he only killed 23. They are very difficult fish 
to spear, and he had not nets. The land above this house is considerably 
higher than any in this part of the country, and falls every way from this 
height. Here are abundance of ground squirrels, but the men do not take 
the trouble of skinning them when killed, tho' the fur is beautiful. Mr. 
Stone is building a saw mill here, opposite Sir. J. Johnstone's. It will 
work 15 saws at once. Stone's grant of land is on the west side of the 
river and Johnstone's is on the east side. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

NOTE. Judge McDonald, of Brockville, is under the impression 
that this view is on the St. Lawrence and not on the Gananoque 
River, 1794, as it would appear that the latter is shown at the right, 
where it enters the St. Lawrence, and yet there could not have been 
a mill on the bank of the St. Lawrence, there being no water from 
that source. It is just possible that the buildings shown were erected 
by Colonel Stone along the bank of the St. Lawrence at this spot, 
and that there is an error in calling one of them a mill. 

Tues. 16th This morning Mr. Stone sent me excellent cream and 
butter. We did not embark till ten. This morning was so wet that the 
Canadians were unwilling to move. The sun shone a little while, but the 
afternoon proved wet, and it was dark before I came to Capt. Cowan's, 
opposite Oswegatchie. Here I had a large room with six windows in it. 

Wed. 17th We embarked at six. The tea kettle was boiled, and I 
breakfasted in the boat; showery weather. Passed the rapid called Les 
Gallettes (Gallops rapids off Pointe Galloppe in Edwardsburgh). The 
waves, dashing against the bottom of the boat, sounded as if she struck 
on rocks, and their appearance more agitated than those we see in a ship- 
wreck on the stage. A mile before we came to the Long Sault there was a 
violent storm of thunder, lightning and rain, and as we were about to 
descend the rapid another violent storm arose, which was a good accom- 
paniment to a terrific scene. This rapid is very long, but it did not appear 
to me so frightful as Les Gallettes, tho' the current is so strong for the 
space of some miles that we went nine miles in the hour without sailing. 
One man steers; the rest row occasionally, but the Canadians are so 
accustomed to the navigation that with empty boats the man who steers 
is often the only one awake. 

I dined in the boat; at three stopped to deliver a letter at Glengarry 
House, where Major McDonell lives. At four a thunderstorm occasioned 
us to stop at the boat-house on Lac St. Francis, in that part of the St. 
Lawrence which widens above Coteau du Lac, where Mr. McGill was for 
staying the night; but I thought it too early, and sailing across the lake 
a good way from shore a violent gale of wind arose when we were in a 
line with Pointe Mouille. It thundered, rained, and became perfectly 
dark; the boat tossed violently, the children crying and Collins sighing. 
The wind blew so strong off shore that I feared being driven out into the 
lake and lost, or driven to the United States shore. Capt. McGill thought 
there was some difficulty, as he promised the men rum if they exerted 



themselves to get to the shore, which they at last did, and I waited half 
an hour, intending to sleep in the boat rather than proceed in such weather 
five miles to the Pointe au Bodet. There was no house nearer. The 
weather then clearing up and growing calm, I consented to proceed, pro- 
vided they kept close to the shore, which they did, and about ten we 
arrived at Pointe au Bodet. Mr. John McDonell, the Adjutant-General of 
Militia of Upper Canada, had arrived there, and he gave me up his rooms, 
in which were large fires, very comfortable after the cold, rough evening 
I had been out in. 

NOTE. Mr. J. A. Macdonell of Glengarry states that John Mac- 
donell "was appointed by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe to be first 
adjutant-general of militia in Upper Canada, and was the founder 
of our militia system." 

I find among my Simcoe manuscript an account of part of the 
journey, in the handwriting of Mrs. Simcoe, though the heading is not 
written by her. It reads : 


"A Short Journal, with Rough Sketches contained in a letter 
addressed by Mrs. Simcoe to her husband, the Lieutenant-Governor, 
in .1794, when on her way in a covered boat from Kingston to Mon- 
treal and Quebec." 

It is in the form of a letter to Governor Simcoe written on the 
17th September, 1794, and really a more extended account than what 
appears in the diary proper for the 15th-17th September. The first 
paragraph is undated. It refers to Mrs. Simcoe's friends who were 
evidently visiting Kingston and who desired to go east to Montreal, 
and states that : 

" Miss M'Donell, Miss Bouchette, Capt. Porter and Mr. Salmon came 
on board the ' Mississaga.' Capt. Bouchette wanted to refuse the ten 
guineas. He say'd it was too much. I believe he was very well satisfied." 

Mon. Septr. 15th Left Kingston at half-past twelve in a boat with a 
comfortable awning of hoops and oil cloth, accompanied by another batteau 
with the baggage; a fine and strong wind, delightful sailing. At four the 
wind came ahead, and we were obliged to row. In half an hour after 
we left Kingston it began to rain hard, and continued to rain the whole 

Gary's house shut up, as he was gone to Kingston. Rained too hard 
for me to pitch the tent or sleep in the batteau. Slept at Fairfield's house, 
close by the mill at Gananoqui. He is the farmer's son who built a small 
vessel at Gananoqui. She is now gone for a load of flour to the Bay of 
Quinte. I think I saw her in the harbour at Kingston. She has carried 
120 barrels; looks not much larger than the " Onondaga." Mr. M'Gill 
stayed in the batteau. 

NOTE. The vessel which Mrs. Simcoe mentions as having been 
built by Fairfield was no doubt built by him for Colonel Joel Stone. 
This contention is borne out by the fact that a letter dated 2nd Feb- 
ruary, 1793, at Gananoque, written by Stone to Governor Simcoe, 
says : "Permit me to inform your Excellency that I have recovered my 



health some time in November last from ; 
Lake Ontario last July, since which I 


(From a Draining by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

i fever I took at the head of 
am commissioned to build 
a schooner of 40 tons 
burthen, on my premises 
here. She is to sail out 
of this river and is to be 
called the 'Leeds Trader,' 
and I expect will sail by 
the first of July next." 
As all the . land on the 
west side of the Ganan- 
oque Eiver, near Ganan- 
oque, was granted by the 
Crown to Colonel Joel 
Stone and that on the east side to Sir John Johnson or his heirs, it 
would appear that Fairfield must have been a "squatter" or an em- 
ployee, and therefore may have been captain of Colonel Stone's 

Fairfield say'd he had been 35 miles back from his present house to 
catch whitefish, but having no means but spearing, and they are remark- 
ably swift and difficult to spear, he took but 23. Was out two nights. 
There are many lakes eight or ten miles long. The land at Gananoque 
is very bad between, fit for nothing, but twelve miles back becomes very 

NOTE. Mr. Charles 
Britton, a resident of 
Gananoque for many 
years, fixes the site of 
Fairfield's mill on the 
east side of the river on 
lot 1027 in the village of 
Gananoque back of Skin- 
ner and Company's fac- 
tory. The Gananoque 
Eiver runs northwest 
from the St. Lawrence 
and a mile north of the 
town it inclines east and 
continues northeast from 

Tues. 16th A very wet morning after a night of incessant rain; the 
Canadians would not stir, so I waited to breakfast. Mr. Stone, who is 
building a mill opposite Fairfield's, came, and was extremely civil; brought 
butter and milk. About nine the rain ceased. I walked to look at the 
mill, and embarked. Gave a dollar to the people. Mr. M'Gill said Stone 
was too much of a gentleman to offer anything to. The mill he is build- 
ing is to have 15 saws. He says there is a portage of only half a mile 
from the Gananoqui to the Rideau. The Indians carry over it, that is, 50 
or 60 miles to the Grand River. He say'd the hill behind Fairfield's house 
is the highest ground anywhere about the country, the land descending 



(From a Drawing by Mr*. Simcoe.) 


from it every way. Fairfield say'd there is a fall 30 miles up the Ganan- 
oqui 50 feet high, and many slight rapids. About twelve the day grew 
fine and pleasant. Our Canadians are old and do not sing; however, I 
made them sing " Trois Filles d'un Prince," tho' indifferently. 

Capt. Porter say'd to Mr. M'Gill the " Sophia " might be two weeks 
in one trip to Oswegatchie. Rain in the afternoon. Got on to Capt. Cowan's, 
just opposite Fort Oswegatchie, an admirable large room, six large windows 
in it, 12 feet high. Capt. Cowan spoke much of the weakness and unpro- 
vided state of the inhabitants in case of war with the States; he par- 
ticularly mentioned as dangerous the circumstances of settlers who call 
themselves residents under the King's Government (but some whose 
loyalty is very doubtful), building saw mills on the opposite shore. One, 
Honeywell, in particular, who had been a notorious rebel, and since his 
residence under the King's Government was once confined at Kingston for 
improper behaviour. This man has a saw mill directly opposite this 
house, with many thousand boards cut. Capt. Cowan says these mills 
afford ample provision for rafts, on which the Americans might pop over 
and ravage this country. A well-known road thro' the woods from Oswe- 
gatchie to Crown Point, in Lake Champlain, or to Lake George, is so pass- 
able that 30 or 40 head of cattle pass with ease in eight days. 

XOTE. Captain David Cowan, R.X., was one of the early settlers 
of this part of the country. His home "opposite Fort Oswegatchie" 
(Ogdensburg), would be Prescott, in the County of Grenville. 
In 1819 he lived in the Township of Charlotteville, County of Xor- 
folk, but owned some 450 acres of land in the Township of Pittsburg, 
six miles west of Gananoque, -which was granted him in recognition 
of his services during the War of 1812. He was an uncle of Mr. 
Alexander Cowan of Pittsburg Township, Frontenac County, U.C. 
Miss Margaret Cowan, a daughter of Mr. Alexander Cowan, married 
the late George B. Holland, of Toronto, whose descendants live in 
Toronto, Gananoque and Brockville. 

An interesting mention is made of Captain Cowan in the Memoirs 
of John Clark, of Port Dalhousie, in Volume VII. of the Ontario 
Historical Society Papers and Eecords. It reads: 

"There were two worthies amongst us equal, if not superior, to 
Beau Xash, in the old times. These were Captain Cowan, of the navy, 
and Staff-Surgeon Fleming of the army. They in every particular 
were the essence of politeness. The Chippewa (sic) Bridge in that 
day was nearer the mouth of the Chippewa (sic) River than the 
present bridge, consequently was of greater span. One fine morning 
these two gents being at Chippewa, were crossing the bridge at oppo- 
site ends, and both being somewhat halt in their legs, when they 
stepped on the bridge, commenced to bow to each other and did not 
stop bowing till they met each other in the centre when they took a 
most cordial grip and passed on. So much for Captain Cowan and 
Dr. Fleming of bygone days' politeness." 

Wed. 17th Embarked at six; fine wind, showery. Passing the first 
rapid at Chimney Island the water is very frightful. A little below John's 
Town saw a deer crossing the river, a canoe trying to overtake it. The 
deer swam up the stream and got ashore. At half-past nine passed Matilda 
township and the Rapid Plat, 20 miles. At half after three Mr. M'Gill 
wanted to give a message from you to the Speaker (John Macdonell), so 



we stopped for him to deliver it, and I take the opportunity of sending 
this book, that you may know we got safe and well so far and had a 
pleasant journey. Fray give this book to Mr. D. W. Smith, to send back 
to me immediately, for I mean to make some pretty drawings from these 
rough sketches. 

I should not have sent you this rough one, but that I know you will 
be glad in any way to know myself and the children are well, and as com- 
fortable as is possible to be anywhere in your absence. 

We have had a good deal of thunder and rain to-day. A thunder- 
storm was hardly passed when we entered the Long Sault. Had it con- 
tinued, what a flneward element. The Long Sault Rapid was less alarm- 
ing than I expected, but very grand and fine, and nothing but reason 
would keep one from being afraid. Your sight must be terrified, tho' 
knowledge makes you rest satisfied. 

Ever most attachedly yours, 


The going down the river is so fine a thing altogether I wish for you 
every moment. I should be in ecstasies if you were here to partake of 

Thurs. 18th Embarked at six, and reached the Cedar Rapids, opposite 
the village of that name, at ten; from thence I went in a .caleche to the 
Cascades between Grand Island and Isle Perault, from whence I was two 
hours going in the boat to La Chine, eight miles above Montreal. I waited 
there two hours for a caleche, and set out in it with Francis, but the road 
was so rough and the carriage so indifferent that I was obliged to stop 
and take Collins with me to hold the child, or we should have been shaken 
out. I was so fatigued with this eight miles to Montreal that I deter- 
mined never to go in a post caleche again. The carriage was driven 
tandem, the first horse tied to the other by a rope, which did not in the 
least confine him. The horses generally went different ways and at a 
great rate. 

I went to Mr. Gray's at Montreal, but his house being under repair, 
Mr. Frobisher, another merchant, requested me to be at his house, where 
I should be better accommodated, and indeed it is elegantly fitted up. He 
sent his carriage for me. 

NOTE. Edward William Gray was a man well known in military, 
civil and social circles in Montreal. He was born on the 4th De- 
cember, 1742, in England and came to Montreal in the autumn 
of 1760 in the "Vanguard," man-of-war, and was initiated into 
Freemasonry on 2nd October, 17GO, when the ship was in the St. 
Lawrence, in front of Quebec. His Masonic certificate is in the Arch- 
ives Department at Ottawa, and it is the earliest certificate known 
to the craft in Canada. In the Masonic institution there were in the 
olden time three kinds of warrants given to lodges. A civil warrant 
was for a lodge composed of citizens of a certain place. Another 
warrant was known as a "sea warrant," for members on board a 
British man-of-war, while a third warrant was known as a "field 
warrant" given to soldiers in a British regiment. It is permissible 
to hold these lodges either in the quarters of a regiment or on board 
a man-of-war "in the most convenient place adjacent to the ship." 
In January, 1760, a warrant was issued for a lodge on board the 
"Vanguard," man-of-war, of which Thomas Dunckerley was W.M. 
The lodge on the occasion of this initiation was held no doubt in a 
lodge room in the city of Quebec, for there were a number of military 



lodges stationed in the fortress, that possessed Masonic warrants. Wil- 
liam Gray was postmaster of Montreal for many years, and sheriff of 
the District of Montreal. His Commission as Deputy-Provost-Marshal, 
corresponding to that of sheriff, is dated 15th June, 1765. He was 
appointed Deputy Public Appraiser and Vendue Master on llth 
August, 1766, and was promoted to the office of Provost-Marshal on 
1st May, 1775. He was appointed major of a corps of volunteers 
raised amongst the merchants of Montreal at the time of the Ameri- 
can invasion, and for services rendered was afterwards given the 
rank of colonel, commanding the English militia in the city and 
suburbs of Montreal. He died on 22nd December, 1810. 

Fri. 19th Mrs. Frobisher came from her country house to dine with 
me. 1 saw the large sheep's horn Mr. Mackenzie, the North-West explorer, 
brought from the Rocky Mountains. Major Duke called to enquire 
whether I would have men from the 26th to row my batteau, but I pre- 
ferred the Canadians. Mr. Smith, of the 7th Fusiliers, brought me letters 
from England. 

NOTE. Major George Duke's first commission in the 26th is 
dated 10th September, 1779, with rank of captain. In October, 1793, 
he was in command, as major, at St. John's and Isle-aux-Noix, 
Lower Canada. In the army list his name is given also as "Charles" 
Duke, with the statement that he "sold out," though the date is not 

The 26th, or Cameronian Regiment, was formed in 1689, deriving 
its popular designation of "Cameronians" from the sect (named after 
one of its first preachers, Richard Cameron). The regiment was 
formed at the time when the religious persecution by the Stuart 
family led many of their subjects of the Presbyterian persuasion 
in Scotland to take up arms. In 1787 the regiment was stationed 
at Quebec, in 1789 at Montreal, and in 1790 at Niagara, and at 
various other stations in Canada until 1800, when it returned to 
England. The unfortunate Captain John Andre, who joined the 
26th from the 44th Regiment, was commissioned on 18th January, 
1777. He was executed on 2nd October, 1780. Andre was a personal 
friend of Governor Simcoe. 

Sat. 20th A very wet day, so I stayed at Mr. Frobisher's. 

Sun. 21st I left Montreal at nine, with a good many buffalo skins in 
the boat, as the weather grows very cbld, and every ten leagues I feel it 
more so; the weather very windy and disagreeable; an unpleasant squall 
near Varennes, on the river near Montreal. We afterwards passed St. 
Sulpice, on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, and La Valtrie, a pretty 
village among oaks, and reached D'Autray, thirteen leagues from Mont- 
real, at six o'clock. I walked the last half-mile to warm myself. I had a 
good fire at the Post House, and wrote till eleven. I was charged six 
shillings for rooms, fire and milk. I carried tea, cold tongue and fowl, or 
herrings, which composed our supper. 

NOTE. Dautrey, spelled Dautre on old maps, is on the north 
shore of River St. Lawrence, about half-way between the village of 
Lanoraie and the River des Chaloupes. 



Mon. 22nd Set out at six; passed Berthier, a village on the north 
shore, at twelve; came to N. York, missed the house we were directed to go 
to, stopped at another while the men lighted their pipes; previous to pass- 
ing Lake St. Pierre had a distant view of Maskinonge, in the county of 
that name, RiviSre du Loup (the county town of Maskinonge) and 
Machiche; at seven arrived at Three Rivers, one of the oldest towns in the 
province, founded in 1618, and had a good fire at the Maison de poste, and 
very cheap (a much better house than the inn kept by an Englishman, 
where, instead of two dollars, I might have paid eight). 

N OTE . The MSS. reads 1ST. York. The map drawn by Mrs. 
Simcoe shows "1ST. York" on Lake St. Peter. There is no trace of 
the name now. 

After drinking tea (or supper) and the children are gone to bed, I dress 
my hair, which I have not time to do in the morning, change my habit, 
and lay down on a boudet (or folding bed) before the fire, covered with a 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe ) 

fur blanket. I do not undress when I have not my bed, which is the case 
at present. I came 21 leagues to-day, and felt it very cold, but the chil- 
dren mind it so little that Francis will not keep on his gloves. 

Tues. 23rd Left Three Rivers after breakfast. In the afternoon the 
weather was particularly fine, and the scenery between Grondines and 
Cap Sante was peculiarly beautiful, illuminated by the setting sun. The 
churches of Deschambault and Cap Sante are very picturesque objects 
among the wood, and the, high ground near the latter is of the finest 
verdure, covered with large, detached trees, has a very fine appearance; 
indeed, going down the St. Lawrence affords the most delightful scenery, 
whether it be between Kingston and Montreal, among the numberless 
wooded islands of all sizes, or the woody, rocky shores bordering the 
rapids, and the transparent clear waters. 

NOTE. Deschambault, a village in Portneuf County, P.Q., on 
north shore, forty miles above Quebec. 'Cap Sante is 31 miles from 
Quebec. During the French regime it was a French post and after 
the Battle of the Plains the army was quartered in the vicinity for 
several months. 



Tues. 23rd From Montreal to Quebec the country is more diversified 
by villages and houses, and is very pretty, excepting a part of it in passing 
Lake St. Peter, which is flat and low, but from Deschambault it again 
becomes fine. The opposition of a strong current makes the voyage up the 
river very tedious, but the velocity with which the boat passes down 
affords incessant variety of objects, and nothing can be pleasanter. I 
cannot tho' but regret leaving the climate of our upper country (Upper 
Canada), the warmth of which gives an idea of comfort to the most 
uninhabited scenes. 

We came 19 leagues to-day, and arrived at six at Cap Sante, and I 
found myself at the house where I had met with so much civility on my 
way from Quebec. The woman recognized and welcomed me with her 
usual French politeness; by great industry she had saved some money to 
make the miserable cottage it had been formerly fit for the reception, of 
travellers. She said my calling there accidentally had made her think of so 
doing. Her husband is quite uncivilized, but she had been educated at a 
convent. An orchard full of fine apples was in great beauty, just ready to 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simeoe.) 

be gathered. I had much satisfaction at seeing the progressive state of 
improvement making here. I was made happy in receiving a letter to-night 
from Mrs. Caldwell, pressing me in the kindest manner to reside with her 
till my house at Quebec could be prepared for me. 

Wed. 24th The tide prevented my leaving Cap Sante" till nine o'clock. 
Fine weather. Passed the mills at Jacques Cartier; landed at a romantic 
spot named Cap Rouge, three leagues above Quebec. I walked a mile to 
the Maison de Poste, dressed myself, and went in a caleche four miles to 
Belmont, where I met with the most friendly reception that was possible. 

Thur. 25th I received a great many visits from my acquaintances at 
Quebec, who all appeared glad to see me. 

Fri. 26th Many more visitors. Coll. Caldwell and Miss Johnson 
dined at St. Foix (St. Foye), but I could not prevail on Mrs. Caldwell to 
leave me, and I could not accept Lady Dorchester's invitation, as my 
clothes had not arrived. 

Mon. 29th The Bishop's family and Coll. and Mrs. Despard dined here. 

NOTE. Mrs. Despard was the wife of Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Despard of the 7th Regiment who had brevet rank as colonel from 
13th July, 1791. 

17 257 


Tues, 30th Coll. Caldwell proposed my taking his house at "iSans 
Bruit," which I felt disposed to do. I went to see it to-day. The weather 
was very cold and some snow fell, which gave me an unfavourable idea 
of Sans Bruit, and I did not like the thoughts of so cold a place. I called 
on Mrs. Mountain, wife of the Bishop, at Powell Place, and on Mrs. Despard 
at Woodfield. It is said that peace is settled between Great Britain and 
the United States, but as I have not heard it officially (or even in that case 
could I tell how Gen. Wayne may previously have acted at the Miami) I 
cannot venture to return with Mr. McGill to Niagara. He sets out to-day. 
Some snow fell. 

Wed. Oct. 1st Coll. and Mrs. Caldwell went to their mill. Miss John- 
son and I drove to Quebec. 

Thurs. 2nd I breakfasted with Mrs. Murray, and went to the house 
offered me in Palace Street, which I liked very well. Coll. and Mrs. Cald- 
well returned to dinner. We drank tea at Mr. Nathaniel Taylor's, Deputy 
Commissary General. 

NOTE. Mrs. Murray was the wife of Bichard Murray, who is 
given in the list of Protestant house-keepers as a Justice of the 
Peace in 1794. 

Tues. 7th We dined at the Bishop's; a very large party there, and 
Coll. and Mrs. Despard. 

Wed. 8th Miss Johnson and I went to Quebec. 

Sun. 12th Coll. Beckwith and several friends dined here. Coll. Cald- 
well, having found that I was the daughter of his old friend, Coll. Gwillim, 
who fought at Quebec under Wolfe, and with whom he stayed some time 
In London after the death of Genl. Wolfe, is now doubly kind and inter- 
ested about all my concerns. 

NOTE. (Colonel) George Beckwith was Acting Adjutant-General 
at Quebec in 1794. 

Mon. 13th I took possession of my house in Palace Street. Dined at 
the Chateau. 

Thurs. 16th Quebec I have bought a covered carriole, but until the 
snow falls I cannot use it. Coll. Caldwell sends a caliche for me to go to 
Belmont, as it does not seem worth while to buy one for so short a time 
as I suppose it will be possible to use it. 

Fri. 17th Dined and slept at Belmont. 

Sat. 18th Came home; 22 visitors this morning. 

Wed. 22nd Dined and slept at Belmont. 

Thurs. 23rd Came here; a great many visitors this morning. The 
certainty of peace relieved me from so much uneasiness that I scarcely 
seem to feel the banishment from the upper country as much as I ex- 
pected to have done. Yet at times I have doubts whether an American 
mob may act in opposition ,to their executive government. 

I have been amused by a play called " Carthusian Friar," written by a 
lady, an emigrant. Coll. Caldwell calls almost every day to know whether 
offers of service other people make, they premise with saying, " If Coll. 
I want anything, and is so attentive to all my business that whatever 
Caldwell has not done it already." Coll. Beckwith has been very civil. I 
have added a horse, a cow and a cat, and a Canadian driver to my estab- 
lishment. Patras drives admirably. I have heard from the Governor, but 
the letter was dated Fort Erie, six days after he left Niagara. 

Sun. 26th Dined at M. Baby's (Hon. Francis Baby). Baron de Rue, 
M. D'Anoilt and many others there. Th office ordered to be shut on 

Thurs. 30th Dined at the Chateau 



Tues. Nov. 4th I have heard that all was well at Detroit on the 
13th of October, and Governor Simcoe returned to Niagara. Instead of 
the usual frost and snow at this season, we have damp, mild weather, 
which disagrees with everybody. I have a cold, which keeps me at home. 
The wind is east, and has prevented the Fusiliers sailing for Halifax; 
they have been on board ship for a week. An east wind at this season 
is most extraordinary. 

Thurs. 6th The " Eweretta " and convoy sailed to London this morn- 

NOTE. Ship " Eweretta," Alex. Patterson, master, sailed to and 
from London. 

Tues. llth I attempted to go to Belmont in my carriole, but the roads 
were too bad. I drank tea at the Chateau. 

Wed. 12th ^Dined with Madame Baby. 

Thurs. 13th Spent the evening at Mrs. Ogden's, wife of Isaac Ogden, 
Judge of Admiralty. 

Pri. 14th Dined at Mrs. Winslow's. 

Sat. 15th The weather so bad I put off going to Powell Place. 

Sun. 16th Some snow. Francis and I went to Belmont in an open 

Tues. 18th Drove from Belmont to Powell Place; went to Quebec at 
four; dined and went in the evening to the Chateau. When I left it, called 
at home for my great-coat, and went with Miss Murray in an open carriole 
at ten o'clock at night to Belmont; a little snow, but very mild. 

Thurs. 20th Letters have been received from Governor Simcoe dated 
Niagara, Oct. 30th. 

Tues. 25th A heavy fall of snow and the thermometer five degrees 
below. I dined at Mr. Ainslie's, Collector of Customs. Baron de Rue 
there; he was promised letters of recommendation by Coll. Harping (at 
Quebec, Nov., 1794), who died. The Dauphin, eldest son of Louis of 
France, is dead. 

Fri. 28th I dined at Mr. Dunn's. The stoves so heated that the ther- 
mometer in the room must have been at 90. Ice and fruit were in great 

NOTE. Honorable Thos. Dunn was a member of the Executive 
Council, Lower Canada. As senior member he was administrator on 
two occasions, first in 1805, on the departure of Sir Eobert Shore 
Milnes, and again during the interval between Governor Craig and 
Sir George Prevost. 

Sat. 29th A violent snowstorm, and very severe, cold weather; but 
in Miss William's room, daughter of the Clerk of the Executive Council, 
where I dined, the thermometer must have been at 86. 

iSun. 30th I dined at Belmont; returned in the open carriole. 

Tues. Dec. 2nd Dined at the Chateau; supped at Mr. Taylor's. 

Wed. 3rd I dined at Belmont. 

Thurs. 4th I dined at the Chief Justice's (Osgoode); a pleasant 
French party there. 

NOTE. Chief Justice Osgoode had, after leaving Upper Canada, 
been appointed Chief Justice of Lower Canada. Chief Justice Smith 
had died 3rd December, 1793. 

Fri. 5th Went to breakfast at Belmont; drank tea with Madame 

Sat. 6th Dined at Thomas Grant's, of the Surveyor's Office. I have 
had letters from Governor Simcoe, tho' nearly a month after the time I 



ought to have received them. Mr. Gray kept them at Montreal till he had 
an opportunity of sending them by a gentleman, in order to save the 
postage of so large a packet. The Governor proposed my meeting him at 
Pointe an Bodet, which is the boundary of this province, in January or 
February, as soon as the ice is good. As I had not thought of moving 
till the weather communication was open, this scheme is doubly delightful 


(From a copy of a miniature in England.) 

to me as being an unexpected pleasure, and I think I shall like travelling 
en carriole very much. Mr. Mayne, of the Rangers, is to meet me at 
Montreal. I desired he may not come further. 

Lady Dorchester was so obliging to insist on sending me one of her 
open carrioles mine, being a covered one, was disagreeable in a morning 



and this will greatly add to my amusement; indeed, she and Lord Dor- 
chester have been uniformly polite and obliging to me; she is one of 
those few who appear to act upon principle, and with a consistency which 
is not to be moved. I think her a sensible, pleasant woman, and I like 
the parties at the Chateau excessively, for there are forty or fifty people 
in an evening, and I think it is very amusing to walk about the room and 
have something to say to everybody without a long conversation with any. 

NOTE. The following interesting incident in connection with 
the marriage of Sir Guy Carleton and Lady Maria Howard is given 
in the Life of Dorchester, Morang's "Makers of Canada " : 

"Almost immediately on the passing of the Quebec Act Carleton 
sailed for Canada and landed on September 18th, 1774. During 
his long stay in England he had married the Lady Maria Howard, 
daughter of the Earl of Effingham, who with her two children born 
of the marriage accompanied her husband across the Atlantic. The 
lady was less than half Carleton's age, which was now forty-eight. 
A family tradition attributes the fact of Carleton's remaining so 
long unmarried to an early disappointment in a love affair with his 
cousin, Jane Carleton. The circumstances of his marriage were 
somewhat singular, and were given to me by the present representa- 
tive of the family. Lord Howard of Effingham, then a widower, 
was a great personal friend of Carleton's, and of about the same age. 
On this account and also foreseeing for him a distinguished career, 
he cordially accepted his overtures for the hand of his eldest daughter, 
Lady Anne. She and her younger sister, Lady Maria, had seen a 
great deal of Sir Guy at their father's house, and doubtless regarded 
him as a benevolent uncle rather than a potential lover. In time, 
however, they became aware that other schemes were abroad, and 
on a certain occasion when Carleton arrived at the house and was 
closeted with his Lordship it seems to have been pretty well understood 
what he had come for. The two young ladies were sitting together 
in another apartment with a relative, a Miss Seymour, and when 
a message came to Lady Anne that her presence was required by 
her father its purport seems to have been well known. When this 
young lady returned to her friends her eyes were red from tears. 
The others, waiting impatiently for her news, were the more im- 
patient as well as perplexed at her woe-begone appearance. 'Your 
eyes would be red,' she replied to their queries, ' if you had just 
had to refuse the best man on earth.' 

" * The more fool you,' was the unsympathetic rejoinder of her 
younger sister, Lady Maria. ' I only wish he had given me the 

" It appears that Lady Anne was already in love with Carleton's 
nephew, whom she afterwards married, and who served under hi? 
uncle in Canada. 

"There the matter rested for some months till Miss Seymour one 
day confided to Sir Guy what Lord Howard's younger daughter had 
remarked on hearing of his discomfiture. This so much interested 
the middle-aged lover, who, no doubt, had recovered from a perhaps 



not very violent passion, that in due course he presented himself as 
a suitor for the younger daughter, who proved herself as good as 
her word. Miss Seymour, who lived to old age, used to tell the 
story to members of the Dorchester family who only passed away 
in comparatively recent years. 

" Lady Maria was small and fair, upright and extremely dignified, 
and was ceremonious to a degree that in her old age almost amounted 
to eccentricity. She had been brought up and educated at Ver- 
sailles, which may be held to account for her partiality for the French 
at Quebec, and may possibly have influenced her husband in the 
same direction." 

Tues. 9th I drank tea at the Chateau. 

Wed. 10th Went to Belmont and to Powell Place, where I dined and 

Fri. 12th Went to Belmont. 

Sat. 13th Lord and Lady Dorchester called upon me. 'Mr. D. W. 
Smith writes me word from Niagara that the Governor went to York on 
the 13th of November, and was to proceed immediately from thence to 
Kingston in a boat coasting by the Bay of Quinte. 

Tues. 16th At the Chateau. I am also sure to meet Madame Baby 
there, who is one of the most agreeable people at Quebejc. 

Wed. 17th At Mr. Craigie's (John Craigie). 

NOTE. Honorable John Craigie, brother of Lord Craigie, Lord 
of Session in Scotland, was Commissary-General and Provincial 
Treasurer. He married Susannah, second daughter of John -Coffin, 
a descendant of Tristram Coffin, and a Loyalist who left Boston in 
1775, and settled with his family in Quebec. 

Thur. 18th The last ship that sailed, the " Bridget," 'is lost. The 
August packet is taken by the French, and three officers of the 4th Regi- 
ment who were on their way hither in her. One of their wives desired 
to preserve a book of drawings, and the captors immediately threw it into 
the sea. 

Fri. 19th I supped at Mr. Plenderleath's. 

NOTE. John Plenderleath, afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the 
49th Regiment, was assistant storekeeper-general at Quebec in 1794. 
He served in the War of 1812, receiving many wounds while in action. 
He returned to England in later years, where he died. 

Sat. 20th Wed. 24th At home on account of Francis' illness, which 
Dr. Nooth cannot define, whether it was worms, gravel or plum stones, or 

Thurs. 25th I heard an admirable sermon preached by the Abb6 des 
Jardins at the French church, and afterwards an excellent one by our own 

Fri. 26th Mr. Coffin gave a dinner and ball on the marriage of Mr. 
(Herman Witsius) Ryland, Lord Dorchester's secretary. He had been 
engaged to the lady ten years, but pecuniary circumstances would not 
allow them to marry before he left England last year with Lord Dor- 
chester; those difficulties being removed, she had had dependence enough 
on him to come this winter under the conduct of his friend, Mr. Finlay 



(Dep. P.M.G.)- I was so fatigued with having sat up with Francis for 
gome nights that I did not enjoy the ball. 

NOTE. Herman Witsius Ryland was born in England in 1770. 
He took part in the American War, returning 
to England with Sir Guy Carleton. On the lat- 
ter's appointment as Governor-General, Mr. Ry-* 
land, as 'Civil Secretary, accompanied him to Can- 
ada, filling the position not only while Dorchester 
was in office, but during the terms of succeeding 
Governors. He resigned in 1811, continuing to 
fill, however, his position as clerk of the Executive 
Council until his death in 1838. His son, George 
Herman Ryland, then held the office until the 
union of the Canadas. Mrs. Henry J. Low, of 
Montreal, and Mr. Herman Ryland, of Quebec, are 
grandchildren of Herman Witsius Eyland, and Mr. 
H. Ryland Low, of Montreal, is a great-grandson. HERMAN W. RYLAND. 

Mon. 29th Met Lord and Lady Dorchester at Mr. Grant's, so 1 did not 
go to the concert. 

Tues. 30th Drove in my open carriole to Belmont; returned after 
dinner and went to, Mr. Ainslie's; won five rubbers at whist, having been 
braced and brightened by the cold drive this afternoon. 

Wed. 31st Drove to Fort Louis Gate, and walked on the plains with 
Lady Dorchester;. su*pped at Mrs. Ogden's. 



Mrs. Simcoe, satisfied that the war trouble she feared was not 
imminent, determined to return to Upper Canada notwithstanding 
her aversion to a winter journey west, as expressed in some of her 
letters. She resolved to make the trip by the only available route, 
a land journey along the north side of the St. Lawrence. 

Her stay at Quebec had been a round of pleasure and gaiety. Those 
in official circles, as well as the leaders in the social life of the 
ancient city, had welcomed her return, and as her diary shows, had 
paid 'her respect and kindly courtesy, for every day functions, ?ome 
of the major character and others of a minor, occupied her time. 
Mrs. Simcoe was a most affectionate wife, and every express to 
Upper Canada carried letters to the Governor telling him of her 
daily doings at Quebec. She left Belmont on the afternoon of 6th 

Late in the fall of 1794 the Governor had left Niagara" for the pur- 
pose of making a personal inspection of different parts of the pro- 
vince. He visited York and from thence proceeded to Kingston, where 
he arrived on 4th December. The journey, owing to the lateness in 
the season, was stormy and hazardous, but was accomplished, how- 
ever, without mishap. His time in Kingston was fully and actively 
employed, and the early part of February found him at Johnstown, 
a hamlet east of Prescott. Here he laid plans for a road to the forks 
of the Rideau, for the establishment of settlements previously sur- 
veyed, and for personally investigating the water communication with 
the Ottawa. All schemes were perforce set aside. In March Mrs. 
Simcoe joined her husband at New Johnstown (Cornwall), and after 
spending a few days at Johnstown they repaired to Kingston, where 
the Governor became very ill and was unable to travel for several 
weeks. On the 15th May they left for York. 

Thurs. Jan. 1st, 1795 I dined at the Chateau. There were about forty 
persons. In the evening there was a rout or assembly, for introducing 
strangers. These routs used to be held frequently, but since Mr. Carleton's 
death, which is many months since, there has not been any. 

NOTE. Thomas Carleton. a son of Lord Dorchester, born in 1774, 
died in 1794. 

My having dined at the Chateau without having been formally intro- 
duced is a compliment not usually paid. There were 63 ladies this evening. 
I won a rubber at whist; there was but one card table. The people are 
unaccountably formal when they come to the Chateau, tho' Lady D. pro- 
poses cards and wishes them to be amused. 

Pri. 2nd At Madame Baby's; the thermometer ten degrees above. I 
preferred coming home in the open carriole. 



Tues. 6th I went with Lady Dorchester in her carriole beyond Wood- 
field. The carriole was large and pleasant, and a seat in front for children. 
Her drivers are Canadians and, therefore, will not wear liveries. The 
Canadian coats, with capots and sashes, look very picturesque. I drank 
tea at the Chateau, and Miss Carleton danced. 

NOTE. Miss Carleton was a daughter of Lord Dorchester. 

Wed. 7th I dined en famille at the Chateau, carrying the children. 
Supped at Mrs. Taylor's. 

Thurs. 8th I went to Belmont. 

Fri. 9th I went to Powell Place in a snowstorm, and returned to 
Belmont at night. 

Sun. llth Coll. Beckwith mentioned Governor Simcoe having the 
rank of Major-General. (He received this rank in October, 1794.) 

Mon. 12th Dined at Madame Baby's; went to the concert. Ther- 
mometer 10 degrees below. 

Tues. 13th Dined at the Chateau; a "rout" in the evening. Miss 
Carleton is very ill and Lady Dorchester the picture of misery. 

Wed. 14th I went to Belmont in the open carriole; dined and returned 
in time to go to Mrs. Le Maistre's, where I played cards and supped. 
Spent two or three days at Powell Place. 

Tues. 20th A ball at the Chateau, as the 18th was Sunday. The 
ladies much dressed. Miss Williams the most so. Miss Carleton stayed a 
very short time in the room, having been excessively ill for this last week. 

Thurs. 22nd Mild weather and a S.E. wind, which occasions a good 
deal of illness, and also inconvenience, for the meat, bought as usual in 
large quantities in the autumn, will not keep. 

Sat. 24th I walked on the plains with Lady Dorchester, and have 
learned to wrap myself up enough to defy the cold, but the weight of clothes 
is very fatiguing. Dined with Mrs. Taylor. Drank tea at the Chateau. 

Sun. 25th At Belmont. 

Mon. 26th Drank tea with Miss Mountain. Lord Dorchester sent his 
dormeuse, a travelling carriage adapted for sleeping, that 1 might see 
whether I should like that sort of a carriage to travel in to Upper Canada. 
It is like an open carriole, with a head made of sealskin, and lined with 
baize; a large bear or buffalo skin fixes in front, which perfectly secures 
you from wind and weather, and may be unhooked if the weather is fine 
or mild; a low seat, and feather bed to keep one's feet warm. I drove a 
mile or two in it and like it much, and bespoke one to be made the same. 

Tues. 27th I dined at the Chateau. Francis is ill. 

Wed. 28th I dined at Mr. George Longmore's. Francis is worse. A 
letter from the Governor. 

NOTE. Mr. George Longmore was an apothecary on the Hospital 
staff, and a surgeon in the Ordnance Department. 

Thurs. 29th Dined at the Chateau, and carried the children there. 

Fri. 30th Dined at Mr. Taylor's; supped at Mr. Coffin's. 

Sat. 31st Lady Dorchester came to see me. I dined at the Chateau 
and supped at Madame Baby's. Mr. Mayne is arrived at Montreal, and the 
Governor on his way to Coll. Gray's to meet me. Sent off my baggage on 
a traineau, a sled used for that purpose, to Montreal. 

Sun. Feb. 1st Dined at Mr. Taylor's. Drank tea at the Chateau. 

Mon. 2nd Dined at Mr. Taylor's. Went to Miss Williams'. It was 
her birthday, and there was a ball. Danced with Capt. Archdall, of the 
King's Own Regiment of Foot. 

NOTE. Captain Archdall received his rank in the 4th, or King's 
Own, Regiment of Foot on 2nd September, 1795. 



Tues. 3rd Dined at the Chateau. 

Wed. 4th Drove to Powell Place, drank tea with Mrs. Craigie; went 
with her to the concert; returned; played three rubbers at whist and 

Thurs. 5th Lady Dorchester called to take leave of me. I slept at 

Fri. Feb. 6th I left Belmont at two o'clock; the children, Collins and 
a great deal of baggage in a heavy dormeuse or carriole, with a head built 
after that of Lord Dorchester's. I went six leagues to Pointe aux 
Trembles. It was quite dark before I arrived there; a tolerable Post 

Sat. 7th I set off at seven; the weather bright and pleasant, tho' the 
wind B. At Jacques Cartier the ice was so rotten I was obliged to go a 
league higher to cross the river with safety; when 1 came to Ste. Anne's 
the sun shone so bright I thought I should have time to go two stages 
further to Cap Madeleine, near Three Rivers, where I was advised to sleep 
if I went further than Ste. Anne's; but when I came to the next stage, 
Champlain (75 miles S.W. of Quebec), I was frightened at the ice cracking 
on the river, and when I stopped at the Post House it was so perfectly 
dark that I could not reconcile myself to going further. 

Sun. 8th The house at Champlain was wretched, and the people said 
that travellers never slept at it, but on my repeating a request for a room 
they gave up their sitting-room, which appeared so dismal that I could not 
sleep, tho' I lay down on a boudet. In the night a great dog crept in from 
under the stove, and people were talking continually. The children went 
to bed. I would not allow them to stay to breakfast in a place I had 
wished to quit from the moment I entered it. The people looked as if 
they belonged to the cave dwellers. When I came to Cap Madeleine I 
had the expectation of passing very bad ice within a mile, which intimi- 
dated me so much that I would not stay to breakfast. We went two 
leagues above the usual place of crossing, and even there saw water on 
each side of the carriage. We were driven by so very old a man that they 
sent another to take care of him over the most dangerous part of the road. 
I wanted to detain him the whole stage, but he would not stay to affront 
the old man; he said he had driven over GO years. He was very near over- 
turning us before we came to Three Rivers. It was Sunday and the streets 
filled with people, so I would not go out to breakfast, but kept Collins 
(who never liked losing a meal) without her breakfast till five in the 
afternoon, when we arrived at a very comfortable Post House at Maskin- 
onge, a village on the north shore, where I had a very good dinner and 
stayed that night. We had travelled twenty leagues and a half. 

Mon. 9th The Dep. P.M.G. at Quebec having sent orders to all 
the Post Houses on the road to keep horses ready for me, and 
told the courier to pay for them, I had not the least trouble of waiting or 
paying. " Labadie (the courier) paye tout," and they ask me no further 
questions. The weather has been delightful to-day. I thought the expanse 
of miles of ice from Pointe aux Trembles to Montreal looked very formid- 
able, but it was good ice, 'and we arrived at Mr. Edward Gray's at five 
o'clock, having travelled twenty-four leagues and a half since we left 
Maskinonge at five this morning. The post horses are very good; they 
drive tandem, and change every three leagues. 

Tues. 10th I set off at eight this morning in my dormeuse. Mr. Mayne 
followed in a carriole, and servants in a third. When I was told we were 
to go with the same horses to Pointe au Bodet, 63 miles, I thought we 
should have a very tedious journey, but it was far from being so; the ice 
was excellent. 

It was a delightful drive across the wild part of the St. Lawrence 
below its junction with the Ottawa to the Cedars, where we rested the 
horses two hours, and they brought us to the Pointe au Bodet by six 
o'clock. When we were on Lake St. Francis my driver left the carriage 



and walked behind with the other drivers; every half-mile he came and 
whipped the horses violently, and I saw no more of him till we had gone 
another half-mile, the horses steadily pursuing a slight track on the snow; 
but had there been air holes in the track they pursued, as sometimes hap- 
pens on the ice, what would have become of us? It put me in mind of the 
reindeer, who travel self-conducted. The Governor came half-way to 
Pointe au Bodet to meet me to-day, and returned to Coll. James Gray's, 
as I was not arrived. 

Wed. llth I set out by seven, and by eleven had the pleasure to see 
the Governor quite well at Coll. Gray's, where we stayed. 

Fri. 13th Mr. Mayne returned to Montreal. The Governor and I set 
out towards Kingston; stopped an hour at a good inn, where the sessions 
are held the last house in Stormont; went about 35 miles to Mr. Patter- 
son's at the Rapide Plat, where we slept a damp room. The roads to the 
west of Montreal are excellent, because they drive the horses abreast and 
make the carrioles wider. 

NOTE. Mr. Patterson was a son-in-law of the Honorable John 
Munro and lived in what has been known for more than a hundred 
years as " The Old Blue House," about four miles east of Iroquois. It 
stood on a bluff of the river at "Flagg's" at the head of Rapide du 
Plat, but has been moved twice within the past twenty years, and now 
stands on the north side of the road. It is only half the original 
size, a wing having been removed and the front altered in changing 
the old house from place to place. Within its walls were entertained 
almost every noted man of the first forty years of the history of 
Upper Canada. 

Sat. 14th Came to dinner at Johnstone, opposite Oswegatchie, fifteen 
miles from the Rapide Plat. 

This place was laid out for a town, but there are but a few houses 
built; one of them is intended for an inn. The Governor has been residing 
at it for a fortnight, expecting me here. I intend to stav here ten days. 
Major Littlehales is with him, and they keep a very good house, promising 
to give me turkeys and venison every day. There are two comfortable 
rooms, and what I most desire are the stoves in them. The weather is 
severely cold and bright. We play at whist in the evening. The journey 
has quite established Francis' health, tho' he was so ill when we left 

NOTE. Johnstown is just east of Prescott, the scene of the 
Battle of the Windmill of 1837. It is not to be confused with "New 
Johnstown," the name by which Cornwall was first known. 

Thurs, 19th I had not been here two days when I felt the violent 
effects of a cold I caught by sleeping in a damp room at the Rapide Plat; 
it has particularly fallen into my eyes and affected them, so much so that 
I think I shall never recover totally. I was obliged to-night to throw off 
rrost of the wrappages I had bound about my eyes and head, and go to a 
ball given by the inhabitants of the province to the Governor; people came 
40 miles to it in carrioles. I was really so ill I could scarcely hear or see, 
and possibly neglected the very people I meant to be most civil to. 

Fri. 20th Drove seven and a half miles to dine at Mr. Jones'; returned 
by nine o'clock. 

NOTE. Ephraim Jones, ninth son of Colonel Elisha Jones, was a 
United Empire Loyalist who settled in the township of Augusta, 
county of Grenville. He is stated in Lord Dorchester's list to have 



been a Commissary. After the Revolutionary War Mr. Jones had 
charge of the supplies granted by the British Government to the 
settlers in Upper Canada. He was a Justice of the Peace and a 
member of the first House of Assembly. In 1790 he received a 
grant of three hundred acres of land in the township of Augusta, 
now owned by Thomas Murdock. 

Sat. 21st Dined at Mr. T. Frazier's (Fraser). 

Sun. 22nd Dined at Mr. W. Frazier's (Fraser). 

Mon. 23rd Thurs. 26th A great deal of snow fell these days, and the 
inhabitants endeavoured to persuade the Governor not to set out till the 
snow was beaten; but a gentleman residing with us had business at Kings- 
ton, and assured the Governor it would be excellent travelling. So we set 
off at eight, and met two Mr. Jones', who were coming to request the 
Governor not to undertake the journey yet. When they found him deter- 
mined to proceed, they said they would go also, to beat the way and to 
hasten our journey; they took us into their lighter carriages, or we never 
should have got on, the snow was so heavy. We stopped at another Jones', 
where there was the largest wood fire I ever saw; he also set out to beat 
the road, and so did several other people. One gentleman came some miles 
below Oswegatchie for that purpose, and with this assistance we went 19 
miles to Mr. Jessup's house in the woods, where we slept, but the people 
who so civilly travelled with us had to go back again, as there was no 
accommodation for them and their horses. It was six before we arrived. 
It was the coldest day remembered in Upper Canada. Mr. Jones' finger 
was slightly frost bit; he was speaking of a very pretty pond near one of 
his mills". 1 asked him of what size. He said 300 acres. 

NOTE. Mr. Jessup was Major Edward Jessup, born in Stamford 
County, Conn., in 1735. After the failure of the Burgoyne expedi- 
tion in 1781 the provincials were re-organized, and the corps known 
as the Loyal Rangers was formed. Major Edward Jessup was in 
command. He spent several years in England and on returning to 
Canada settled in Gremille, in the township of Augusta, the pioneer 
town of Prescott having been begun on his property. His son, Lieu- 
tenant Edward Jessup, was elected as member for Grenville in the 
second Legislature. The son died in Prescott in 1815, while the 
father died at the same place in the following year. The site of 
Major Jessup's house is now occupied by the entrance to Fort Wel- 
lington, Prescott. The surviving descendants of Major Edward 
Jespup are Mr. Edward Jessup, until recently Collector of Customs 
at Prescott, and Misses Clarendon and Zaire Jessup. 

Fri. 27th We left Mr. Jessup's at nine, drove nine miles through the 
woods to a small cottage; then proceeded 18 miles to Gary's, beyond the 
Gananowui. We went four miles on the ice before we came to that river, 
at the mouth of which the ice is very bad, so we drove as fast as possible, 
as that is thought the safest way on rotten ice; I was very much 
frightened, for it was dark, and I knew that if they did not keep exactly 
the right track, which could scarcely be seen, we were in the greatest 

When we arrived at Gary's we heard that Mr. Forsyth had lost both 
his horses three days ago at the mouth of the Gananowui, by keeping 
too far from the shore; they saved the carriole by cutting the traces, but 
neither he nor his companions were dexterous enough to save the horses. 
The people of the States are particularly expert in saving horses from 



drowning; they travel with ropes, which they fasten round the horses' 
necks if they fall into the water; pulling it stops their breath, and then 
they float and can be pulled out; then they take off the rope as quickly as 
possible, and the horse travels on as well as before. 

When Governor Simcoe was driven by Swayzie to Detroit he carried 
these " choke ropes," and had occasion to use them. A " choke rope," or 
check band, is a small strap of rope or leather by which the bridle is 
fastened around the neck of a horse. 

Sat. 28th Gary's an indifferent house, but warm. We left Gary's at 
nine, drove near the mills at Gananowui; stopped at a farm at Rowland's, 
half-way to Kingston, where we arrived at six o'clock, having travelled 20 
miles thro' woods. I was amused by observing the various barks of trees 
the most deeply indented and light coloured white ash, the rugged shag 
bark hickory, the regular marked iron wood, the perpendicular ribbed 
cedar, the bass wood, the varieties of white and black oak, the maple, 
chestnut, etc; the strong lines on the pine, particularly the Norway, which 
Is of a yellow brown, and when cut approached to a bright orange colour; 
among all this the smooth bark of the beech looked as naked as a frog, 
and had a very mean appearance amongst the rest of the trees. 

The following verses were found in the MSS. of the diary. They 
are dated "Kingston, January 1st, 1795," and were evidently com- 
posed by Governor Simcoe in anticipation of his wife's return to 
Upper Canada. 

" Kingston, January 1st, 1795. 

"Twice six revolving years have run their course thro' yonder azure 

plains, diffusing joy. 

Gladness and light has discontinuous mov'd, 
Since thou, Eliza, overflowing source of happiness domestic, dost 


My wedded thoughts, most honour'd, most belov'd. 
And if the gathering clouds of fleeting life 
Besides, thy presence soon illumines the scene, 
And pleasure draws from elemental strife; 
And now when Night and Absence intervene 
may my wishes wing thy speedy way ; 
Return, thou source of joy; return, thou source of day." 

Sun. March 1st We are very comfortably lodged in the barracks at 
Kingston. As there are few officers here, we have the mess room to dine 
in and a room over it for the Governor's office, and these, as well as the 
kitchen, are detached from our other three rooms, which is very comfort- 
able. The drawing-room has not a stove in it, which is a misfortune, but 
it is too late in the winter to be of much consequence. We have excellent 
wood tires. I went to church to-day and heard an excellent sermon by 
Mr. Stuart. 

NOTE. The barracks where Mrs. Simcoe stayed were the Sol- 
diers' or the old Tete du Pont barracks, located on almost the same 
site as the present barracks, Kingston. There are none of the 
buildings standing now, but on the square are the remains of the 
foundations of the buildings erected towards the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. 

Tues. 3rd A thaw. Mr. Frazier, who drove my carriole, set out 
yesterday to return home. 



Sat. 7th Dined at Mr. Stuart's, the Rector of Kingston. 

Sun. 8th An express from York. 

Mon. 9th We are desirous of seeing the Bay of Quinte; the ice is as 
smooth as possible and, I am told, very pleasant to drive upon, and 
possibly the change of air may abate the violent cough I still have. We 
therefore determined to set out to-day. We called at Mr. Booth's farm, 11 
miles distant; the next 11 miles brought us to Mr. Macdonell's, where we 
dined and slept. 

NOTE. The "King's Sawmills," subsequently known as Booth's 
Mills, were situated on Lot No. 18 in King's Township. 

Tues. 10th Set off and drove four miles on this delightful ice to Mr. 
Fisher's, in Hay Bay. He was not at home. We proceeded 15 miles 
further to Mr. Cartwright's mills, on the Appanee River, and slept at his 
house, a romantic spot. 

NOTE. Hay Bay is in the township of Fredericksburg, running 
S.W. into East Bay, making the fork of the north channel of the 
Bay of Quinte. Mr. Fisher of Hay Bay was probably Judge Fisher, 
who lived in that district at the time. 

The Appanee River is in Lennox County, Ont. The original 
spelling was "Appanee," or variations, such as "Appanea," "Appanie." 
On a map of 1815 it is to be found "Apannee." In the Clark 
Record book it is given twice as Napanee, once in 1788 and again in 
1789. On the original Crown Lands map the river is named "Ap- 
pannee," and the following legend on the map, "Mills built on the 
Appinnie River under the sanction of Lieutenant-Governor Hamil- 
ton," locates the site on the left bank in Fredericksburg Township. 
Since Naw-paw-nay is the Indian (Mohawk) for "flour" this is some- 
times given as the origin of the name, but since the original name 
has not the initial "N," and as the name was there before the flour 
mill was erected, we must look elsewhere. An intelligent Indian 
student suggested that it is related to "opining," which means 
"potato." The suggestion has also' been made by a student of 
Canadian history, Mr. W. S. Herrington, K.C., of Napanee, that the 
Indian name for flour (Naw-paw-nay) may have been derived from 
or may have originated from the name Napanee after flour milling 
began at the Falls. 

Mr. Robert Clark was instructed by the Government to build a 
saw and also a grist mill at the Falls on the Napanee River, the work 
being under the direction of Honorable Richard Cartwright. Mr. C. 
C. James, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, states that in a record 
book in his possession the first entry, "Appenea Falls, 8th November, 
1785," marks the beginning of construction. The saw mill was set 
up March, 1786, and the grist mill on 25th May, 1786. The latter is 
the mill shown in Mrs. Simcoe's picture. Grinding wheat began in 
December of 1786, or early in 1787. For some years the mill was 
in charge of a Government officer named James Clarke, who, by the 
way, was in no way related to Robert Clark, the builder. In August, 
1799, the Government transferred the mill and lots 18 and 19 in the 
7th concession of Fredericksburg to Honorable Richard Cartwright. 
The mills were situated on the left bank of the river just below the 



Falls. Until recent years the old Joy sawmill occupied, in all prob- 
ability, the exact site of the original sawmill, and the Ross grist mill, 
just below it and situated under the hill, which was in operation 
some years ago, was the successor of the original grist mill. Whether 
it occupied the exact site cannot now be determined, but if it was not 
the original mill reconstructed, it must have occupied approximately 
the same site. 

Richard Cartwright, great-grandfather of Sir Richard Cartwright, 
was born in 1720. He came to America and settled in New York about 
1742, removing to Canada after the Revolutionary War. His son 
(Honorable) Richard Cartwright, who owned the mills at Napanee 
after 1799, was born 2nd February, 1759, and died 1815. He served 
in Butler's Rangers 1778-9 and was a member of the Legislative 
Council of Upper Canada from 1792. He was also a Justice of the 
Common Pleas. 

Two of the sons of Honorable Richard Cartwright were Robert 
David and John Solomon. Reverend Robert David married Harriet, 
daughter of Conway Edward Dobbs of Dublin, Ireland, a son being 
Sir Richard Cartwright, and a grandson A. D. Cartwright, secretary 
of the Railway Commission, Ottawa. John Solomon married Sarah 
Hayter Macaulay, daughter of Dr. James Macaulay of the Queen's 
Rangers. James S. Cartwright, K.C., Master in Chambers, and John 
R. Cartwright, K.C., Deputy Attorney-General, are surviving sons. 

Wed. llth We are now half way up the Bay of Quinte. Had we set 
out a week sooner we might have gone 50 miles further, but a geneial 
thaw is so soon expected that we do not venture. We are now travelling 
on a coat of upper ice formed about a fortnight since, and between that 
and the original ice is two feet of water. The rapidity with which a thaw 
comes on is incredible; from the ice being excellent, in six hours it is 
sometimes impassable. 

We set out at eleven and drove 14 miles to Trumpour's Point, so named 
from a man of that name who lives there. He was formerly in the IGth 
Dragoons, and lives by selling horses; his wife gave me some good Dutch 
cakes, as I could not wait to eat the chickens she was roasting in a kettle 
without water. This house commands a fine view. We passed a village 
of Mohawk Indians at Mohawk Bay, opposite the Appanee River. 

From Trumpour's we went to Mr. McDonell's and slept there. This 
bay is about a mile across, thickly inhabited on the north side. The farms 
are reckoned the most productive in the province. The journey has been 
of great benefit to my health. 

NOTE. Paul and Haunts Trumpour, who were brothers, appear 
to have been the only pioneers of this family in the Bay of Quinte 
District ; and the latter, it would seem, came direct to Prince Edward 
County, while the former settled at Adolphustown. There is no rec- 
ord of Haunts having lived at the latter place, but the name of Paul 
is to be found in the " Annual Return of the Inhabitants of Adol- 
phustown," continuously from 1794 to 1812. 

The Mohawk Settlement was on the Bay of Quinte, west of Rich- 
mond, and between the river Shannon and Bowen's Creek. 

18 273 


Thur. 12th Left Mr. McDonell's, called at Booth's, and arrived back 
at Kingston at three o'clock. 

Sun. 15th An express by land arrived from Niagara, and went by 
York and the Bay of Quinte, for the navigation is not yet open across 
the lake. Mr. Mayne arrived from Montreal; he says the roads are now 
very good. Mr. Stuart preached one of the most impressive and best 
sermons I have ever heard, the text " Now is the accepted time, now is 
the day of salvation." 

Wed. 18th An express went to Niagara. A person lately crossing 
Lake Champlain passed a large hole in the ice and an infant, alive, lying 
by the side of it. By tracks it appeared that a sleigh had fallen in, and it 
was known that a heavy-laden sleigh, with families in it, left the country 
on the opposite shore the day before; probably the mother threw the child 
out as the sleigh went down. The gentlemen carried the infant to Mont- 
real, where a subscription was raised for her maintenance a good cir- 
cumstance this for the commencement of a heroine's life in a novel. 

Fri. 20th A severe frost. Mr. Mayne drove me on the harbour, and 
Lt. Frasier, of the 60th Regiment, drove the Governor. A large party to 

Sat. 21st The Governor so ill to-day he could not leave his room to 
dine with Mr. Breakenridge. 

NOTE. James Breakenridge settled in Bennington, Vt. He was 
lieutenant of militia; born in 1721, died 1783, leaving issue, besides 
others, two sons, David and James, who were officers in the Royalist 
Army (Roger's Rangers), in the Revolutionary War, at the conclusion 
of which they came to Canada. Mr. Breakenridge of whom Mrs. 
Simcoe writes was James, colonel of militia and lieutenant of County 
of Leeds, who settled in Elizabethtown. The late Mr. Walter B. 
Read, K.C., Toronto, son of the late D. B. Read, K.C., was a great- 
grandnephew of James Breakenridge of Elizabethtown. 

Tues. 31st Capt. Parr came to take command of the garrison; he 
relieves Capt. Porter, of the 60th Regiment. 

NOTE. Captain Parr was the son of John Parr, Governor of 
Nova Scotia in 1782. Rochefoucauld, in writing of a visit to King- 
ston in July, 1795, says that he and his pajty "had a letter from 
General Simcoe to the commanding officer in Kingston, who, at our 
arrival, was Captain Parr of the 60th Regiment. Six hours after, 
the detachment commanded by that gentleman was relieved by an- 
other of the same regiment, under the orders of Major Dobson. This 
circumstance, however, did not prevent Captain Parr from giving us 
the most obliging proofs of civility and kindness. He is the son of 
the aged Governor of Nova Scotia." 

Fri. April 24th The Governor has been so ill since the 21st of March 
that I have not left his room since that day. He has had such a cough 
that some nights he could not lie down, but sat in a chair, total loss of 
appetite, and such headaches that he could not bear any person but me 
to walk across the room or speak loud. There was no medical advice but 
that of a horse doctor who pretended to be an apothecary. The Governor, 
out of consideration for the convenience of the staff-surgeon, had allowed 
him to remain at Niagara, and his not being made to attend his duty has 
caused me a great deal of anxiety to see the Governor so ill without 
having proper attendance. Capt. Brant's sister prescribed a root it is, 



I believe, calamus, a genus of palm, one species of which yields a resin 
called dragon's blood, the root of which is the sweet flag which really 
relieved his cough in a very short time. 

Sat. 25th Walked out this morning. 

Sun. 26th I went to church. It rained. My umbrella was forgotten, 
and the wet through my sleeves gave me a cold, which perhaps I was more 
susceptible of from not having been out of the house so long. 

Mon. 27th I had a fit of the ague. The first boats went down to 

Wed. 29th I had a fit of the ague. 

Fri. May 1st The first boats arrived from Montreal to-day. The 
unusual mild weather occasioned Lake Champlain to freeze very late. 
Mr. Frobisher's sleigh was lost in crossing it; it contained many bags of 
dollars and valuable things. 

Sun. 3rd The ague again. 

Mon. 4th As I am going away so soon, I am obliged to invite the 
ladies to dinner, but I am ill and weak. I was obliged to sit in the draw- 
ing-room while they went to dinner. 

Tues. 5th The ague. 

Wed. 6th. Ladies dined here. I walked in the evening. 

Thurs. 7th Very ill indeed. 

Mon. llth I drank tea with Mrs. Stuart, and much fatigued by that 
drive only a mile. 

Tues. 12th I went on board the " Onondaga," the Government 
schooner, but the wind coming ahead, we could not sail. 

Thurs. 14th I saw " The Mohawk " launched, a Government boat of 
80 tons. She is the size of the " Mississaga." She came with such 
rapidity that it appeared as if she would have run down the ship we were 
in, which was at anchor ahead of her. I went on shore, and walked on 
Point Frederick and the hill above it. Miss Bouchette, daughter of Com- 
modore, dined on board with me. I have not had the ague since I have 
been in the ship. 

NOTE. Point Frederick is between Kingston Harbour and Haldi- 
mand Cove. 

Fri. 15th We weighed anchor at twelve. After sailing five miles a 
head wind and a stiff gale arose; we returned to the harbour. At two the 
wind changed and we sailed again; a wet afternoon. 

Sat. 16th Unpleasant, cold weather, little wind. 

Sun. 17th About 5 p.m. we were off Gibraltar Point at York. It 
blew extremely hard from the shore; the Captain chose to turn the Point 
without shifting a sail; he was supposed to be not sober, and the 
Governor ordered the English lieutenant to give orders, and he brought us 
safely into York Harbour. We were certainly in great danger, for the 
" Onondaga " is so built that she would overset sooner than carry away 
anything. I was unusually frightened, having dreamt twice following the 
other night that I was lost in the " Onondaga." My servant came several 
times to tell me we were going to the bottom. I told her to shut the door 
and leave me quiet, for the motion of the ship made me sick. 

Mon. 18th At one o'clock we went on shore. 

Thurs. 21st A moor-hen a kind of water fowl, which lives on rushes 
in marshy ground was brought to me to-day, and repeatedly pecked at 
the reeds represented in the tapestry, not touching any other part. 

York, Sun. 24th Some ladies dined with me. Walked in the evening. 
The weather damp and cold. 

Mon. 25th I went with the Governor to the mill (the Government 
mill) on the Humber, and gathered a beautiful species of polygala or 
milk wort. I was slightly attacked by the ague. 

Wed. 27th The ague. 



Mon. June 1st I went in a boat to Francis' estate, Castle Frank. I 
drank tea at Playter's. 

NOTE. Immediately beyond the Castle Frank woods, on the 
property later known as Drumsnah, was the estate of Captain George 
Playter, and directly across, on the opposite side of the river, that of 
his son, Captain John Playter, both of whom emigrated from Penn- 
sylvania after the Declaration of Independence. Official records 
show that Township Lot No. 20, in the 2nd Concession on east side of 
Yonge and north side of Bloor, was granted to Captain George 
Playter on 20th August, 1796. Captain George Playter's house stood 
on the present site of Mr. A. E. Kemp's residence, No. 2, Castle 
Frank Crescent. This residence was 'built in 1902, and when the 
excavations were being made the laborers came upon the stone founda- 
tion of Captain George Playter's residence of 1795. 

One of Captain George Playter's sons was James Playter, who 
had a son James. His children are Edgar Manning, manager of a 
branch of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, Queen and Bathurst 
Streets, Toronto ; Nelson, of Toronto ; Catherine Louisa and Mary M. 
Playter, while Mrs. Barlow Cumberland of Port Hope is a direct 
descendant of Captain George Playter of early York, through his 
daughter Mary, who became the wife of Thomas Ward, a barrister at 
York, afterwards of Port Hope, Ontario. 

Thurs. 4th Company at dinner, and a ball in the evening as usual 

Sat. 6th Francis gave a dinner on his birthday to the soldiers' chil- 
dren. The Shaws dined with him at an upper table. 

Tues. 9th We sent the children and servants in the " Onondaga," and 
intend going ourselves to-morrow in the canoe. Dined at Commissary 

Wed. 10th The weather so bad we could not move. 

Thurs. llth The weather continues adverse to our quitting York. 
We had a dance this evening. 

Mon. 15th We set out in a canoe at seven, dined at the Sixteen- 
Mile Creek, and arrived at Jones', three miles beyond Burlington Bay, at 
seven in the evening. I was delighted with the canoe, the motion so 
easy, so pleasant, so quiet, like what I should suppose being in a palan- 
quin. We sat on cushions in the bottom of the canoe. The Indians 
brought us strawberries not quite ripe. Jones' sister put them in a sauce- 
pan with water and sugar, and boiled them, and I thought them very 
good with my tea. 

NOTE. Mr. Augustus Jones was Deputy-Surveyor. The family 
emigrated from Wales to America, and settled on the Hudson River. 
He was recommended to Governor Simcoe by Mr. Cobden and at the 
Governor's request came to Canada and practised his profession as 
surveyor in different parts of the province. His house was built on 
the 'shore near Stoney Creek, presumably the site of what was known 
as the " Salt Works Farm." Aueruetus Jones and Brant were friends, 
and owing to the proximity of their homes, exchanges of hospitality 
were frequently made, and many pleasant hours spent together. 

Tues. 16th We left Jones' at seven, dined near the Twenty, and 
arrived at eight o'clock at Navy Hall. 



In 1795, Mr. Hammond, the British Ambassador at Washington, 
had informed Governor Simcoe in an official letter that the Duke de la 
Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, who was on a visit to the United States, 
proposed paying a visit to Upper Canada and to Niagara. Letters 
to the same effect came from the Duke of Portland, who was a personal 
friend of Rochefoucauld's. 

The Duke was an eminent man in France. He was born in 1747 
and lived beyond the allotted span, for he was eighty years of age 
when he died in 1827. His loyalty to the unfortunate Louis XVI. 
was his undoing, for he was compelled to seek other climes while his 
native France was in the throes of revolution. He spent several 
years in England and America, but returned to France under the 
Consulate. There he resumed the active part he had played in edu- 
cation, benevolence and reform. 

The Duke was welcomed by the Governor in June, 1795, and 
accepted his invitation to " remain with him, to sleep in his house and 
consider ourselves as at home." The visit of the 
Duke and what he wrote concerning his visit to 
Upper Canada are not pertinent to the contents 
of this volume, and will be found in the biography 
of Governor Simcoe, now in course of preparation. 
Suffice it to say that the Duke wrote a work on his 
travels in North America, the contents of which 
were severely criticized. He seemed to have no 
appreciation of the fact that he and his party were 
guests, and he violated all the rules of hospitality 
by relating private conversations and gossip, color- 
ing and garbling and distorting incidents and con- 
versations as if his purpose was to sow the seeds 
of discord and ill-feeling. He apparently had no 
consideration of personal delicacy, and instead of 
writing in a friendly manner he seemed to regard himself when 
writing concerning the British Government as a "foreigner and a 
foe," as the English translator of his volume admits. The Duke was 
in Canada from the 20th June until the 22nd July, 1795. The 
Governor, Lord Dorchester, had doubts as to the advisability of his 
visit, and refused to permit the Duke to descend the St. Lawrence 
and visit Lower Canada. His remarks about Mrs. Simcoe show he 
lacked the predominant characteristic of a French gentleman and 
that he forgot that he was the guest not only of the Governor but 



of his charming wife, who, with true British hospitality, were both 
doing all they could to make his visit a pleasant one. He says: 

"Mrs. Simcoe is a lady of thirty-six years of age. She is bash- 
ful and speaks little; but she is a woman of sense, handsome and 
amiable, and fulfils all the duties of the mother and wife with 
the most scrupulous exactness. The performance of the latter she 
carries so far as to act the part of a private secretary to her husband. 
Her talents for drawing, the practice of which she confines to maps 
and plans, enable her to be extremely useful to the Governor." 

As an "Anglo-Canadian" (D. W. Smith), who reviewed that part 
of the Duke's work referring to his visit to Upper Canada, wrote 
after the death of General Simcoe in 1806, " Was it well done of the 
ci-devant Duke de la Rochefoucauld (while he was fostered by an 
English Governor, in a country where he was received with as much 
attention as if he had then actually enjoyed his honours and his 
prosperity) to publish to the world that this exemplary lady per- 
formed the duties of a wife with so much scrupulous exactness as to 
act the part of a private secretary to her husband ? Was she thus to 
be metamorphosed into a clerk because she sometimes copied her 
husband's confidential despatches? Fye, sir you should have re- 
spected the lady's delicate feeling; although you had none such for 
her lord. But Mrs. Simcoe is well known to all who loved and 
followed the General's fortunes, and no reflection on her conduct, 
whether powerful or puerile, can shake their attachment to the relict 
of their friend, or induce the world to believe or form any opinion on 
the Duke's assertions, except that of ill-nature and ingratitude in 
his own breast." 

Dr. Scadding in his work of "Toronto of Old" writes that the 
Duke in his statement about Mrs. Simcoe might have added "that 
her skill, facility and taste were attested by numerous sketch-books 
and portfolios of Canadian scenery in its primitive condition, taken 
by her hand, to be treasured up carefully and reverently by her 
immediate descendants, but unfortunately not accessible generally 
to Canadian students." 

Mrs. Simcoe was not favorably impressed with her visitors. She 
thought "their appearance is perfectly democratic and dirty," and 
this conviction was evidently a settled one, for she writes, "I dislike 
them all." 

Mon. 22nd The Duke de Liancourt arrived, strongly recommended 
by the Duke of Portland, Mr. Hammond, etc.; therefore Genl. Simcoe is 
obliged to pay every attention to him. He is attended by Mr. Gilmard, an 
Englishman, a French naval officer named Duoetit-Thouars, and M. de 
Blacons. Their appearance is perfectly democratic and dirty. 

Wed. 24th Monsr. Blacons returns immediately to the United States, 
where, I hear, he keeps a shop. Monsr. Dupetit-Thouars and Gilmard are 
going to visit York. 

Mon. 29th The Governor took the Duke de L'iancourt to see Forty- 
Mile Creek. I dislike them all. 

Thur. July 2nd The Governor returned. Mrs. McGill came to stay a 
few days with me during the Commissary's absence. 


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Sun. 12th The thermometer 95 in the shade. 

Tues. 21st Mrs. McGill returned to York. 

Fri. 24th Coll. and Mrs. Campbell, from Detroit, dined with me. 

Sat. Aug. 1st Excessive hot day. Coll. and Mrs. Campbell went in 
our boat to Queenstown; we rode. From thence they drove up the mountain, 
and we dined in the arbour by the side of the river, from which we were 
driven by a violent shower. We drank tea at Mrs. Hamilton's, and came 
home in the boat. 

Wed. 5th We went to the Queenstown landing with Mrs. Macaulay, 
and dined by the rock which Hennepin mentions; a very pleasant day. 

NOTE. Father Louis Hennepin, a missionary, arrived at Quebec 
in 1675, and joined the party of La Salle in 1678. When they 
reached the Illinois Kiver La Salle was forced to return and Hennepin 
proceeded without him in 1680, exploring the Upper Mississippi. 
His picture of the Falls of Niagara is the earliest picture of the 
cataract known. He mentions a rock at Niagara, and calls it "le 
Gros Kocher." It is between the two falls. 

Mon. 10th The House of Assembly (the fourth session of the first 
Legislature) prorogued to-day. 

NOTE. It is true that York was now the official capital, but 
there was no building in York that would accommodate the Legis- 
lature, so it continued to be held at Niagara. 

Tues. llfch We rode to Judge 
Powell's; dined at Mrs. Tice's, 
and obtained her consent to our 
staying a fortnight at her house. 
She is to give us two rooms, and 
we are to have a tent pitched for 
the servants. The situation is 
peculiarly dry and healthy, on the 
mountain five miles from the Falls 
of Niagara. There is a shed or 
gallery before the house, and 
some oak trees close to it. There- 
fore there is always shade and 
cool air here when we were suf- 
fering from intense heat at Navy 
Hall. We rode home in the even- 

NOTE. Chief Justice William Dummer Powell was born in Bos- 
ton in 1755. The grandfather of the Chief Justice came from Eng- 
land as Secretary to Lieutenant-Governor Dummer. The family was 
.an old Welsh one, their estate in Wales being known as Caer-Howell. 
When a lad of nine, William Dummer was sent to England to be 
educated, and from there went to Holland to acquire a knowledge 
of French and 'Dutch, and in 1772 returned to Boston. In 1779 
he was called to the bar by the Middle Temple, and in 1789 appointed 
a Commissioner of the Peace of the Province of Quebec. In this 
year he left Montreal with his family for Detroit, which was still 
in possession of the British. In 1791 he was appointed Com- 
missioner of Oyer and Terminer and Jail Delivery for Quebec, and 
in 1792 to the same office in Upper Canada. Up to the War of 1812, 





Powell had been a Puisne Judge, but in 1815 was promoted to the 
Chief Justiceship. The Chief Justice married in 1773 Ann, daughter 
of Dr. J. Murray of Norwich, England, of the family of Murray of 
Philiphaugh. He retired from the Bench in 1825, and died in 
Toronto nine years later. The living descendants of the Chief 
Justice bearing the Powell name are the families of John Bleecker 
Powell, Collector of Inland Revenue, Guelph; Arthur Wellesley 
Powell of Montreal, and Dr. Robert Winyard Powell of Ottawa, 
Ont. Brindley Powell and William Dummer Powell reside in the 
United States. 

Wed. 12th We sailed in the boat to the Queenstown landing, and 
arrived at Mrs. Tice's to dinner. In the evening we walked to the whirl- 

Thur. 13th The Governor drove me in the carriage for the first time; 
we went to the Falls and returned by starlight, tho' the road has many 
stumps of trees on the sides, of which I was a little afraid. 

Fri. 14th We breakfasted at six and called on Mrs. Hamilton (wife 
of Capt. Hamilton) at the Chippawa. On our return stopped at Canby's 
Mill. From thence the rapids above the Falls appear very grand. Near 
this mill, about a year ago, a burning spring was discovered, which, if a 
candle is held to it, will continue flaming a great while. 

NOTE. Captain James Mathew Hamilton, son of Rev. Nicholson 
Hamilton of Donoghadee, County Down, Ireland, born 1768, was 
ensign of the 5th Northumberland Regiment of Foot in 1786. He 

received his lieutenancy on 16th 

July, 1794, and his captaincy on 

llth August, 1799. He served 

with his regiment in Canada, 

being stationed at Mackinac for 

some time. While there he mar- 
ried Louisa, daughter of Dr. 

David Mitchell, surgeon-general 

to the Indian Department, who 

performed the ceremony, there 

feeing no minister of any de- 
nomination in that part of the 

country in those early days. 
CAPTAIN HAMILTON. They > were remarried" by Rev. 

Robert Addison at Niagara. In 

St. Mark's Register the marriage is third on the list, and is thus 
quaintly recorded: "August 24th, 1792, Captain James Hamilton 
to Louisa Mitchell his wife. They had been married by some com- 
manding officer or magistrate and thought it more decent to have 
the first repeated." From the time of Rev. Robert Addison's arrival 
he kept the register, which became the St. Mark's Church register 
in 1809, when the church was opened. In 1795, Captain Hamilton 
was in command at Chippawa and about 1800 he returned to Eng- 
land, where he sold his commission. His wife died in 1802, and 
he remarried, his second wife being Louisa Jupp. He returned to 




Canada about 1828. Ann Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Captain 
James Hamilton by his first wife, married Thomas Gummersall 
Anderson. One of their daughters is Mrs. W. H. Eowe of Toronto. 

Mr. Basil G. Hamilton of Wilmer, B.C., is a grandson of Captain 
Hamilton, being descended from the latter's second wife. 

Between the village and the falls of Chippawa there were three 
mills; the lower for the manufacture of flour; the two upper mills, 
which were near to each other, and adjoining to the road, were for 
the purpose of sawing timber into boards, and for manufacturing 
iron. The latter mills are referred to as Canby's and Burch's, as 
Benjamin Canby and John Burch had mills in this locality. 

About three miles from Chippawa, in the township of Willoughby, 
there is a spring of water whose vapor is highly inflammable, and is 
emitted for a time with a considerable degree of force. If collected 
within a narrow compass, it is capable of supporting combustion 
for nearly twenty minutes, and of communicating to Avater placed over 
it in a small confined vessel the degree of boiling temperature. 

Fri. 14th I went to see it to-day, but it has not been cleared out for 
some time, and the cattle having trod in it and made it muddy, it did not 
deserve the name of the burning spring. We had our small tent and some 
cold meat hung under the carriage. We pitched the tent near the Falls and 
dined, after which, being fatigued by the heat, I lay down in the tent and 
slept, lulled by the sound of the Falls, which was going to sleep in the 
pleasantest way imaginable. After tea we had a very pleasant drive home. 

Sat. 15th The Governor drove the children to the whirlpool, and 1 
rode part of the way; we carried our tent and provisions as yesterday, and 
dined on a point from whence the whirlpool and the opposite bank of the 
river, on which is a mill, form altogether a very fine scene; the mill 
appears like a part of the perpendicular flat rock on which it stands. In 
the bay (or whirlpool), formed by two immensely high points of land, 
are now a number of logs collected by Canby at his saw mill above the 
Falls; the dam which confined them having given way in a flood, the 
logs came down the Falls and were stopped here by the various strong 
eddies in this agitated pool, where they whirl about, and probably will 
continue so till the end of the world, for they never appear to go beyond 
the circle of a certain distance, and sometimes are set quite upright by the 
currents; it is a curious scene. 

Sun. 16th A most excessive hot day. The Governor went to Navy 

Mon. 17th The weather extremely warm; the Governor returned at 
eleven. This evening we drove to a farm inhabited by Painter. It is 
just opposite the Fort Schlosser Fall. I was so delighted with the sight of 
the Falls from this spot, just above what is called the " Indian ladder," 
which gives so different a view of them from what I saw at the Table 
Rock that I am determined to return here again. The road is tolerable 
for a carriage. It was quite dark before we got home. 

NOTE. The Indian Ladder was on the Canadian side, and a sec- 
ond ladder was made near it for Mrs. Simcoe more easily to descend. 
The ladder consisted of a tall cedar with the branches lopped off about 
a foot from the trunk and placed against the face of the cliff. By 
some it was said to be about half a mile below, or north of Table 



Rock, by others a mile. It is said there was also an Indian ladder 
on the American side. Colonel John Clarke in his Memoirs (On- 
tario Historical Society Records, Vol. VII., 1906) says "I, however, 
remember the Indian Ladder (so called), having often gone down on 
it, being only a long pine tree with the branches cut off, leaving only 
enough to place your foot on, to hold to, when ascending or 

Wed. 19th At home all day a thunderstorm. 

Thurs. 20th A wet morning. The Governor went to Navy Hall. A 
cold evening. Mr. Pilkington called. 

Sat. 22nd The Governor drove towards the Falls in the evening. 

Sun. 23rd In the evening we rode to the mill near the whirlpool. I 
made a sketch, in which a large, living birch tree, suspended by the roots, 
with the head downwards, hanging between a 'bold rifted rock near a cas- 
cade, if well drawn, would have a most picturesque appearance. The 
miller who lives here has a project of finding means to drag these logs on 
shore, in which case it will answer him to build a saw mill here, for it is 
not unusual for floods to bring down a quantity of logs from Canby's mill, 
and the timber is not at all injured by having passed the great Fall. 

Mon. 24th Mr. Pilkington, having been desired to put one or two 
short ladders to make the descent easy from rock to rock by the side of 
the "Indian Ladder," which is a notched tree, we set out to-day, deter- 
mined to make our way to the bottom of the rocks below the Falls. We 
stopped near Painter's house to look at the Fort Schlosser Fall, and then 
descended the hill, which I found much easier than had been represented, 
and very little more difficult than the usual way to the Table Rock, altho' 
it carried us so many feet below it. I rested half-way, and sketched the 
rock and ladder above me. The view from the margin of the water is 
infinitely finer than from the Table Rock. We were near a mile distant 
from it. The Governor walked with a guide nearly underneath it, but as 
the path over the rocks was bad and not one picturesque scene to be gained 
by it, I did not attempt going, but sat endeavouring to sketch the scene 
till my paper was quite wet by the spray from the Fort Schlosser Fall. 
The quantity of cypress and cedar with which the sides of the rocks are 
covered adds greatly to the beauty and richness of the scenery. We dined 
on the rocks beneath the overhanging cedars. A man speared a large 
sturgeon this afternoon near where we were working. As we ascended the 
hill again, when near the top of it I stopped to observe a most picturesque 
view of the Falls, seen in parts thro' the rough spreading branches of 
hemlock spruce trees, which formed a noble foreground, and the setting 
sun added richness to the scene. I rested myself at Painter's house, where 
they prepared, besides tea, those cakes, baked in a few minutes on an iron 
before the fire, which the people of the States make so well; eggs and 
sweetmeats, and bacon or salt fish, they usually offer with tea. I believe 
it is a more substantial meal with them than their dinner, which is slight. 

I came home by moonlight after a most pleasant day. All the time 
I have been at Mrs; Tice's has been filled up with seeing the most delight- 
ful scenery, and nothing to interrupt the pleasure of dwelling on the 
sights. The waggons arrived to carry the General's baggage to Fort Erie. 
He is going as far as Long Point, on Lake Erie. 

Tues. 25th The Governor and I and Francis went in the carriage to 
Fort Chippawa, but finding the baggage had not arrived, could proceed 
no further; dined and slept at Capt. Hamilton's, who commands here. 

We walked this evening, and I made some sketches. Weather exces- 
sively hot; the Governor very ill. We slept in a room in the Block House, 
where the logs were some distance apart. Without this contrivance, used 



as loopholes in the case of attack, as well as for admitting air, I think the 
heat would have been insufferable; as it was, I left my bed and lay on the 

Wed. 26th Went out early in the boat with Capts. Darling and 
Smith. The latter brought me a thermometer I had been long wishing 
for, and the Governor bought it of an officer going to England; almost 
immediately it fell out of my hand and was broken, to my great vexation. 
The Governor set out on horseback, but finding himself very ill, made 
signs to come ashore, which we did half-way between the Chippawa and 
Fort Erie, and at a very good farmhouse he stay'd the whole of the 
day till six in the evening, when we proceeded in the barge to Fort Erie. 
We ordered dinner and made ourselves quite at home here, supposing it 
an inn, and afterwards found we were mistaken. It was not an inn, but 
the home of a very hospitable farmer. The whole of the shore we passed 
to-day is flat and uninteresting. About Fort Erie the verdure is greater 
than I have seen in Canada, and, being unaccustomed to green without 
being enriched by warm brown tints, it gave me such an idea of damp 
and cold that I immediately put on a fur tippet and thought it quite com- 
fortable, tho' there was no particular change in the weather, but only in 
the tints. I saw some of the vessels which are built on this lake and 
rigged like scows, a large, flat bottomed boat. They are better painted, 
and have a more respectable appearance than those on Lake Ontario. 

We slept in an indifferent house, two miles beyond the Fort, kept by 
very dirty people, but it has the advantage of being very near the lake. 

NOTE. Fort Erie is in Welland County, on Lake Erie. It was 
first fortified during the French occupation and greatly strengthened 
during the War of 1812. Since then it has gone gradually to decay 
and has long been dismantled. 

Thurs. 27th An excessive hot day. We pitched the tent among some 
trees near the beach, which is a very pleasant spot, and the house is too 
dirty to stay in. I dined in my tent, the Governor at the Fort. The beach 
is covered with flat rocks, among and upon which are cray fish in very 
shallow pools of water. I amused myself by catching them. The lake 
is narrow here, and has not the sea-like appearance of Ontario. The 
opposite shore is seen and some rising land beyond it, but a flat horizon, 
without fine-shaped or pointed hills. 

Fri. 28th The heat intense; if my thermometer had not been broken 
I might have ascertained it. I sat in my tent; the flat rocks and shallow 
water extend a prodigious way into the lake. One of the servants went 
to the lake to wash his clothes. Francis followed him up to his knees in 
water and sat on a rock by him; presently an Indian went to wash his 
clothes, and the group looked very picturesque. Francis came back com- 
pletely wet to fetch a loaf of bread he desired to give to the Indian. Com- 
modore Grant arrived to-day from Detroit in the " Chippawa," the largest 
of the King's vessels on this lake. There was an Indian council to-day. 
The Governor had company at dinner. I dined in my room. 

Sat. 29th Breakfasted in the tent. The Governor went to an Indian 
council; he returned to an early dinner, intending to go this evening to 
Point Abino on his way to Long Point. I accompanied him in his car- 
riage to Fort Erie, from whence I went in a boat to the Chippawa. 
Mr. Bing, having just arrived from Detroit, went with me. I slept at 
Capt. Hamilton's, who is commandant at the Chippawa, where we arrived 
about nine. Mr. Bing went on to Niagara. 

NOTE. Fort Chippawa was dismantled after the "War of 1812. 
Point Abino, or Bertie, or Ridgeway, is in Welland County, 
nine miles from Buffalo. It was here that the Fenians crossed into 
19 289 


Canada West in 1866. Mr. Bing was probably the man who after- 
wards became major-general and who fought against Bonaparte. 

Sun. 30th The weather was so hot 1 gave up my intention of riding 
to Mrs. Tice's, but having no gentleman with me I was obliged to drive 
the carriage myself, which I had never done, and the roads were exces- 
sively rough till after passing by the Falls. I tied Francis into the car- 
riage and drove him very safely, altho' he complained of being much 
bruised and shook. A violent rain began just as I arrived at Mrs. Tioe's. 

Mon. 31st A Moravian woman, married to a farmer near here, brought 
me a loaf of bread so peculiarly good that 1 could not but enquire about 
it. She said that it was made with rennet and whey, without yeast or 
water, and baked in wicker or straw baskets, which is the method taught 
at the Moravian School at Bethlehem (on the Lehigh River, in Pennsyl- 
vania), in the States, where she was educated. The bread was as light as 
possible and rich, like cake. This woman brought a wild turkey here 
during my absence; another has been seen. Mrs. Tice has the finest 
melons imaginable. I prefer water melons, and eat two or three every 
day. The Indian corn is just now in proper state for boiling or roasting; 
it begins to turn yellow. Francis and I dine upon it. All the vegetables 
are particularly good, and I eat little else. The Asiatics eat no meat in 
the summer, and I daresay they are right, and the 'heat here nearly 
approaches to that in the east. The people here in the summer live chiefly 
on vegetables and a little salt pork. Now the wild pigeons are coming 
of which there are such numbers that, besides those they roast and eat 
at present, they salt the wings and breasts of them in barrels, and at any 
time they are good to eat after being soaked. There is a pond before this 
house where hundreds of them drink at a time; it is singular that this 
pond rises and falls as a river does, tho' it is such an immense height 
above it. The May apples are now a great luxury; I have had some pre- 
served, and the hurtleberries are ripe. Baron La Hontan says the root 
of the May apples (or, as the French call them, citrons sauvages) is 

Tues. Sept. 1st I rode to the little mill near the whirlpool; while I 
sat sketching, the trees around were covered with pigeons. 

Wed. 2nd A very wet day; notwithstanding, I rode in the evening 
to drink tea with Mrs. Powell, wife of Chief Justice Powell, who was alone. 
She is a very sensible, pleasant woman. It was very dark and wet coming 
home. Elderflower leaves take off the pain of the gout or rheumatism. 

Fri. 4th Dined at Mrs. Powell's; met Mrs. Richardson, wife of Dr. R. 

Sat. 5th Capt. Hamilton called. No news from Fort Erie yet. 

Sun. 6th I walked to Mrs. Powell's this evening. 

Mon. 7th I walked a mile this evening to the spring from whence 
this house is supplied with drinking water. I gathered two kinds of 
yellow flowers, which are sweet after sunset. I believe it is salep. Cat 
mint in tea is a good stomatic, and sweet marjorie tea for the headache. 
Sweet briar and boiling water poured over it, put into jars, milk pans or 
anything that is to be washed out, purifies them sooner and better than 
anything else. Mrs. Tice uses it constantly in her dairy. 

Tues. 8th Mrs. Smith dined with me. 1 walked in the evening to 
Mrs. Powell's. I was feverish, and felt great relief from a saline draught 
taken in the effervescent state, a little salt of wormwood water and two 
teaspoonfuls of lemon juice. I hear the people in the Lower Settlement 
(Queenstown) are suffering severely by the ague. There are a great 
rranv sassafras trees in the woods near Navy Hall, and they are very 
beautiful and sweet. There are also a great many sumach shrubs by the 
river. I gathered the branches of flowers of the sumach last year and 
poured boiling water upon them, which tastes like lemonade; it has a 
very restringent, hard taste. 



Wed. 9th I walked this evening into a field which was clearing, to 
see the immense large fires. 

Thurs. 10th I dined with Mrs. Powell, whose company is very 
pleasant to me. 

Fri. llth I walked two miles thro' the woods below the mountains 
to see a spring which has been lately discovered, which is said to cure 
lameness, blindness and every disorder. The water tasted like ink and 
looks very dark. It smells very sulphurous, and so does the earth all 
around it extremely strong of brimstone. 

Sat. 12th The Governor returned, and is far from well. He was 
pleased with Long Point, which he called Charlotteville; the banks on the 
lake 150 feet high; on the shore grew weeping willows, covered with vines; 
he gathered some grapes already sweet. He returned up the Grand River, 
from thence crossed a short portage into the Welland, which he descended 
to Fort Chippawa. He went part of the journey on horseback, and was 
much annoyed by passing wasps' nests. The wasps stung the horses 

NOTE. Years before a settlement was made at or near Long Point 
Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe proposed to found there a military 
establishment to aid in the defence of the new province of Upper 
Canada, for he claimed that at Long Point was "the only good road- 
stead on Lake Erie" and "admirably adapted for settlements." Here 
he laid out a site for Government buildings and called it "Charlotte 
Villa," and the township of Charlotteville was named in honor of 
Queen Charlotte. The township fronts on Long Point Bay. Lord 
Dorchester, however, objected to this founding of a military settle- 
ment. In 1812 Fort Norfolk was built at Charlotteville, but nothing 
except the trenches remain. 

Mon. 14th We walked to the mineral spring. 

NOTE. Along the boundaries of the River Niagara, and behind 
the Falls, the elevated and rocky banks were everywhere excavated 
by sulphurous springs, the vitriolic acid uniting with the limestone 
rock, and forming plaster of paris, which was here and there scat- 
tered amid the masses of stone composing the beach beneath. These 
excavations extended in many places to a distance of fifty feet under- 
neath the summit of the bank. With reference to the mineral spring, 
an old resident of Niagara-on-the-Lake states that it was near the 
old military hospital, which information he gives on the authority of 
the doctor of the Royal Canadian Rifles at Niagara-on-the-Lake in 
1850-6. The military hospital was formerly the Indian Council 
House marked on a map of 1799 as well as on later maps. The 
Council House was converted into a hospital in 1822. It lies on the 
common near Butler's Barracks almost a mile from Navy Hall, and 
on the line between the two. 

Tues. 15th The Governor much worse. The heat excessive. I fell 
thro' a trap-door in my room into a cellar, but was not very much bruised. 

Sat. 19th We walked to Mrs. Powell's. 

Tues. 22nd We walked with Francis to the school, where he goes 
every day, a mile from this house. He carries some bread and butter or 
cheese for dinner with him, and returns in the evening. 



Thurs. 24th Rode to the mill. The Governor very ill. His disorder 
is bilious fever. 

NOTE. This mill was in all probability the Servos mill, situated 
on the Four Mile Creek. 

Fri. 25th Very hot weather. Rode to Lutes' farm this evening. Mrs. 
Tice has a number of standard peach trees; some produce small fruit, 
others large, quite green, but very well flavoured, tho' they look unprom- 

NOTE. This farm near Niagara was owned by Samuel Lutes, or 
Lutz, as it is also spelled. In the first census of Niagara in 1782 
Samuel Lutz is given as having cleared eighteen acres of land, and in 
the list of farms on the Niagara River and back from it, near St. 
David's, mention of three farms belonging to Samson Lutes is made. 

Sun. 27th A wet day and very cold. 

Thurs. Oct. 1st Mrs. Powell drank tea with me. 

Fri. 2nd Left Mrs. Tice's; went to Navy Hall; a very cold night. 

Sat. 3rd A sultry day. 

Thurs. 15th A most violent storm on Lake Erie. Mr. Tukel lost. 

Sun. Nov. 1st A little snow fell. 

Wed. 4th Fine weather. We breakfasted with Mrs. Hamilton. 



Late in the autumn of 1795 Mrs. Simcoe again went to York, 
leaving Navy Hall on 13th November. The trip across the lake 
occupied nine hours and was made in the schooner "Governor Sim- 
coe," which was considered a fast sailer. Although the Governor is 
not mentioned as one of the party, he was at York on 1st January, 
1796, and apparently recovering from an illness, for Mrs. Simcoe 
writes on that day, "The Governor infinitely better, can walk four 
or five miles without fatigue." 

There are no entries in the diary between November 13th and 
the 1st December, while record of happenings was kept with irregu- 
larity until the following March. Indeed, it would appear that the 
diary was only kept at intervals when Mrs. Simcoe was away from 
Navy Hall. This visit to York was a prolonged one. It covered 
five months, for Mrs. Simcoe did not return to Navy Hall till the 
29th of April, 1796. 

She writes on leaving Navy Hall in November : 

Fri. 13th We left Navy Hall at eight o'clock in the "Governor 
Simcoe," and arrived at York at five: drank tea with Mrs. McGill. Mr. 
Lawrence is come with us; he is lately from the States. The Hessian fly 
has destroyed much of the crops in the Bay of Quinte. 

NOTE. A biographer writes : "John Brown Lawrence of New 
Jersey was a member of the Council, and a distinguished lawyer. 
He was born in Monmouth County. His inclination was to take 
part in the "Revolution; but, suspected by the Whigs from the first. 
because of his official relations to the Crown, he was finally arrested 
and imprisoned in the Burlington jail for a long time. Accused 
of treasonable intercourse with the enemy, he was tried and acquitted. 
His imprisonment proved a fortunate circumstance. Lieutenant- 
Colonel John G. Simcoe, commander of the Queen's Bangers, was 
a fellow prisoner, and when exchanged, said at parting, ' I shall 
never forget your kindness.' He did not ; and when appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Canada, he invited Mr. Lawrence to settle there. 
The invitation was accepted, and, favored by the Governor, he ac- 
quired a large tract of Crown land. . . . Mr. Lawrence died, I 
conclude from circumstances, in Upper Canada about the year 1796." 

Tues. Dec. 1st A summer day. 

Tues. 8th Mr. Lawrence says the tough skins from the inside of wild 
pigeons' gizzards, hung up to dry, and grated to a fine powder, is an infal- 
lible cure for indigestion. 

Fri. 18th Francis brings all the wood I burn in my stove from the 
woodyard; I think the exercise is of service to him. He has to-day a 



little sledge to draw it upon. Mr. Jones, the surveyor, says seven hundred 
rattlesnakes were killed near Burlington Bay this summer. They live in 
caves, and in very dry weather go down to the lake to drink; they are 
sluggish, and, as they move in numbers at a time, probably would be easier 
destroyed than many other reptiles. The man is quite recovered who was 
bitten by one last August. 

Sun. 20th A boat going to the " Head of the Lake " with letters lost 
her bottom near the River Credit, but the men were saved, being near 
the shore. 

Tues. 22nd I walked towards the town; the snow deep enough to 
drive a sleigh. 

Fri. 25th A frost. Mrs. Shaw dined with us. 

Sun. 27th A slight shock of an earthquake was felt this morning 
about five o'clock by the Governor and almost every person in the gar- 
rison but myself. The weather is calm, and there is no appearance of 
the lake having risen. An express from Kingston. 

Mon. 28th Walked to the town. A party began to-day to cut a road 
from hence to the Pine Fort, near Lake Simcoe. Mr. Jones, the surveyor, 
says the Indians killed over 500 deer in a month within a fence of seven 
miles; they cut down trees and laid them in a circle of that extent; the 
deer were afraid to pass the apparent fence and were easily shot. 

NOTE. At the Holland River was the Pine Fort called Gwillim- 
bury, after "Gwillim," Mrs. Simcoe's maiden name. In 1799, Yonge 
Street ended at this Pine Fort. 

Fri. Jan. 1st, 1796 The Governor infinitely better, can walk four or 
five miles without fatigue, probably owing to the cold season of the year. 
An express from Kingston. Mrs. Macaulay came to see me and we had a 
dance. There are ten ladies here, and as they dance reels we can make 
up a ball. 

Mon. 18th A ball and firing, as usual on this day (Queen's birthday). 
A very cold night. 

Tues. 19th I walked with Mrs. Macaulay; a bear killed by "The Man 
of the Snakes." I do not like the meat. It is like pork. Mr. McGill 
drinks tea made of hemlock pine. It is not pleasant, but thought whole- 

Sat. 23rd We walked on the ice to the house which is building on 
Francis' 200 acre lot of land. It is called Castle Frank, built on the plan 
of a Grecian temple, totally of wood, the logs squared and so grooved 
together that in case of decay any log may be taken out. The large pine 
trees make pillars for the porticos, which are at each end 16 feet high. 
Some trees were cut and a large fire made near the house, by which 
venison was toasted on forks made on the spot, and we dined. I returned 
home in the carriole. Several people were fishing on the River Don thro' 
holes cut in the ice; the small red trout they catch are excellent. I 
gathered black haws; the roots of the trees, boiled, are a cure for com- 
plaints in the stomach. 

NOTE. This entry shows that Castle Frank was used as a camp 
not only in the summer, but also in the wintertime. The building 
was not completed till June, 1796. 

Sun. 24th A very cold day. I walked to Major Smith's lot, on which 
I gathered keys of the sugar maple and partridge berries. They are 
scarlet, growing on a creeping plant like stone cress. 

Mon. 25th Very cold weather; the bay frozen across. 

Thurs. 28th Drove again to Castle Frank, and dined again in the 
woods on toasted venison. The ice is excellent. The berries of the moun- 



tain tea or winter green are now in great beauty, their bright scarlet 
berries peeping thro' the snow and the rich colour of their green leaves; 
they taste like orgeat (or barley syrup), but are of a very warm nature 
and raise the spirits. 

Fri. 29th Excessive cold weather. I walked to the town; the Gover- 
nor drove round the bay to Gibraltar Point. 

NOTE. The route was east along the present Queen Street to 
Woodbine Avenue, thence over the peninsula to the site of the light- 
house. There were too many small lagoons for pleasant walking 
north of this to the actual spit of land known as "Gibraltar Point." 


( From a Drawing by Mrs. Si>nc<>e.) 

Tues. Feb. 2nd Mrs. Richardson went with me to Castle Frank; it is 
not yet floored; the carpenters are building a hut for themselves. I 
gathered fox berries. They grow like small red currants on a delicate 
plant. The water elder berries are here called tree cranberries, and are 
less bitter than in England. We had an immense fire to-day, and dined on 
toasted venison. 

Wed. 3rd We drove on the ice to Skinner's Mill, a mile beyond 
Castle Frank, which looked beautiful from the river. The ice became bad 
from the rapidity of the river near the mill. At the mouth of the Don I 
fished from my carriole, but the fish are not to be caught, as they were 
last winter, several dozen in an hour. It is said that the noise occasioned 
by our driving constantly over this ice frightens away the fish, which 
seems probable, for they are still in abundance in the Humber, where we 
do not drive; 15 dozen were caught there a few days ago. The Governor 
finds great benefit by driving out this cold weather, and likes my dor- 
meuse very much. The children sit in front of it. 

NOTE. Timothy Skinner's grist mill was on the east bank of 
the Don River. To reach it one had to drive down the old Don Mills 



Road, a continuation of Broadview Avenue. The mill is just below 
Todmorden. It was built in 1794, on Lot 13, township of East York, 
for lots -13 and 14 belonged to the Skinner family. Parshall Terry, 
a member of the first Legislature, helped to build the mill, which was 
operated by Mr. Timothy Skinner for some years, and then by Mr. 
Colin Skinner, who took Mr. John Eastwood into partnership, and 
they used the building as a paper mill. It is claimed that the first 
paper in Upper Canada was made in this mill in 1826. Skinner 
and Eastwood both married into the Helliwell family, and on Mr. 
Eastwood's death the property came into possession of Thomas, 
Joseph and William Helliwell. In 1847 it passed into the hands of 
the Taylor Bros. During their time it was twice destroyed by fire, 
and once during- the ownership of the present owner, Mr. Robert 
Davies. The walls, which were of stone, stood, however, and a new 
roof and floors made the building as it was first built. 

Thurs. 4th We drove three miles to the settlement below the town 
(across the Don River), and at Mrs. Ashbridge's saw calabashes, the fruit 
of the calabash tree, a vessel made of a dried gourd or shell a gourd 
plant, which have 'holes cut in them as bowls to ladle out water, having 
a natural handle. I brought away some of the seeds, which are to be 
sown in March, in rich ground. Might not the use of these calabashes, 
which are in shape like skulls, have given rise to the story of the southern 
Indians drinking out of the skulls of their enemies? I saw Mr. Richard- 
son's infant laid in a box, which he held by a cord, and was skating up 
the bay; this gave the child air and exercise. 

NOTE. George Ashbridge emigrated from Yorkshire, England, to 
the United States and settled in Pennsylvania near Philadelphia in 
1698. He had several sons and daughters. His eldest son, John, 
born in 1702, married Hannah Davies, of Pennsylvania. Their eldest 
son, Jonathan, born 1734, married Sarah James. After Jonathan 
Ashbridge's death his widow and family settled in York. She 
died 13th June, 1801. There were two sons, John and Jonathan, 
and several daughters, two of whom were Sarah, who married Mr. 
Heron of Niagara, and Mary, who married Mr. Parker Mills, of York. 
The descendants of Jonathan Ashbridge are Jesse Ashbridge and 
Miss Hannah Lambert of Toronto, Jonathan of Scarboro and W. 
T. Ashbridge of British Columbia. Of John's descendants in Toronto 
there are Albert J. Ashbridge and Mrs. R. Short, also Mrs. Hagerman 
of Victoria Square. The original Ashbridge home was on Township 
lots 8 and 9 in the First Concession from the bay, now No. 1470 1 
Queen Street East, just west of the corner of Morley Avenue and 
Queen Street, Toronto. 

Fri. 5th Mrs. McGill, Miss Crookshank and a large party drove with 
me in carrioles to dine on toasted venison by a large fire on the beach 
below the settlements. We sat under the shelter of the root of an immense 
pine, which had been blown up by the wind, and found it very pleasant, 
and returned six miles in 32 minutes. Had a card party in the evening. 

Sat. 6th The ladies did not catch cold, and were delighted with the 
novelty of dining in the air in winter, so to-day we went to Castle Frank. 



Mrs. Macaulay joined the party. The ice was not quite so good, and the 
snow melted. It was so mild we could not wear great-coats. Francis has 
a small sleigh, which the servants have taught a goat to draw; he is the 
handsomest goat I ever saw, and looks very well in harness. It is a very 
pretty sight to see Francis drawn in this car. They used the animal to 
draw the sleigh by making him draw it full of wood. At first he was very 

Mon. 8th We set out on the ice with three carrioles brought from 
Quebec, but driving too near a large crack in the ice near the shore the 
horses in the first carriole broke in, but being quickly whipped, recovered 
their footing on the ice and drew the carriole over the crack. We got out 
of our carriage, and Mr. Givins thought he would drive better and pass 
safely, but the horses plunged much deeper and could not extricate them- 
selves. With difficulty the harness was unloosed, and they were set free 
without injury, the water not being above five feet deep. 

We walked over to Mr. Macaulay's lot and dined in that part of the 
woods, and in the evening I walked home; but the carrioles went very 
safely across the bay, keeping further from the crack, and perhaps the 
night air made the ice harder. John Macaulay, who is but four years old, 
cut through some large pieces of wcod with an axe, which made Francis 
emulous to become an axema?i also; he is going to begin to-morrow. 

NOTE. On September 1st, 1797, by patent from the Crown, Dr. 
James Macaulay became the owner of Park Lot No. 9, consisting of 
a hundred acres having a frontage of 660 feet on Lot (Queen Street) 
from Yonge Street west and extending from Lot Street to Bloor, a dis- 
tance of 6,600 feet on the west side of Yonge. On the same date David 
W. Smith, Surveyor-General, became the owner of Park Lot No. 10, 
lying to the west of the Macaulay lot, with the same frontage and 
depth. On October 16th, 1797, Mr. Smith traded his lot, No. 10, to 
Chief Justice John Elmsley in return for other lands which are not 

The Chief Justice was anxious to have a frontage on Yonge Street, 
and on May 30th, 1799, he tiaded the south half of his lot to Dr. 
Macaulay for the north half of Lot No. 9. Thus Dr. Macaulay became 
the owner of the entire block of property extending from the north- 
westerly corner of Lot Street to the present College Street and from 
Yonge Street to a point 132 feet west of Elizabeth Street. On the 
front portion of this block fronting on Lot Street Dr. Macaulay laid 
out a plan of 41 lots, which he called "Teraulay." On this plan 
James, Teraulay and Elizabeth Streets are shown running from 
Lot Street north 380 feet to Macaulay Lane, now Albert Street. The 
entire block owned by Macaulay gradually became settled and was 
given the local name of Macaulay Town. This property at the issue 
of the patent was worth a few hundred dollars. To-day it is worth 
about $30,000,000. 

The youthful axeman to whom Mrs. Simcoe refers was John 
Simcoe Macaulay, born in October, 1791, eldest son of Dr. Macaulay. 

The dwelling of Dr. Mncaulav in Toronto was a commodious 
colonial cottage, known as "Teraulay Cottage," where Holy Trinity 
Church now stands. Sir Jan^es B. Macaulay, second son of Dr. 
Macaulay, built about 1843 a fine brick residence on the south side 





of College Street near Yonge. The site is now occupied by the 
Bishop Strachan School for girls. 

Lieutenant James Givins, 

afterwards Colonel Givins, was 

Superintendent of Indian 

Affairs. He married Angelique, 

daughter of Captain Andrews, 

of the Lake Ontario armed 

fleet,, and he had six sons 

and three daughters Henry ; 

James, who was, a Judge in 

London, Ont. ; Saltern, who 

was at one time Rector of St. 

Paul's Anglican Church, Bloor 

St., Toronto; Adolphus, Hal- 
ton and George, of the Medical 
Staff in India; Caroline, who married Colonel Hillier; Cecil and 
Elizabeth. Judge Giving had five sons and four daughters, James, 
Warren, Hillier, John and Henry. James and Hillier had commis- 
sions in the British Army. Captain Hillier and Henry are the only 
surviving sons of the late Judge Givins. Of the four daughters, 
Eliza of Elgin, 111., the eldest, and Maude, the youngest, of Toronto, 
are living. The only living descendants of the Eev. Saltern Givins, 
the third son of Colonel Givins, are Eobert C. Givins, his son Eobert, 
and Charlotte C. Givins of Chicago, 111. 

Tues. 9th A strong easterly wind; a vast quantity of ice driven by 
it out of the bay half a mile of ice that we drove over last night is 
totally gone. A Mohawk, named Jacob, and his wife came here. They 
are handsome and well dressed. She works any pattern given her in beads 
remarkably well; they brought Francis a present of cranberries. 

Wed. 10th A wet day. The post arrived from Niagara. 

Thurs. llth A wet day. 

Fri. 12th There is very little ice left in the bay. Fine weather. 

Sat. 13th Mr. Pilkington, of the Engineers, arrived from Niagara. 
The sudden thaw obliged him to wade across the inlet at the " Head of 
the Lake." 

NOTE. This means that Mr. Pilkington walked around the Bur- 
lington Beach and waded across the original entrance to Burlington 
Bay, which had been known as Geneva Lake or Macassa Bay up to 
1792, wben by proclamation on 16th June of that year the name 
was changed to Burlington Bay. In the "Topographical Description of 
Upper Canada," issued in London in 1813, under the authority of 
Sir Francis Gore, it is stated with regard to Burlington Bay that it 
was "perhaps as beautiful and romantic a situation as any in the 
interior of America, particularly if we include with it a marshy 
lake which falls into it, and a noble promontory that divides them." 
The picture, which is the only one known of the entrance to the bay, 
shows the original entrance at the extreme north end of the beach. 
It was almost landlocked in 1796. It was about a mile and a half 
north of the present canal begun in 1825 and opened in 1832. 




Wed. 17th The thermometer 15 degrees higher than it was yesterday. 

Thurs. 18th We walked to the town, and from thence drove on the 
ice to dine at Castle Frank; the ice was good. I made a small sketch of 
tne house. The winter express arrived from Quebec. The party who 
went to cut the road from hence to Lake Simcoe, called the Yonge Street, 
are returned after an absence of seven weeks. The distance is 33 miles 
and 56 chains; they brought two trout from Lake Simcoe weighing about 
12 pounds each, but they are not as good as the smaller trout. There are 
plenty of black bass, maskalonge and whitefish in that lake. I heard an 
anecdote of black bass which, if true, renders it probable they remain in 
a tonpid state during the winter. An old hollow tree, which lay on the 
margin of the lake, half under water, being stopped and taken out, 30 
black bass were taken out of it. Mr. La,wrence, who went with the party 
from motives of curiosity, speaks well of the apparent quality of most of 
the land; 20 miles from hence, near Bond's farm, he saw two small lakes 
near each other, from whence many fish were taken. He saw no wild 

Mr. Lawrence met with some Indians, who invited them to feast on 
bear's meat. They appeared to use many ceremonies on this occasion, 
w.hich he did not understand. The head is always presented to the chief 
of the party, and they make a rule that all that is dressed of bear's meat 
must be eaten at the feast. Mr. Lawrence brought me two wooden bowls 
and spoons; they are made by the Indians from the knots or excrescences 
growing on pine and other large trees; they are stained red by the juice 
of the inner bark of the hemlock pine, of which they make a decoction on 
purpose. The children will use these bowls as basins at breakfast when 

NOTE. William Bond was a sergeant in the Queen's Rangers. He 
had a farm on Yonge Street near the Oak Ridge (Lots 62, 63), 1st 
Concession Whitchnrch, east side of Yonge Street. On this property 
is a crescent-shaped sheet of water called Bond Lake. He had the 
first nursery garden in York. 

Fri. 19th Mr. Pilkington went in a boat to the " Head of the Lake." 
We dined in the woods on Major Shanks' farm lot, where an arbour of 
branches of hemlock pine was prepared; a band of music stationed near. 
We dined on large perch and venison. Jacob, the Mohawk, was there. He 
danced Scotch reels with more ease and grace than any person 1 ever saw, 
and had the air of a prince. The picturesque way in which he wore and 
held a black blanket gave it the air of a Spanish cloak; his leggings were 
scarlet; on his head and arms he wore silver bands. I never saw so 
handsome a figure. 

Mon. 22nd I went to Castle Frank. The ice on the river was good. 

Tues. 23rd A boat crossing the bay to the storehouses on Gibraltar 
Point was driven among the ice by a strong east wind, and could not be 
extricated until eight at night, when a boat carried planks to lay where 
the ice was rotten, and assisted the men on shore. 

Last Sunday I rode to Mr. McGill's lot, above three miles from here, 
where I was surprised to see the land rise so suddenly; a narrow pine 
ridge was on a steep ascent; a quantity of good building stone near it. 
The weather very cold. It snowed fast. 

NOTE. The blockhouse at the Point stood exactly on the spot 
where the Toronto Water Works crib stands, just north of the north 
dock of the Toronto Ferry Company. The formation of the old 
Gibraltar Point (Hanlan's) has, of course, been entirely changed dur- 
ing the last forty years. At that time the beach was a hundred feet to 



the east of the Ferry cribwork, and in 1792-1818 there was a large 
area of beach on which was built the blockhouse. The "storehouses" 
stood about five or six hundred feet south of the blockhouse, and on 
the west shore of Blockhouse Bay hence the name of that stretch of 

As to the McGill property, some pioneers to the fore forty years 
ago claimed that McGill had in addition to a hundred acres bounded 
by Queen, Mutual, Bloor and Bond Streets, land north of Davenport 
Road. This height of land was originally crowned by a pine grove 
along its entire face, and portions of the original pine growth still 
stand west of Bathurst Street and at the head of Dufferin Street. 

Thurs. 25th I went with a party of ladies to Castle Frank. The ice 
is still good, tho' the weather is warm and hazy like an Indian summer. 
The young Shaws dined with us. 

Fri. 26th Mild weather. We regret losing the cold, clear air. A boat 
arrived from the " Head of the Lake " in four hours. 

Tues. March 1st A card party to-night. 

Wed. 2nd The weather very cold. I gathered partridge berries. 

Thurs. 3rd Frost and snow. 

Sat. 5th The winter express set off for Quebec. An Indian and a 
Canadian came from Matchadash Bay in five days, and said they could 
have travelled the journey in four. We rode up the Yonge Street and 
across a pine ridge to Castle Frank. 

Sun. 6th Rode to Castle Frank. 

Mon. 7th Very cold weather. 

Sat. 12th Mrs. Macaulay came; a dance in the evening. 

Sun. 13th Geese and blackbirds seen, which denotes the approach of 

Mon. 14th Rain. 

Tues. 15th Thaw and rain. 

Fri. 18th A great deal of snow. 

Sat. 19th A thin ice covered the bay. 

Sun. 27th Easter Day. The ice went out of the bay this morning, 
driven by a strong east wind; in the evening the wind changed to the 
west and drove it back, and as it beat against the shore in a floating 
surface of very small pieces it made an uncommon and fine sound, which I 
listened to a great while from the terrace before the house. 

Wed. 30th Wild pigeons arrived. 

Thurs. 31st Walked to Castle Frank and returned by Yonge Street, 
from whence we rode. The road is as yet very bad; there are pools of 
water among roots of trees and fallen logs in swampy spots, and these 
pools, being half frozen, render them still more disagreeable when the 
horses plunge into them. 

Sat. April 2nd The " York " packet sailed for Niagara and the 
Genesee River. 

Sun. 3rd Some Indians brought maple sugar to sell in birch bark 
baskets. I gave three dollars for 30 pounds. 

Mon. 4th Capt. Mayne arrived from New York in 18 days. Some 
Indians brought some excellent wild geese from Lake Simcoe, and several 
kinds of ducks, which were very pretty as well as very good. The large 
black duck is esteemed one of the best. The abundance of wild rice, off 
which they feed, makes them so much better than wild ducks in England. 

Sun. 10th A little snow. A man arrived from Kingston. He left it 
the 1st of April; the bay was then entirely frozen. We walked to Castle 
Frank and rode home. The air was full of pigeons. I think they are 
fatter and better here than at Niagara. 



Sat. lth Commissary McGill went to Kingston. 

Sun. 17th Mrs. McGill dined with me. We walked to Mrs. Macaulay's 
in the evening. Came home by nine o'clock. 

Mon. 18th Francis has not been well. We therefore set off to Castle 
Frank to-day to change the air, intending to pass some days there. The 
house being yet in an unfinished state, we divided the large room by sail 
cloth, pitched the tent on the inner part, where we slept on wooden beds. 

It is quite a summer's day. Mosquitos arrived at three o'clock. A 
large wooden canoe was launched here to-day, built by one of the men who 
ought to have been busy working at Castle Frank. 

Tues. 19th A letter from Major Littlehales, dated Niagara, 17th of 
April, mentions the river being full of ice. 

Wed. 20th The porticos here (Castle Frank) are delightfully pleasant, 
and the room cool from its height and the thickness of the logs of which 
the house is built; the mountain tea berries in great perfection. Francis 
is much better, and busy in planting currant bushes and peach trees. 
There is an insect which is not to be got rid of; it bores into the timber 
and is heard at night; it is like a very large maggot. I have seen them 
taken from under the bark of trees to bait fishing hooks. 

Sat. 23rd A strong east wind. Went to the garrison in the evening, 
as we are soon going to Niagara. 



Governor Simcoe had not good health during his term of office 
in Canada. While he was most careful in his living, yet he had 
never fully recovered from the strain of the American campaign when 
he led the Queen's Eangers in its most active work as one of the 
gallant regiments in the British service. Frequently throughout this 
diary there are references to his illnesses, as on the occasion of his 
leaving York for Niagara he was "too ill to go on board." The trip 
too was a severe one, for the cold was extreme. Yet it was five hours 
shorter than when Mrs. Simcoe crossed the lake in the "Governor 
Simcoe" in November; for on that occasion it took nine hours to make 
a trip that was covered on April 29th in less than four hours. The 
visit to Niagara extended to the 7th of June, when a return was made 
to York. 

Fri. April 29th The wind and weather unfavourable for the canoe. 
Therefore we determined to sail in the " Mohawk." The Governor was too 
ill to go on board before two o'clock. The wind blew very hard N.N.W. 
We reached Navy Hall in 3 hrs. %. It was so excessively cold I could 
not remain on deck, and so rough that I was sick in the cabin, and wished 
I had gone in the canoe. 

Sat. 30th Still very cold and snow. The vessel lately built on Lake 
Erie, and named by Lord Dorchester the " Francis " (after Mrs. Simcoe's 
son), is arrived at Fort (Erie. 

Tues. May 3rd " The Ottawa," a government boat, left Detroit the 
27th of April and came to Fort Erie in 36 hours. Commodore Grant say'd 
peas were stuck at Detroit, tho' not sown here; but probably that snow- 
storm which fell as " The Ottawa " left the Detroit River, killed them. 
It does not answer here to sow seeds in the gardens till May, for tho' the 
weather may have been long good, when ice comes down from the Upper 
Lakes in April it occasions the air to be so cold that gardens near the 
river suffer very much. Major Dodgson made those soldiers who would 
otherwise have kept a cur keep a sporting dog, by which means he was 
enabled to hunt hares and deer last winter at Kingston. 

NOTE. Peas in the garden were probably of sufficient height to 
be trained on sticks, which is quite a common custom. 

Major Richard Dodgson of the 60th was captain from 14th July, 
1790, and major from 1st March, 1794. 

In 1755, Parliament authorized the raising of a regiment of foot 
in British North America, and the 60th or King's Royal Rifle Corps, 
formerly the 62nd or the Royal American Regiment of Foot, was 
formed in 1756. It fought in 1758 at Louisbourg and in 1759 at 
Quebec, and in 1760 at Montreal. Some of the battalions of the 
regiment were in various stations in North America and the West 
Indies from 1760-1876. In 1794 rifles were introduced into the 
English army, and were first issued to a battalion of the 60th Royal 



American Regiment of Foot. In 1852, one sergeant and forty 
privates were lost in the wreck of H.M. troopship "Birkenhead." 

Thurs. 5th Sultry weather. 

Sun. 8th A very cold night; we always feel the N.E. wind severely, 
being so much exposed to it. At York we are only open to the north. 
Snow fell last night. Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton dined here. 

Mon. 9th A wet, cold day. 

Thurs. 12th Received a cap from Miss Bond from Philadelphia. 

Sunday 15th, Whit-SundayColl. Butler buried (His Majesty's Com- 
missioner for Indian Affairs). 

Mon 16th The House of Assembly opened. 

NOTE. This was the fifth session of the first Legislature. 

Tues. 17th Rode before breakfast. Felt agueish. 

Sun. 22nd Went to the garrison. Mr. Todd dined here. Miss Russell, 
sister of Hon. Peter Russell, has preserved some winter cherries which 
are very good. 

NOTE. Miss Russell was Honorable Peter Russell's sister, Elizabeth, 
who lived with him at Niagara and at York after the latter place 
was selected by Governor Simcoe as his capital. Their residence 
was known as "Russell Abbey" near the bay shore on Palace (Front) 
Street, at the foot of what is now Princess Street, Toronto. Miss 
Russell, who was her brother's heiress-at-law, survived him by several 
years. She was a most charitable woman and respected by all who 
knew her. 

Tues. 24th I rode with Mr. and Mrs. Jarvis to the mountain, to call 
on Mrs. Powell. I gathered sassafras, a shrub in bloom. I have been 
drinking the buds in tea, and it has removed the symptoms of ague. Mrs. 
Powell mentioned about the weather at Detroit, that it was not unusual 
to see caliches on dusty roads, carrioles on the ice, and ships sailing at 
the same time. 

NOTE. William Jarvis, fifth son of Samuel Jarvis and Martha 
Seymour, was born in Stamford, Conn., on llth September, 175f>. 
He was a cornet in the Queen's 
Rangers, and was engaged dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War. In 
1789, he was commissioned as a 
ieutenant in the Western Regi- 
ment of Militia of the County of 
fiddlesex, and on 1st January, 
1791, received the commi=fion 
>f captain in the same Regi- 
nent. In July, 1792, he was 
appointed Secretary and Reg- 
istrar of the Records of the 
Province of Upper Canada. 
William married in England in 
1785, Hannah Owen Peters, 
daughter of Samuel Peters, D.D., of Hebron, Conn. Peters was a 
Loyalist and was spoken of as first Bishop of Upper Canada, but was 





appointed Bishop of Vermont. He did not take office however, as 
he was such" a dyed-in-the-wool Loyalist that he would not live in 
the United States. 

There were seven children "by the marriage of William Jarvis 
and Hannah Owen Peters: 1. Samuel Peters, who died in child- 
hood. 2. Maria Lavinia, married George Hamilton, the founder of 
the city of Hamilton. 3. Augusta, married Thomas McCormick. 

4. Samuel Peters (2) after whom Jarvis Street, Toronto, was named, 
married Mary Boyles Powell, daughter of Chief Justice Powell. 

5. William Munson, Sheriff of Gore, married Anne Racy. 6. Hannah 
Owen, married Alexander Hamilton. 7. Ann Elizabeth, married W. 
B. Robinson, a brother of Chief Justice Robinson. 

One of the children of Samuel Peters Jarvis and Mary Boyles 
Powell was William Dummer Powell, who married Diana Irving, a 
sister of Sir ^Emilius Irving, and had four children : Mary ^Emilia, 
William Irving, Augusta Lavinia and Edward ^Emiliu?, who is of 
the firm of TEmilius Jarvis & Co., Toronto. Portraits in oil of 
Secretary Jarvis and his wife, from which these pictures are taken, 
are in possession of Mr. /Emilius Jarvis, of Toronto. 

Wed. 25th Walked in the woods. May apples, ladies' slippers in 
bloom, and a beautiful shrub here called dogwood; it is more like a gum 
cistus, which yields laudanum. 

Sat. 28th A wet day; the Governor ill. 

Wed. June 1st News received of the Treaty being ratified between 
Great Britain and the United States. 

NOTE. The treaty referred to was Jay's 
Treaty. A writer says: "Alarmed at the rising 
spirit of hostility towards Great Britain, Wash- 
ington determined to make a great effort for 
peace, and, with the consent of the Senate, sent 
Chief-Justice John Jay to London, with the offer 
of a treaty of amity and commerce. Jay undoubt- 
edly did the best that could be done, and on 19th 
November, 1794, signed a treaty of amity and 
commerce, which the President and Senate ap- 
proved in July, 1795. The treaty provided that 
the pre-revolutionary debts owed to British sub- 

CHIEF JUSTICE JAY. -I 60 * 8 snould De P ai ^ D 7 tne United States, and 
that the British Government should indemnify 
Americans for losses sustained by illegal captures. A large sum 
of money was afterwards paid on this account. The treaty was 
assailed in the United States by the party favorable to France. But 
Alexander Hamilton defended the treaty and it carried by a vote 
of fifty-eight to fifty-one." Under its terms the fort at the east side 
of the Niagara River was given up to the United States. 

Fri. 3rd The House of Assembly prorogued. I went with some 
ladies to hear the Governor's speech on the dissolution. Miss Russell has 
a collection of plants dried by merely shutting them in books; I wish I 
had thought of doing so. 



NOTE. The function at which Mrs. Simcoe was present on 3rd 
June, 1796, was the prorogation at the end of the fifth and last session 
of the first Legislature. The dissolution would follow afterward by 

Sat. 4th Mr. Pilkington has erected a temporary room adjoining our 
house for the ballroom to-night. It is 60 feet long, and the end orna- 
mented by colours. We danced 18 couple and sat down to supper 76. 

Sun. 5th Mrs. Smith dined here. I rode in the evening as far as 
Mr. Sheehan's. 

NOTE. A Captain William Sheehan married Miss Anne Butler 
in Gosport, England, about the middle of the 18th century. He was 
an officer in the British army. The only issue of this marriage was 
Walter Butler Sheehan, who was clerk in the Indian department at 
Niagara and was in 1793 Sheriff of the County of Lincoln. He 
married a Miss Andrews, a daughter of Captain Andrews of the Lake 
Ontario Navy during the War of 1812-4, the issue of this marriage 
being Walter Butler, Henry Ford, George Hill, James Muirhead, 
and William, and one daughter, Anne. Walter Butler Sheehan, the 
eldest son of the sheriff, was Collector of Customs at Dunnville, where 
a number of his descendants still reside. 

Mon. 6th Francis five years old to-day. Mr. 
Pilkington drew his picture. The Governor drove 
me to the Queenstown landing, to take leave of Mrs. 
Hamilton; it was very cold returning. I drank tea 
at Mrs. 'Smith's, and met Mrs. Montigny, wife of 
Capt. Montigny, on the staff at Detroit, and Miss 
Hay, a relative of Lieut. Henry Hay, serving at 

Tues. 7th We left Navy Hall at ten o'clock in 
the canoe, followed by a boat. Dined at Twelve-Mile 

Some heavy showers in the afternoon induced 
us to put into the Twenty-Mile, where, after being 
tolerably wet and climbing up a hill covered with 
wet grass, we found an empty house. We had a fire 
made, dried our clothes and beds, drank tea, and 
slept well without mosquitos, but the smell of musk- FKAXCIS G. SIMCOE. 
rat skins, which had been drying in the house, was 

disagreeable. Some strawberries ripe, and the fields covered with blue 
lupines, a kind of gay flowering pulse. 

Wed. 8th We set off at seven, but the men paddled as idly as they 
did yesterday, so that we did not reach the Forty-Mile Creek (nine miles) 
till twelve o'clock. I was out of patience that the canoe was so disgraced. 
We encamped on the Point, where the boards are piled that are brought 
from the saw mill; the plank afforded a shed for the tent. We walked to 
John Green's, and as a room was prepared for us we slept there, but 
dined at the Point. They eat pumpkin pie, which, with lemon juice, was 
very good. Francis dipped in the lake. Breakfasted at seven and set out. 

NOTE. This house stood about three-quarters of a mile from the 
lake on what is now Patton Street, being a part of Lot 10, Con. 1, 
of the township of North Grimsby. It was built north and south, 
and the wings were added to the main or centre part ten years 
after the first erection. The north wing was within the past ten years 



removed to a fruit farm, two miles west of Winona, while the south 
wing and centre were used later as a waiting room for the Hamilton, 
Grimsby and Beamsville Eailway. The building was subsequently 
torn down and the site is now occupied by the Presbyterian Manse 
and the residence of H. H. March. 

The Green brothers owned a grist and saw mill which stood on 
the west side of the road, almost midway between John Green's 
dwelling and Lake Ontario, the grist mill being on Lot 10 and the 
saw mill on Lot 9. The frame of the old grist mill is now used 


(From a Dram'nrj by William Forbes, Grimsby, Ont.) 

as a planing mill in connection with a lumber yard, while the saw 
mill was demolished about fifty years ago. 

Thurs. 9th I saw very grand rocks in going towards the mountain 
and passed three water falls, the first sombre and beautiful from the 
water falling from various directions over dark, mossy rocks. The 
second was pretty from the fine scenery of tall trees, thro' which it shone 
the third, just below an old saw mill, falls smoothly for some feet, and 
is a bright copper color, having passed through swamps; it then rushes 
into white foam over regular ledges of rocks spreading like a bell, and 
the difference of color is a fine contrast. The course of this river is a 
series of falls over wild rocks, the perpendicular banks on each side 
very high, covered from top to bottom with hemlock, pines, cedars and all 
forest trees of an immense 'height. By camping near the bank the water 
is seen below. There are stones in this water which appear like petrified 
shells, but Green was not at home and I could not get any fetched to me. 
Returning we noticed a scene of rocks, the lake below towards Burlington 



Bay, and half a mile to the east an extensive distant view towards the 
Genesee River and overlooking the country from hence to Niagara. I 
saw a cream-colour'd hawk, with <black-tip,p'd wings and a scarlet tail. 

We saw a rift in the rocks, a narrow pass where wolves descend 
from the mountain to commit depredations on the sheep below. The woods 
are full of sarsaparilla. I gathered some wild flax at Green's. In his 
garden he has quantities of melons near the river, and last year cut 800 
pumpkins from three-quarters of an acre of land; they are esteemed excel- 
lent food for cows, making the butter particularly good. We dined to-day 
at our encampment and slept at Green's. 

Fri. 10th A very wet night. I rode to-day towards Anderson's, and 
dined at one at the encampment, and sent the children and servants to the 
" Head of the Lake " in the canoe. Mrs. Green went as a guide to conduct 
us on horseback across the mountain. Green has lately, at the Governor's 
request and expense, cut a road thro' the wood, making it passable for 
me to ride. The Governor thinks the country will derive great benefit 
by opening a road on the top of the mountain (where it is quite dry) 
from Niagara to the " Head of the Lake," instead of going a most terrible 
road below, full of swamps, fallen trees, etc. We crossed the creek by 
the old saw mill at the head of the waterfalls I mentioned yesterday after 
leaving the Forty-Mile Creek, and found the whole of the way very dry 
and good; stopped frequently on the edge of the bank to look over the 
extensive wooded plain below us, which is bounded at four miles distance 
by Lake Ontario, and the opposite north shore with Flamborough Head 

NOTE. This is the bend of the mountain north of Burlington, 
and is quite a feature in the northern horizon, looking from Burling- 
ton Beach. 

The steep cliffs of the mountain, on the top of which we were, are 
rocky, covered with wood, the view enlightened by fleeting gleams from 
a setting sun, the view to the west terminated by Burlington Bay. 

Thfe spot that most engaged our attention was named by Green " the 
Tavern," because when cutting the road the men generally met there to 
dine, and more wood being here cut down, the view was less obstructed 
by the trees; from hence we observed the canoe with the children in it. 
After we had passed these nine miles it grew dusky, and Mrs. Green 
rather misled us, but at last we found a way, tho' a very steep one, to 
descend the mountain. A mile before we came to this descent we passed 
Stony Creek, seven miles from the " Head of the Lake," so named from 
the stony nature of its bottom. It's a small stream that falls 97 feet in an 
amphitheatre of bare red rocks, which looked as if they ought to have been 
covered by a falling lake instead of so small a stream. At the foot of the 
mountain we came to Adam Green's Mill. 

It was eight o'clock, and we had five miles of that terrible kind of 
road where the horses' feet are entangled among the logs amid water and 
swamps, to ride by moonlight, rather in the dark, for in the woods the 
glimmering of the moon is of little use, but rather throws shadows which 
deceive the traveller, tho' to a picturesque eye they are full of indistinct 
and solemn beauty, but little serviceable to horses who plunge to their 
knees in mud pools .half full of loose logs. 

By daylight I much fear these roads, and had particularly dreaded 
this, but not being able to see or try to avoid the danger, and my nerves 
braced by this cold and dry night, I went thro' it not only well but with 
a degree of pleasure, admiring the unusual brightness of the stars, and 
the immense apparent height given to the trees by the depth of shade. I 
was so engaged by the scene that I did not much advert to the cold, which 
was very great in passing the swampy grounds. 



After three miles we came into good galloping ground on fine turf 
by the side of the lake, till we came to the "King's Head Inn," at the 
" Head of the Lake." 

Here Walbekanine and a number of his tribe, who are encamped a 
mile distant, were assembled to compliment the Governor, and fired 
muskets in our horses' faces, their usual mark of respect, which frightened 
me and my horse very much; he started and I shrieked, but the sound 
was lost in the whoops of the Indians. They gave us the largest land 
tortoise I ever saw. 

Sat. llth At the King's Head Inn. This house was built by the 
Governor to facilitate the communication between Niagara and the La 
Tranche, where he intended to establish the seat of government, and its 
situation was not without reference to a military position. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Siincoe.) 

NOTE. The King's Head stood near the southeast or southerly 
end of Burlington Bay, near the present filtering basins of the 
Hamilton Waterworks, and north of the pumping house. The house 
was two miles south of the Burlington Canal, 200 feet from the bay 
shore, and its front faced north or northwesterly looking towards 
the Brant homestead. It stood at the junction of the Hamilton 
and Stoney Creek road on the west side, between Burlington Bay 
and Lake Ontario. In connection with the King's Head Inn and its 
situation, "Topographical Description of Upper Canada" says: 
"At the head of Lake Ontario there is a smaller lake, within a long 
beach, of about five miles, from whence there is an outlet to Lake 
Ontario, over which there is a bridge. At the south end of the beach 
is the King's Head, a good inn, erected for the accommodation of 
travellers, by order of His Excellency Major-General Simcoe, the 




lieutenant-governor. It is beautifully situated at a small portage 
which leads from the head of a natural canal connecting Burlington 
Bay with Lake Ontario, and is a good landmark." 

Another inn was intended to be built at the Grand River. There are 
eight rooms in this house, besides two low wings behind it, joined by a 
colonnade, where are the offices. It is a pretty plan. I breakfasted in a 
room to the S.E., which commands the view of the lake on the south 
shore, of which we discern the Point of the Forty-Mile Creek, Jones' 
Point and some other houses. From the rooms to the N.W. we see Flam- 
borough Head and Burlington Bay. The sand cliffs on the north shore 
of Burlington Bay look like red rocks. The beach is like a park covered 
with large, spreading oaks. At eight o'clock we set out in a boat to go to 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simeoe.) 

Beasley's, at the head of Burlington Bay, about eight miles. The river 
and bay were full of canoes; the Indians were fishing; we bought some 
fine salmon of them. When we had near crossed the bay, Beasley's house 
became a very pretty object. We landed at it, and walked up the hill, 
from whence is a beautiful view of the lake, with wooded points breaking 
the line of shore and Flamborough in the background. The hill is quite 
like a park, with large oak trees dispersed, but no underwood. 

NOTE. The location of this point of land was on the north shore 
of the lake, east of Burlington, Ont. 

Richard Beasley was an Indian trader. He was the first settler 
at the "Head of the Lake." He owned the land now known as Dun- 
durn Park. It is stated by the Beasley descendants that the house 
of Richard Beasley was west of the present site of Dundurn Castle 
and that the building was afterwards incorporated in the present 



castle, but this is not at all likely as the first dwelling must have been 
built of logs. The so-called castle is a substantial residence, built of 
brick and well proportioned. The late Senator Mclnnes, the last 
owner, informed me that the stone building at the western part of 
the castle, now used as a gymnasium, was built prior to the main 
structure. It shows indications of having been incorporated in the 
main building. The descendants of Beasley's family state that 
Richard Beasley moved to his house at Dundurn immediately after 'his 
arrival at Hamilton, or more properly speaking, Barton Township, 
and that his sons, Richard, George, David C., and Henry Beasley 
were born in the house, the latter in 1793. Without documentary 
evidence it is believed that Richard Beasley's, the U. E. Loyalist's, 
first house, was at Dundurn, and that his elder sons were born in a 
house on this site. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

Sat. llth We walked two miles on this park, which is quite natural, 
for there are no settlements near it. Beasley's, the Indian trader, can 
scarcely be called such, trading being his only occupation; but the country 
appears more fit for the reception of inhabitants than any part of the 
province 1 have seen, being already cleared. 

The Governor says the country on the banks of the La Tranche is 
like this, but the plains infinitely more extensive. Further west of this 
terrace we saw Coote's Paradise, so called from a Capt. Coote, who spent 
a great deal of time in shooting ducks in this marshy tract of land below 
the hill we are upon. It abounds with wild fowl and tortoises; from 
hence it appears more like a river or lake than a marsh, and Mordaunt's 
Point in the distance takes a fine shape. I was so pleased with this place 
that the Governor stay'd and dined at Beasley's. A strong east wind pre- 
vented our sailing back. We therefore arrived late, and found a salmon 
and tortoise ready dressed for our dinner. Walked on the beach in the 
evening. Beasley gave me a weed, somewhat like a milkwort, a small 
white flower with a long root, which tastes hot and aromatic, which he 
called rattlesnake plantain. I think it is what Charlevoix calls senega. 
There are several different plants called rattlesnake, from being supposed 



to cure the bite of that snake. (Senega or seneca, snake root, antidote 
for bite of rattlesnake.) 

NOTE. Captain Coote, formerly of the 8th Regiment of Foot, 
was so keen a sportsman and spent so much of his time in the 
marsh shooting ducks that it was called Coote's Paradise. The marsh 
was between the head of Burlington Bay and Dundas, Ontario. 

Sun. 12th Riding near Jones' house (Augustus Jones, the Surveyor) 
and pond, we saw three deer, I suppose going to the pond. They stood 
still some time. We went to Adam Green's. He showed us a spring of 
salt water, which look'd thick and blue as it fell into a tub, from whence 
I tasted it. He and his daughter guided us to see the Fall of Stoney 
Creek from the bottom. 


(From a Drawing by Mrt. Simcoe.) 

NOTE. Stoney Creek is a village in Wentworth County, on Lake 
Ontario, six miles east of Hamilton. This place was the scene of a 
battle between the British and Americans in 1813, in which the latter 
were defeated. 

Sun. 12th We went through pathless woods over rocks, logs and, in 
fact, the most difficult walk I ever took, and if the girl had not preceded 
me I should have given it up. We came too near the fall to see it in a 
picturesque view. I crossed the river on stones. A man climbed a con- 
siderable height up part of the red amphitheatre to get me a piece of the 
stones. He had no apparent footing, it was so perpendicular. He formed 
a singular appearance. 

This part of the mountain is said to abound with rattlesnakes, and 
why I did not meet them in these unfrequented places I do not know. I 
gathered a great many plants. Green gave them all names, and I stopped 



at his house to write them down. Ginseng, a root highly valued as a tonic, 
which the merchants tell me they send to England, and in some years 
has sold at a guinea a pound; sarsaparilla, golden thread the roots look 
like gold thread. When steeped in brandy they make a fine aromatic 
tincture and liquorice; consumption vine, a pretty creeper. Green's 
daughter was cured of consumption by drinking tea made of it. Poison 
vine, in appearance much like the former, but differs in the number of 
leaves; one has five, the other seven. Madder, toothache plant, a beauti- 
ful species of fern; sore throat weed; dragon's blood; Adam and Eve, or 
ivy blade, very large, which heals cuts or burns; droppings of beach: 
enchanter's night shade (a slender, erect herb, with small white flowers, 
inhabiting cool, damp woods) ; dewberries; wild turnip, which cures a 
cough it is like an aram. 

They prepared me some refreshment at this house, some . excellent 
cakes, baked on the coals; eggs; a boiled black squirrel; tea, and coffee 
made of peas, which was good; they said coffee was better. The sugar 
was made from black walnut trees, which looks darker than that from 
the maple, but I think it is sweeter. 

Green's wife died a year ago and left ten children, who live here with 
their father in a house consisting of a room, a closet and a loft; but 
being New Jersey people, their house is delicately clean and neat, and not 
the appearance of being inhabited by three people, every part is so neatly 
kept. I sent a boy to gather a flower I forgot to bring from the mountain, 
and he met a rattlesnake. We rode back to the " King's Head " to dinner. 

Mon. 13th The wind being against our going to York, we rode on 
the beach, and had a sweet view of Burlington Bay. We passed the 
Indian encampment. Their huts and dogs among the fine oak trees they 
were under, formed a picturesque appearance. Afterwards we sailed to 
the north shore of Burlington Bay and pitched our tents near a house, 
where .we had the tea kettle boiled, but we found the sand flies very 
troublesome. I found a pretty small tortoise, but boiling it took off the 
polish from the shell. 

Tues. 14th The wind is high and contrary; we could not attempt 
going to York. This place is so delightful I do not regret it. 

Wed. 15th Capt. Brant (Thayendanegea) the Indian Chief, called 
on horseback on his way to Niagara, but left his sons and attendants 
here till the wind proves fair for them to proceed. The boys are going 
to school at Niagara. They are fine children about ten years old. They 
dined with us and gave Francis a boat. Francis gave the Mohawks a 
sheep for their dinner, and afterwards they danced and played at ball. 
A violent east wind and terrific surf a prodigious sea this evening. 
1 stood for some time under an umbrella to admire its grandeur. It 
proved a very wet night. Brant's sons slept in our house, and the 
Indians found shelter under a number of planks; these are here to finish 
the house. 

Thurs. 16th Rode to the inlet and embarked in the boat, for the 
continued east wind had raised such a swell we thought the canoe 
would not be pleasant. The wind was light. It soon became calm and 
continued so until 12 o'clock, when it rose violently from the west, which 
coming against the late swell formed a terrifying sea. 

The motion of the sea was disagreeable and my fears awoke also, 
till we landed at 3 o'clock at the River Credit. 12 miles from York. We 
were surprised to see how well the canoe made her way through this 
heavy sea. She rode like a duck on the waves. After dinner we walked 
by the River Credit. Numbers of Indians resort here at this season 
to flsh for salmon, and the Governor wishing to go some way up it, 
which our boat was too large to do, he made signs to some Indians to 
take us into their canoe, which they did; there were two men in her, 
which with ourselves and Sophia completely filled the canoe. They 



carried us about three miles, when we came to rapids and went on 

The banks were high, one side covered with pine, and a pretty piece 
of rocky country on the other. On our return to the canoe a small 
snake was in it, and the Indians took it out with caution and abhorrence. 
They hate snakes, which they seem to dread more than the Europeans 
do. We returned to our boats, where, not having any provision left, or 
money, the Governor made signs to know that they should be recom- 
pensed for their trouble if they came to York. There is abundance of 
salmon caught in this river. About five, the weather being calm, we 
set out and arrived at York at nine. 


(From a Drawing by Mr*. Simcoe.) 

NOTE. The "Rapids" near the mouth of the river Credit still 
exist, being situated at Streetsville. They are, however, now greatly 
reduced in volume as compared with what they were even sixty 
years ago. These rapids were to a certain extent navigable, as ven- 
turesome lumbermen from the earliest days of the province used to 
run their timber rafts down them during the spring. The Credit 
River empties into Lake Ontario, thirteen miles west of Toronto. 



The 16th of June, 1796, was not a very favorable day for a water trip 
along the north shore of Lake Ontario, but the Governor having 
waited for a favorable wind since the 13th, determined to make an 
effort to reach York on the 16th. The party were in a sailboat while 
a canoe followed, and by three o'clock in the afternoon they landed 
at the Eiver Credit. The trip was varied by an excursion three miles 
up that river in a large canoe which had room enough for the 
Governor, his wife and daughter, and two Indians. The weather 
calming about five o'clock, a start was made for York, which was 
reached by nine o'clock. 

The Governor had early in the year determined upon returning 
to England. His relations with Lord Dorchester had not been of a 
harmonious character, and his opinions so differed from those of the 
Governor-General, especially on the subject of the building of Fort 
Miami, that Governor Simcoe preferred to ask for leave of absence. 
This request was answered about the middle of July, for on the 14th 
the official letter came to York stating that the frigate "Pearl" 
would be at Quebec to take him home in the beginning of August. 

Wednesday, July 20th, was the last day at Castle Frank and on 
the 21st Mrs. Simcoe said good-bye to her friends, but "was so much 
out of spirits" that she was unable to dine with Mrs. McGill, and 
to make matters worse she " cried all day." At three o'clock on the 
afternoon of the 21st the " Onondaga " weighed anchor, and the guns 
at the Fort saluted the Governor as the Provincial vessel started on 
its journey around the peninsula and east on the lake to Kingston. 

Of these last days at York Mrs. Simcoe writes : 

Fri. 17th June Very warm day. Mrs. McGill and Mrs. Macaulay, 
wife of Dr. Macaulay, dined with me. 

Mon. 20th Part of the regiment (Queen's Rangers) embarked for 

Sat. 25th We intended to have gone to the Humber in the canoe, 
attended by music, and spend a pleasant day there, but Francis being 
ill with fever prevented it. 

Wed. 29th Very ill and feverish, having been alarmed about Francis. 

Thurs. 30th Sent the children to Castle Frank in a boat. We rode 
there through those pleasant shady pine plains, now covered with sweet 
scented fern. There is no underwood under the pines, so it is good 

Fri. 1st July A large party from the garrison to dinner. A boat 
with music accompanied them; we heard it in the evening until they 
had passed the town. It sounds delightfully. 

NOTE. The favorite route by water from the garrison or Fort was 
from the Fort through Toronto Bay to its east end and then up the 
Don River. 



Sun. 3rd The Governor went to the garrison and returned to supper. 
Some heavy thunder showers fell this evening and the mosquitos more 
troublesome than ever. It is scarcely possible to write or use my hands, 
which are always occupied in killing them or driving them away. This 
situation being high does not at all secure us from mosquitos or gnats. 

Mon. 4th I descended the hill and walked to Skinner's Mill through 
the meadows, which looked like meadows in England. Playter was 
haymaking. Going down the hill some dragon's blood seed fell out as 
I passed, which I collected. 

Wed. 6th I passed Playter's picturesque bridge over the Don; it 
is a butternut tree fallen across the river, the branches still growing 
full leaf. Mrs. Playter being timorous, a pole was fastened through the 
branches to hold by. Having attempted to pass it, I was determined 
to proceed, but was frightened before I got half way. 

NOTE. This was the first bridge over the Don River at York at 
the foot of the present Winchester Street, Toronto, placed there 
about 1794. 

Thurs. 7th The weather excessively hot and we find the under- 
ground room very comfortable; the windows on the side of it are cut 
through the side of the hill. 

The winter we were at Kingston, deer were continually seen about 
here, but the noise made by the carpenters at work upon the house 
last winter, prevented them from coming. A fine eagle shot at the 

Sun. 10th Rode very pleasantly through the pine plains; gathered 
tea berries. 1 saw mosquito hawks' nests, at least the eggs and young 
birds lying on pieces of bark on the ground. Query, whether the mos- 
quito hawk is not the " whipper will" (whip-poor-will), so called from 
the resemblance of its notes to the words which makes such a noise 
every night. We had company at dinner. I walked down the hill in 
the evening and gathered dragon's blood, a plant or dragon root, from 
which you get resin of darkish red color; Lychnis de Canada, a plant 
with scarlet flower; tryliums, which resemble lilies; toothache plant, like 
toothache grass. It has a pungent taste. Licorice, wild lilies, etc. 

Mon. llth A very wet day and the mosquitos so numerous that 
smoke would not drive them away; when it grows dark I take my candle 
and sit to read on my bed under the mosquito net, which is the only 
protection from them. 

Tues. 12th We rode to the town by the new road opened by the 
Government farm, and through the town; it is the shortest way in point 
of time. The road is so much better than Yonge Street. Dined with 
Mrs. McGill. Returned to Castle Frank. 

Wed. 13th The Governor rode to the garrison this morning. In 
the evening we went in a boat, caught a sun fish. 

Thur. 14th Walked through the meadows towards Coon's farm on 
the Don saw millions of the yellow and black butterflies, New York 
swallow tails, and heaps of their wings lying about. Gathered wild 
gooseberries, and when they were stewed found them excellent sauce 
for salmon. In the afternoon the Governor received his leave of absence, 
and information that the frigate "Pearl," Capt. Ballard, is at Quebec, 
and is to take him to England. She sails August the 10th. 

Fri. 15th Rode to the Garrison and slept there. 

Sat. 16th Hot and sultry weather. 

Mon. 18th Rode to dine at Castle Frank; so heavy a shower of 
rain that we were obliged to quit the lower room, the windows of which 
are not glazed slept here. 



Tues. 19th Mrs. McGill and Mrs. Macaulay breakfasted here. I 
returned to the garrison with them in Mr. Bouchette's boat, and rode 
back to dine at Castle Frank. Mr. Pilkington came in the evening. It 
was very damp and cold. I was glad to stand by the fire. 

Wed. 20th Took leave of Castle Frank, called at Playter's, dined 
with Mrs. McGill. Mentioned my spinning wheel. Slept at the garrison. 

NOTE. Mrs. Simcoe had brought 
with her to Canada a spinning wheel 
which was made by order of Queen 
Charlotte, consort of George III., for 
the Marchioness of Buckingham, and 
given by her to Mrs. Simcoe, who 
on leaving Canada in 1796 gave the 
spinning wheel to Mrs. McGill, annt 
of Mrs. Stephen Heward, Toronto. 

Thur. 21st Took leave of Mrs. Mc- 
Gill and Miss Crookshank. I was so 
much out of spirits I was unable to 
dine with them. Mrs. McGill sent me 
some dinner, but I could not eat; cried 
all day. The Governor dined with Mr. 
McGill and at three o'clock we went 
on board the "Onondaga," under a 
salute from the vessels. Little wind, 
soon became calm. 

Fri. 22nd Light wind and contrary. 
Sat. 23rd We were opposite the 50- 
mile creek from Niagara. 

NOTE. Probably about in line with 
Gobourg harbour. 

Sun. 24th Opposite Presqu-isle 

NOTE. Near the Carrying ^ Place 
from Lake Ontario to Bay of Quinte. 


os^n of Mrs. 
Stephen Heward, Toronto.) 

Mon. 25th A side wind towards evening, fair and fresh; at half 
past eleven at night we anchored in Kingston harbour. 

After a stay of about eighteen hours the King's bateaux were 
ready and the Governor' and his family on the 26th commenced their 
journey to Montreal, at which place they arrived on the evening 
of the 30th. The trip was much like the trip up the river in 1792, 
and to Mrs. Simcoe it had many charms, so that the notes in her 
diary are most interesting. She writes : 

Tues. 26th A cold day. The Governor breakfasted on shore; at 
eleven we embarked in a batteau; at six stopped at a rocky island 
six miles from Gananowui, where we made a fire and boiled a tea 
kettle; there is a pretty bay here. I called the island "Isle au trippe," 
from gathering trippe de roche on the rocks. It is a kind of liverwort 
plant good for diseases of liver, which the Canadians going to the Grande 
Portage boil and eat on very hungry days, but it is bitter and not 
wholesome. We proceeded three miles to a beautiful rocky island (as 




we thought, but it proved to be the main shore) among the thousand 
Islands. I called it "Bass Island," for the number of black bass 1 saw 
swimming in shallow water near the shore. We supped at ten, the 
stars shining unusually bright. We placed the beds on the trunks in 
one of the batteau, which was covered with sail cloth over the awning. 
We slept extremely well and so cool that we determined to keep that 
batteau so fitted up for the rest of the voyage rather than go into 
houses, now the Governor is so unwell, and suffers from the heat, besides 
the fresh breeze on the water keeps away the mosquitos. We heard a 
wild kind of shriek several times in the night; we thought it was loons, 
which scream in that way. An American said he guessed it was the 
painters (so they call panthers), as the sound came from the shore of 
the United States, where those animals abound. 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

Wed. 27th We breakfasted and set off at seven it rained. Passed 
Toniata Isles and the river of that name, then the Isles au Baril, on one 
of which we landed. The wind and sea so high we had difficulty in turn- 
ing the Point, from whence we had a pretty view of the islands. Dined 
here and gathered hurtleberries. We afterwards came to Capt. Jones', the 
prettiest point on the river; he has a fine farm and garden, and water 
melons, though so much to the N.E. Here we waited until the tea kettle 
was boiled, and then proceeding, passed Commissary Jones' saw mill, E. 
Jones' windmill and Mr. Cowan's pot ashery, near Johnstone. 

NOTE. Toniata Island is five leagues from Pointe au Baril near 
the present village of Maitland, now known as Grenadier Island. 
In a map William Chewett made for Governor Simcoe and enclosed 



in a despatch to the Duke of Portland, 29th July, 1795, Toniata 
Island is shown opposite Leeds fonntv. about ten miles west of 
Grenville River. Pointe an Baril is near the present village of 
Maitland between Brock ville and Prescott. 

Stopped for the night at Pt. au Cardinal, just below Les Geolettes 
(the Gallops, seven miles above Iroquois), which terrifying rapid we 
passed in a minute. Here Mr. Hugh Munro is building a mill. The 


(From a Drawing by Mrg. Simcoe.) 


No. 1 Is Cartwright's wharf and storehouse, built on the Horn 
which turned in toward the ground now occupied by the Montreal Trans- 
portation Company's shipyard, there being formerly a bay on the site 
of the shipyard and extending in close to the present site of the Hay- 
market. It is now occupied partly by the military stables on the south 
side of the road leading to and across the Cataraqui bridge, partly by 
the road itself and partly by Knapp's boathouse. It is on the north 
side of the road and close to the end of the bridge. 

No. 2 These buildings were storehouses, formerly occupied by the 
Quartermaster-General's department. They have long since been swept 
away, their site being occupied by officers' quarters within the walls 
of the barracks. The foundation walls are still visible in the barrack 

No. 3. This is Forsyth's wharf, now called the Queen's Wharf, in the 
barrack yard, on the south side and on the line of Barrack Street. 

No. 4 The flag on Fort Frontenac, probably the S.E. hastion, where 
there was a round tower, the foundations of whicti are visible in the 
barrack square. 

No. 5 Probably the gable of the present Central Hotel, corner 
Queen and Ontario Streets. 




timbers are uncovered and it has the appearance of a sketch of a ruin 
in Italy. Some merchants' batteaux were drawing up round the point 
with the greatest labor, exertion and difficulty, and the velocity with 
which a boat appeared flying downwards with great rapidity formed 
a contrast well worth seeing. We supped at ten on a fine piece of dry 
ground under a plum tree and sheltered by some boards belonging to 
the mill; a cold windy night. A stiff breeze astern kept off the mos- 
quitos. I was only afraid the cable of our boat, which was tied to a 
tree, should by this fresh breeze get loose and leave us drift down the 

Thur. 28th We breakfasted at seven. I made a sketch and embarked. 
Passed Frazier's farm and Pt. Iroquois, where the Indians formerly 
fought a battle, Pt. aux Pins, a fine place for a fortification, Pt. Acolo, 
where Mr. Munro's sawmill stands near the Rapid Plat, Capt. Duncan's, 
Grosse Point, Pointe au Gobelet and then we came to the Long Sault, 
which extends nine miles. 

NOTE. Point Iroquois, a beautiful point of land jutting out into 
the St. Lawrence from the Township of Matilda, is now incorporated 
in the village of Iroquois, Dundas County. When General William- 
son passed down the river with the United States army in November 
1813 (shortly before the battle of Chrysler's Farm") he met with 
obstruction upon reaching Point Iroquois, as a picket of about 
a dozen men, among whom were Jacob and Peter Brouse, were 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simeoe.) 

posted at this point, which commands an extensive view of the river. 
The first Methodist Church in Dundas was built in 1797 upon Point 
Iroquois. Croil in his "History of Dundas" writes : "A more beau- 
tiful site could not have been chosen. The point upon which it 
stood was the highest and most picturesque headland upon the St. 
Lawrence between Brockville and Montreal, and is said to have been 
a favorite spot with the Indians when holding their councils of war 



(From a Drarcitig by Mrs. Simeoe.) 

in days of yore. It commanded a view of the river above and below 
for many miles." Below Point Iroquois is situated Point aux Pins, 
the narrowest part of the river ; and Rapid du Plat is in front of 
the township of Williamsburg, above Morrisburg. 



Honorable John Munro's mill was built on a magnificent scale for 
those days. It was on the point below Flagg's, just opposite the first 
rough water in the Rapid du Plat. 

We descended the Long Sault in an hour without sailing and seldom 
rowing, though near particular currents they rowed with great exertion. 
The most agitated part is towards the end of the rapids, where the river 
becomes wider; here I had an opportunity of seeing the boats which 
followed us; they appeared to fly. I compared them to race horses trying 
to outrun each other. The velocity was extreme; sometimes the whirl- 
pool turned them round; at others the head of one and stern of another 
boat appeared buried under the waves. I sketched the boats. These 
rapids did not appear formidable to me last year. I suppose my mind 
was then more engaged by the cause of my voyage, and the Governor's 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

situation at the Miami; then I thought not of myself; now I had nothing 
to think of but the present danger, and was terrified. 

In the entrance of Lake St. Francis we went to a small island south 
of our course; we had the tea kettle boiled and walked about for some 
time; there were many wild vines, nut, gooseberries and sumach trees; 
one of the latter we carried away to make chessmen of it, as the wood 
is said to be beautiful. The weather immoderately hot, and no wind 
since we left the rapids. The clouds foretell rain. 

We stopped at Pointe Morandiere, which stretches a great way into 
the lake; we were agreeably surprised to find it a stony, dry piece of 
land; the swamps are to the north of it. 

NOTE. Pointe Morandiere is on the St. Lawrence, east of Corn- 
wall, on the northwestern end of Lake St. Francis. 



Thur. 28th I was very hungry and impatient for supper, but much 
afraid from the dark appearance of the sky that I would have to leave the 
ducks untasted, for I must have retired to the boat immediately if the 
rain began, for I never could have passed the slippery rocks I had to 
cross after they were wet. However, the sky cleared, we supped and 
sat admiring the stars till after eleven o'clock. A prodigious number 
of moths or flies here, which burnt themselves and lay in the flre in 
large heaps, but I did not see mosquitos. 

Fri. 29th Breakfasted at six in the morning and set off with a fair 
wind; passed Pte. au Bodet at nine; then Pte. au Foin, a very pretty 
spot; passed the rapids near the Coteau du Lac; passed Pte. au Diable 
near the Long Sault, and stopped at Pte. au Biron, on a hill from Whence 
the view towards Coteau de Lac is very pretty. 

There is a good Seigneurie House falling to ruins. We saw batteaux 
drawing round this point where the current is particularly strong. They 


(From a Drawing by Mrs. Simcoe.) 

used great exertion in poling and drawing with a tow line and pushing 
the boat, being above their knees in water. We embarked after dinner, 
and notwithstanding the immoderate heat they insisted on taking off 
the awning to go down the Rapids of the Cedars. The preparation 
seemed formidable but the ensuing journey more so. People usually go 
from hence in caleches four miles to the cascades, but the Governor 
wished to see all the rapids and would not go on shore. 

This rapid is much more frightful than the Long Sault. I cannot 
describe how terrifying the extent of furious, dashing white waves 
appeared, and how the boat rose and plunged among them, the waves 
sometimes was'hing into the boat. Our keeping rather too near the shore 
made it worse. There is a place called " the run " near the locks, which 
is like going down the stream of an overshot mill, and I really thought 
we never should have risen out of it. The men rowed with all their 
might, and in passing it called out "Vive le Roi." We passed a rock 
which really seemed to fly from us. The children called out " How fast 



it runs." We did not leave this agitated and agitating scene till we 
came in sight of Pointe Claire and Isle Perrot and had seen the junction 
of the transparent St. Lawrence with the dirty waters of the Ottawa. 

We slept to-night at the Isle aux Soeurs. The island consists of 
a table-shaped hill of fine turf, from whence are three fine views: To 
the north-west, looking over the immense width of the St. Lawrence, 
which is like a lake, is seen the Isle au Paix, Isle Perrot, Pointe Claire 
in the distance Lac des deux Montagues (the Lake of Two Mountains), the 
country about the Rideaux and Ottawa rivers, and some distant blue high- 
lands. To the north-east, a rich, woody foreground with a pretty sandy 
beach, and the blue mountain of Montreal in the distance. 

NOTE. The Isle aux Soeurs was the French name for Nun's 
Island, now St. Bernard's Isle, at the mouth of the Chateauguay River, 
and is washed hy the Chateauguay on two sides and by the St. Law- 
rence on one. 

To the south, the village and river of Chateauguay (on the river 
of that name and 24 miles south of Montreal) winding along woods and 
cultivated country to a great distance, the Seigneurie House, and the 
river falling into the St. Lawrence forms the near view. This island 
and a house on it belong to the nuns, who reside at Montreal, and here 
they take care of insane persons. We pitched the tent at the foot of the 
hill and near the house. 

NOTE. Bouchette in his Topography states that the Seigniory 
at Chateauguay belonged in 1815 to the Grey Nuns. It was orig- 
inally granted, in 1673, to Le Moyne, Sieur de Longueuil. In con- 
nection with the house Bouchette uses the word "Mansion," for it 
could not be designated a convent, as there were only two nuns. 
Being the owners of the Seigniory, the nuns resided in the Manor 

Sat. 30th A little rain. I walked to the Seigneurie House, which 
looks like a Flemish building, examined a raft lying in the Chateauguay 
River and thought its construction very curious. 

At nine we embarked, and at eleven stopped at La Chine (Lachine) to 
take a pilot to conduct us to Montreal thro* the rapids, which extend almost 
the whole way, and are thought to be most dangerous of any, as the water 
is so shallow; the great width of the river adds terror to the scene, which 
presents miles of foaming waves. We stopped a little while, that we might 
not overtake or run foul of an immense radeau or raft that was going 
down. However, she struck on a rock and we passed her. It was a wild 
accompaniment to the scene we were in. The distant view was fine; on 
one side the mountain of Montreal and the town extending below, the 
island of St. Helen's opposite the east end of Montreal, and near to us 
that of St. Paul's, with some ruins of burnt houses upon it. On the other 
side the town of La Prairie (on the south shore seven miles from Mont- 
real), with the blue hills of Chambly and Beloeil Mountain in the distance. 

The Governor desired me to sketch the rapids of La Chine. I believe 
he wished to take off my attention from the rapids. I was more disposed 
to have cried than to have talked; reason told me there was no danger, 
because Canadians pass the rapids safely so many times every year, but 
one has to resist all that can affright the senses of seeing or hearing, so 
the pilot, to make himself appear brave, was perpetually reminding us 
of the great danger, which only his knowledge could save us from. We 
arrived at Mr. Gray's, at Montreal. 



Sun. 31st Went to church in Lieut.-General Christie's coach. 

NOTE. General Gabriel Christie, born 1722, died in Montreal, 
1799 ; he was a brevet-major under Amherst in 1759, and commander- 
in-chief in Canada, 1798. He was also a Justice 
of the Peace and a member of the Legislative and 
Executive Councils. 

Francis' surprise at a room on wheels was 1 great. 
He had never been in any carriage but an open one. 
This house of Mr. Gray's is very pleasant, from Vene- 
tian blinds being fixed into all the window frames, 
which throws such a sombre light that all the women 
who have called have looked handsome, tho' they 
were not so in broad daylight; et je me sentit valoir 
dix fois plus qu'un autrctemps (and I feel worth ten 
times more than at other times). GENERAL CHRISTIE. 

We drank tea at Mr. Frobisher's country house. 

It commands a noble view towards La Prairie, St. Helen's, Chambly and 
Beloeil, the town of Montreal, and a cultivated country in the near view. 
Francis, being accustomed to sentinels, asked, when he saw Mr. Frobisher's 
dogs' houses before the door, whether the people here kept dogs as sen- 
tinels. Mrs. Frobisher has an excellent garden; there was strawberry 
spinach, which she showed me as a pretty but very poisonous plant. I 
assured her I had often eaten it in Upper Canada. I have not caught cold 
the whole of the journey, which I attribute to living so totally in the air. 
At Kingston my trunk fell into the water in taking it from the ship, so 1 
have had none but damp clothes to wear since, and no opportunity of 
airing them, as I have met with no fire but where the men were cooking. 

Mon. Aug. 1st I dined at Mr. Frobisher's; immoderate hot weather 
and a little rain. 

NOTE. The stay in Montreal was not prolonged. The Governor 
had official matters, as a record says, to attend to, and he was anxious 
to leave the affairs of his Province in good order. The accounts 
of the Province in connection with the military expenditure were all 
sent in duplicate to the authorities at Quebec, and some of these 
had to be adjusted. So after three days had been spent in Montreal 
the bateaux were on the 2nd of August in readiness, and on the 
fifth of the month the party landed at Cap Kouge, nine miles from 
Quebec, and after a strenuous journey in caleches, arrived at Bel- 
mont, near Quebec, the residence of Colonel Caldwell, where they 
were received by their friends, who were delighted to see the Governor 
and his wife again. 

Mrs. Simcoe writes: 

Tues. Aug. 2nd Left Montreal at eight; passed Long Pt. (N.E. of 
Montreal and on the island), Pointe aux Trembles (three leagues from 
Montreal and on the island), Varennes (on the south shore, six leagues 
below Montreal), St. Sulpice (on the north shore, eight leagues below 
Montreal), with a strong, fair wind; dined in the boat near La Valtrie 
(on the north shore, N.E., and twelve leagues from Montreal). Soon 
afterwards fell a heavy thunderstorm. They furnished the boat at Mont- 
real with so miserable an awning that it let the water through, and sent 
very inexperienced batteau men, who scarcely knew how to manage the 



boat. We were quite wet, but being near D'Autray, went on shore and 
determined to sleep there. Having been there twice already, I knew we 
should be well accommodated. A very cold night. The Maitre de Poste, 
La Fontaine and his wife, very old people, were perfectly Flemish figures. 
They supped in the room next to ours. I observe they eat onion broth, 
fat bacon, and finished by drinking sour milk; after supper they played 
a game at cards they called " le grand Brisque," which they seemed to be 
much amused by. 

Wed. 3rd Left D'Autray at eight, wrapped up in that fleecy hosiery 
which has been the companion of all my travels. At five this evening 
we came to Pte. du Lac St. Pierre, which is a widening of the St. Lawrence, 
a league from Three Rivers (30 leagues below Montreal), where the 
batteau men wished to go; but the Governor, being determined not to 
lodge in a town, insisted on their going into this little bay, which, doing 
unwillingly, they struck us against rocks; it was very shallow water, as 
they had said. We found the beach very pleasant, and walked from 
thence to a rising ground, where are the remains of Pte. du Lac barracks, 
built by Sir F. Haldimand in 1789. Gathered very fine wild raspberries. 
We were overtaken by a thunder shower that wetted me thro', but what 
was worse, on our return found the canvas and awning of our boat had 
not been properly fixed and that the beds were quite wet; there was no 
remedy, so I sat by the fire and dryed my habit, eat my supper, and 
slept in my clothes on the damp bed, without catching any cold. 

Thur. 4th Drew a plant of wild rice w.hich was in blossom; gathered 
cardinal flowers, a beautiful purple flower, sand cherries and some rasp- 
berries. We went out of the bay without touching a rock, stopped five 
minutes at Three Rivers to speak to Mr. Mountain. At five this afternoon 
we went on shore at a most beautiful point, St. Pierre les Becquet. It 
is a very steep ascent from the beach to the village, among wood and 
rock. We went to the Cure's, who very civilly shewed us his house and 
garden and the church, which is very neat. From the garden is an exten- 
sive view. The mouths of the rivers Batiscan and St. Anne are seen on 
the opposite shore, with distant blue hills. This is the finest point on the 
river and a good military position. Madame Baby (wife of Hon. Frangois 
Baby, of Quebec) has lands here. 

NOTE. Mr. Mountain was the Bishop's elder brother, Dr. Jehosh- 
aphat Mountain, formerly rector of Peldon in Essex. He and his 
wife, with their son and two daughters, were amongst the party who 
accompanied the Bishop to Canada in 1793. 

Batiscan Eiver rises in the county of Quebec and falls into the 
St. Lawrence at Batiscan Bridge. St. Anne Eiver is in Mont- 
morency County, Que., and falls into the St. Lawrence at the east 
corner of the parish of St. Anne. 

Thur. 4th Descending the hill, we gathered nuts and wild fruits. 
Farther down the river the view of Richelieu (in Rouville County, about 
seven leagues S.E. of Montreal and south of the St. Lawrence), Descham- 
bault (a village on the north shore of St. Lawrence, 14 leagues S.W. of 
Quebec), Grondines (a village in Portneuf County, on the north shore of 
the St. Lawrence and about 15 leagues above Quebec), in the distance, 
with bright lights from the setting sun very beautiful. We slept at 
Grondines in a room belonging to Mr. McCord, of Quebec. (He repre- 
sents this village in the Parliament at Quebec.) We could not sleep on 
the water, as the tide obliged the boat to be brought on shore. A very 
cold night; we supped upon the beach. 

Fri. 5th We set off at seven; I was extremely delighted with the high 
banks and beautiful scenery in passing Deschambault, Richelieu and Cap 



Santo" on the north shore, opposite to which is Pt. Platon (on the south 
shore 13 leagues above Quebec), where we went on shore and admired 
the situation, which is fit for a fine house; there is a good farm belonging 
to the Convent des Ursulines at Quebec. 

We dined in the boat opposite the pretty village of St. Augustine 
(four leagues from Quebec), and then went ashore at Cap Rouge (three 
leagues from Quebec). The Commissary at Montreal ought to be ashamed 
of sending such toatteau men. They frequently asked me how far we 
were from Quebec, and many such questions. The only man at all accus- 
tomed to the way was dying of ague and of no use. From the St. Law- 
rence we walked a mile (the tide being out) over wet ground like marsh, 
interspersed with rock, which brought us to a house where we got a 
cal&che, which carried us a mile to a kind of Post House, where we dressed 
and set out in a caliche, ascending a prodigious steep but winding road 
among red rocks and wood, and four miles brought us to Belmont, where 
we found our friends well and happy to see us. They have just finished 
an addition to their house, which makes it very comfortable. 

As a proof of how much the Governor has suffered from the illness 
he had last autumn (the fever lasted from August till November), he was 
excessively fatigued by the exercise of driving four miles in the caleche. 



The Governor on his arrival at Quebec found that the "Pearl" 
had gone on a cruise, and was expected back on the 10th of August; 
but, as the stay at Quebec after his business had been transacted was, 
as he said in a private letter, "a very pleasant one," he was glad 
to do nothing more than await the arrival of the ship on which he 
and his wife were to sail to England. 

Lord and Lady Dorchester had left Quebec on 9th July, 1796, 
for England, in the "Active" man-of-war, but unfortunately this 
ship was wrecked off Anticosti on the 15th July. Simcoe was afraid 
that the "Pearl," which had gone down the Gulf to save the stores, 
would be ordered to take the Governor- General to England and so 
cause further delay. The "Pearl," however, arrived in Quebec on 
the 6th September, and on Saturday, the 10th, sailed for England 
with Governor Simcoe and his family, and after a somewhat eventful 
voyage anchored off the Downs on the 13th of October. 

Mrs. Simcoe writes : 

Sat. 6th A wet morning. Mrs. and Miss Prescott called on me. 
Bishop Mountain's youngest child died last night; they sent a very polite 
message requesting us to use their house at Quebec and their carriage. 
The Bishop's family are going immediately to Three Rivers, to visit his 

XOTE. Mrs. and Miss Prescott were the wife and daughter of 
General Robert Prescott, who succeeded Lord Dorchester. The latter 
did not know he was to be recalled until Prescott's arrival in Quebec 
in June of 1796. Although Lord Dorchester left for England 
in July of 1796, he retained office until the following April, during 
which time Prescott performed the actual duties of Governor. General 
Prescott then formally became Governor-in-Chief, remaining in 
Canada until 1799, when he was recalled. He died in England in 

Mon. 8th Went to Quebec; called on Miss Mountain; dined at the 
Chateau; returned to Belmont in Mrs. Prescott's carriage. A heavy 
thunder shower when we were at dinner, but the weather still sultry. 
The country about Quebec is charming. The Governor, not having seen 
it in summer, is surprised at its beauty; the distant mountains appear 
more grand when the wooded country below is discerned, interspersed 
with the villages of Charlesbourg (four miles from Quebec), Montmorency 
(six and a half miles) and Lorette (eight miles). The "Pearl" frigate 
has gone on a cruise, but expected here on the 10th. 

NOTE. Miss Mountain was one of the Bishop's sisters who came 
to Canada with him. 

Tues. 9th The Governor went with Coll. Caldwell to his mills, and 
returned much fatigued. 



Wed. 10th General and Mrs. Prescott dined here. I am very ill from 
the heat. I never felt the air so oppressive in Upper Canada. 

Thur. llth Left our hospitable friends at Belmont and went this 
evening to reside at the Bishop's house at Quebec, where we are very com- 
fortably lodged. Our obligation to Bishop Mountain is great, for there are 
no tolerable accommodations here for travellers, and no lodgings to be 
hired but what are very miserable, as Mrs. Prescott experienced before 
the Chateau was vacant. 

Fri. 12th There is a fog like our Indian summer, with insufferable 
heat. In the evening we walked upon Cape Diamond and to our favorite 
walk on the terrace. There is a cherry or grape tree in the Bishop's 
garden, as large as an apple tree. The fruit is the size of a large currant. 

Sat. 13th We dined at Chief Justice's Osgoode. Met Mrs. Prescott. 

Sun. 14th Went to church. Sat in the Governor's seat. Called on 
Mrs. Dalton and saw her beautiful drawings. I read a poem called 
" Caissa " in Jones' collection of Asiatic poems. 

. "Caissa," a poetic introduction to the game of chess, by 
Sir William Jones (1746-1794), the celebrated Oriental scholar. 

Mon. 15th Walked to Cape Diamond before breakfast. 

Tues. 16th News arrived of the "Active," Capt. Leveson Gower, on 
the way to England, being wrecked off the Isle of Anticosti. The crew 
got safe on shore, and Lord and Lady Dorchester were taken from hence 
to Gaspe 1 in a schooner which, fortunately for them, was passing Anticosti 
a day or two after they were wrecked. From Gaspe they were to go to 
Halifax, probably in the " Pearl," which detains her from being here. 

NOTE. Captain Leveson Gower was born in Maryland in 1750. 
He served in the Revolutionary "War, and died in 1818. 

Wed. 17th Dined at Belmont; sultry weather. 

Thur. 18th The ship " Adriatic " arrived from Halifax. Dined at the 
Chateau; thermometer 88. We were under great anxiety lest Lord. Dor- 
chester should take the " Pearl " to carry him to England from Halifax. 

Fri. 19th So ill I could not dine with Madame Baby. 

Sat. 20th So ill I could not dine with Mrs. Dunn. 

Sun. 21st So ill I did not go to church. Mrs. Prescott called. 

Mon. 22nd, Tues. 23rd Dined at home; the heat insufferable. The 
only hours which are tolerable are from eight till ten at night, when we 
walk upon the ramparts. 

Wed. 24th Drank tea with Mrs. Winslow; in the night the wind 
changed and it became very cold. 

Thur. 25th The Bishop and Mrs. Mountain called on their return 
from Montreal, where they had spent the last fortnight. I drank tea 
with Mrs. Smith. It was too cold to walk with pleasure in the garden. 

Sat. 27th Madame Baby obtained the Bishop's order for our admis- 
sion to the Convent of Ursulines. The nuns were very civil, and pleased 
at my recollecting those I had seen before. 

Mon. 29th Dined at Woodfield. Two ships of those destined to go 
under convoy of the " Pearl " sailed to-day. Tired of waiting for her. 

Tues. 30th Dined at the Chateau. 

Wed. 31st Dined at Belmont. 

Thur. Sept. 1st We dined at Mr. Finlay's, the Deputy Postmaster- 
General, at Woodside. It is a very pretty situation. Quebec and Charles- 
bourg are good objects from it, but the weather was hazy. I walked 
thro' pretty grounds in the afternoon. 

NOTE. A residence on the St. Louis Eoad, built on part of the 
land of the old country seat of Thornhill. 


Fri. 2nd A wet day. 

Sat. 3rd Drank tea with Miss Mountain. The " Pearl " arrived from 
Halifax in 14 days. 

Sun. 4th Coll. and Mrs. Caldwell dined with me. 

Mon. 5th Dined at Woodfield. Walked in the evening towards Sillery 
and saw a beautiful view of Cape Diamond, the Isle of Orleans, etc., under 
setting sun. 

NOTE. Sillery was originally a mission founded in 1637, named 
after Commandeur Noel Brulart de Sillery,, Prime Minister of Louis 
XIII., who gave 12,000 livres (or pounds) for the purpose. The old 
Sillery settlement was within the limits of the parish of St. Foye. The 
mission was about four and a half miles from Quebec, on the north 
shore of the St. Lawrence. 

Tues. 6th As I was getting into the carriage to go to the Chateau 
the street was full of smoke, which we supposed to be from a chfcnney on 


(From an Engraving in the J. Ross Robertson Collection.) 

fire. Soon after we arrived at Mrs. Prescott's the gentlemen were 
informed that the fire, which had begun in a barn of hay, was raging 
furiously in St. Louis Street and approaching the Bishop's house. Gen'l. 
Simcoe immediately went there and remained the whole afternoon, giving 
directions to some of the crew of the " Pearl," by whose exertions the 
Bishop's house and houses adjoining were saved, tho' they several times 
caught fire. Mrs. Prescott and I were looking out from the upper win- 
dow, when we saw a spark alight on the Recollet Church, and in a few 
minutes the whole building was in a blaze. 

The churches and houses, being covered with shingles (wooden tiles), 
burnt rapidly, and the shingles being light, were also easily blown by the 
wind, which was high, and had it not changed probably the whole town 
would have been destroyed. The ships in the river weighed anchor. 
Some papers were blown to Pt. Levy, on the opposite side of the river. 
Our trunks being sent to the Chief Justice's, I went there to change my 



clothes, for we were all in full dress, as Mrs. Prescott was to have had a 
ball in the evening. I was terrified in passing the Parade. The heat was 
so great from the Recollet Church, engines kept playing on the Chateau, 
which was in great danger. I afterwards took the children into Palace 
Street, and sat with Mrs. Roslyn, of the Fifth Regt, till eight o'clock, 
when Gen'l. Simcoe came to fetch us to the Chief Justice's, where we 
slept, for tho' the danger was at an end the sight of everything still 
burning around the Bishop's house made me wish not to sleep there. 

Wed. 7th Drank tea with Mrs. Taylor and supped at the Chief 
Justice's, our baggage being sent on board the "Pearl." 

The ruins of the Recollet Church, brightened from within by fire, not 
yet extinguished, had an awful, grand appearance as we walked home in 
a dark night; the effect of colour was very rich. 

I sent an enquiry after the health of the Ursulines since their alarm 
and the exertions they had made in carrying water to the top of their 
house, which was endangered by the fire; I received a very polite note 
from the Superieure and a basket of plums from their garden. 

Thur. 8th Breakfasted at Woodfield; returned to Quebec with Mrs. 
Caldwell and dined with Coll. Barnes. 

Sat. 10th At eleven embarked on board the " Pearl." The cabin is 
larger than that in the " Triton," but the guns are very incommodious. 
I was busy arranging my trunks, and kept as few as possible with me, 
because I was informed if we met French ships we must clear for action, 
and all the baggage would be tossed below in confusion. I met with one 
trunk of the Bishop's clothes, but had an opportunity of a boat passing 
to send it to Quebec. 

I find nothing missing but a very pretty Indian basket, in which were 
shoes. Capt. Leveson Gower, H.M.S. " Active," takes his passage to Eng- 
land with Capt. Ballard, and four of his lieutenants Mr. Bond, Mr. 
Merriott, Mr. Worth, Mr. Deighton, master of the " Active." Capt. Gower 
lives in the cabin. About five we struck ground. The sensation was 
unpleasant, but we were instantly off. We anchored at night. 

Sun. llth Weighed anchor at five. At nine passed a brig going to 
Quebec. Passed the Kamouraskas, rocky islands in the St. Lawrence, 
opposite mouth of Kamouraska River; and Pilgrim Islands, four islands, 
only rocks, near the south shore of the St. Lawrence (below L'Islet). 

Mon. 12th The wind west, fair, but obliged to lay to for the mer- 
chantmen under our convoy. There are ten. The "Brook Watson " and 
" Earl of Marchmont " are very bad sailers. 

Tues. 13th Fair wind and cold. We cannot carry sail enough to 
keep the ship steady, on account of those bad sailing merchantmen. 

Wed. 14th Wind south-east. Standing for the Bird Islands, north 
of the Magdalens. 

Thurs. 15th A head sea, hauled close to the wind. I was unwell all 

Fri. 16th A very wet morning after a rough night, and hauled close 
to the wind. It cleared up at twelve. At six the Captain spoke with 
the merchantmen and agreed to bear away from the Straits of Belle Isle, 
about 50 leagues off. We are now in sight of St. George's Bay, on the 
coast of Newfoundland, and a fine leading wind. 

Sat. 17th A fine wind; passed Scaring Islands at twelve. Rather 
sick; I found myself better by eating orange marmalade. A great swell 

NOTE. Between Cow Head and Shallow Bays, on the western 
coast of Newfoundland. 

Sun. 18th During the night I heard the officer on watch tell Capt. 
Ballard there was a sail in sight, and he ordered ammunition to be got 
ready. I got up, and tho' it was dark, contrived to collect my things and 

23 353 


lock them up in the trunk, as I thought we might be suddenly called 
upon and the cabin cleared. 1 then went to sleep again. The next morn- 
ing I heard that the sail was a brig from Quebec which had overshot her 
port. Capt. Ballard said we had been in great danger during the night. 
It was very calm, and a very heavy swell set us on the breakers, which we 
were quite near; everybody was quite alarmed and went upon deck, and 
a sudden breeze springing up from the breakers saved us from going 
upon them. We had entered the Straits of Belle Isle and passed an island 
of ice. At nine I saw an island of ice at a great distance. It was near 
Green Island, Newfoundland, about nine leagues from Cape Norman. 

NOTE. Green Island is between North and South Heads in the 
Bay of Islands. 

At twelve we passed Portreau Bay. I looked at it through a glass 
and made a sketch of it. The country appears to be ledges of rocks, with 
a few scrubby pine, scarce able to grow on so harsh and dismal a soil. 
I discerned two waterfalls near the coast. After passing Portreau Bay, at 
entrance to Strait of Belle Isle, near Green Island, a fishing boat with 
Jersey men came alongside to inform the captain that two days ago three 
large vessels, supposed to be French, went into Temple Bay on the 
southern coast of Labrador, and about forty miles distant, opposite Belle 
Isle. The boat brought fish, and while we lay to some exceeding fine 
cod were caught. A slight breeze and excessive cold weather. This 
afternoon we sent the trunks below, and the cabin was partly cleared to 
prepare for meeting the French. 

Mon. 19th A head wind all night; towards morning a heavy gale and 
great fog. We were driven back between Portreau Bay and Green Island. 
At one time it cleared, grew calm and the wind fair, but a very great 

Tues. 20th This morning at eight we were opposite Temple Bay, but 
it was too hazy to see any distance. A fair wind. At eleven we were 
abreast of Belle Isle, which is one entire dismal, barren rock. At twelve 
two French frigates and a brig were seen. They soon took six of our 
merchantmen, who, not having obeyed the " Pearl's " signals, were a 
great way ahead of us. We cleared for action. Capt. Gower conducted 
me down two flights of steps into the bread room, which just held me, the 
children and my servant; there I spent six hours in perfect misery, every 
moment expecting to hear the guns fire, as we lay for the enemy. Never 
having been in real danger before, I had no idea what it was to be so 
frightened. Some refreshment was sent me, but I could not eat. The 
sailor who brought it said, " You had better take it now, for there is no 
knowing when you may be able to get any more." I presently was 
informed that " The Progress," in which Genl. and Mrs. England were, 
was taken. At six o'clock Capt. Malcolm, of the Marines, very obligingly 
offered me his room, tho' only six feet long and four wide. I lay down 
with an excruciating headache, which essence of peppermint relieved. 

Wed. 21st As this room, cabin or cupboard is below decks, I heard 
people talking all the night, and could not help listening, even to the 
cabin boys. I heard half-sentences and supposed the rest, and it seemed 
inevitable for us to escape being taken. However, the next day at twelve 
I was persuaded to go into the gun room (the cabin being cleared and 
bulkheads thrown down), and I found that a more cheerful place, and 
the officers of the "Active," having no duty, played at back-gammon or 
cards with me all day long, for it was the only relief I found. Some 
gentlemen were continually coming down from deck, and various were 
the opinions; some thought the French would come up with us, others did 
not. The French were following at three leagues distance. We are now a 
mile to the northward of Belle Isle, between that and the Labrador coast. 
Islands of ice were passing all the day, which made the air very cold. 



I wished to see them, but did not have spirits to go upon deck, and I was 
told we should probably see them for some days to come. 

It is supposed the " Ephron " got away from the enemy after she was 
taken, but she has not joined us. A fine breeze towards evening. The 
" Pearl " took the " Brook Watson " in tow twice, and her master let the 
hawser go. I was glad when we got rid of her. The " Adriatic " is with 
us, and the " London " was this morning, but guns were heard to-night off 
the north shore, and it is feared she is aground. Mr. Deighton, the 
master of the "Active," says he knew a ship which had her bottom knocked 
off by the ice, and yet she came safe into port. 1 played at backgammon 
and cards till half after ten. 

Thurs. 22nd A fine day, but very cold. We are still in the gun room, 
where the motion is so little felt that I like it much better than the cabin. 
I played backgammon or cards, which tranquilizes my mind, but it will 
be a great while before I recover from iny fright. It is supposed the 
French ships are commanded by Citizen Barney, a famous rebel during 
the late American War. He drinks nothing but water, and as he lives 
hard we suppose he will fight hard. The New York paper mentioned his 
cruising off this coast. 

NOTE. Joshua Barney, born in Baltimore in 
1759, was an American naval officer in the Revo- 
lutionary War. He became lieutenant in 1776, 
was captured by the British in 1777 and again in 
1781. Having command of the " Hyder Ali," he 
captured the "General Monk" in 1782. In the 
autumn of that year he was sent to France with 
despatches for Franklin, and subsequently re- 
ceived a commission in the French service, resign- 
ing in 1800. He commanded a flotilla in Chesa- 
peake Bay in 1813, was wounded at the battle of 
Bladensburg in 1814, and died at Pittsburg 1st 
December, 1818. JOSHUA BARXEY. 

Fri. 23rd I slept more quietly last night, as it is thought we are Safe 
from the pursuit of the French. We breakfasted in the cabin. It seems 
a fortnight since we left it, so much has the agitation of mind apparently 
lengthened the time. The cabin appears dull. It is excessively cold. We 
are in Lat. 53-54. We ran 150 miles since yesterday in the latitude of 
Cape Charles (at the entrance to the Strait of Belle Isle). If we are 
still driven on to the northward by these winds we shall soon get to 
Greenland. Mr. Hill, one of the lieutenants, went to the North Sea, and 
was obliged to eat salt pork raw, for if it was boiled it presently became 
a cake of ice. This man relates so many terrifying adventures that I 
scarcely feel safe to be in the same ship, for it seems impossible he can 
perform any voyage in a quiet way. 

Sat. 24th A south wind. At three o'clock hazy weather, raw, but 
rather less cold; Lat. 54-55. I copied the action of the 1st of June from 
Capt. Ballard's drawings, taken on the spot. 

Wind S.W. An exceedingly heavy gale all night, and this day put in 
the dead lights, the weather so bad. Meat could not be roasted, but we 
had a pork pie, and tho' I dislike pork on shore, it is very good on board 
ship, and an excellent salt-fish pudding. The fish, having been boiled the 
day before, was now chopped up with potatoes, parsnips, herbs, pepper, 
salt, and boiled in a bag. 



Mon. 26th A sail in sight, which proved to be the "London." A 
fresh breeze still sending us northward. Wind S.W. I copied nine plans 
of the action of the 1st June. 

NOTE. Every search has been made for these drawings. It is 
supposed that they were given away by Mrs. Simcoe on her return 
to England, for there is no trace of them in the portfolios at 

Tues. 27th A head wind; damp, disagreeable weather. 

Wed. 28th A dreadful night; a very heavy gale. We did not break- 
fast till twelve o'clock. The forestay sail split; a heavy sail all day. 
Lat. 56-10. 

Thurs. 29th Drank raspberry vinegar instead of tea and slept better. 
A great sea, little wind, very cold. 

Fri. 30th Lat. 55-56. 

Sat. Oct. 1st Lat. 54-55. 

Mon. 3rd Wind north. 

Tues. 4th Wind N.W., squally; in the long, of the Western Isles. 

Wed. 5>th A very rough night; wind N.E.; from 5 p.m. it blew N.W. 
and an immoderate gale. The windows of the ports were broke, and the 
sea came into the cabin without measure. 

Thurs. 6th The gale continued all night, the sea washing in at the 
ports, and deep water under the beds and until six o'clock p.m. this day. 
They did not give us any breakfast, and we got up to dinner at two; the 
dead lights and doors to the quarter galleries put up. We have run 300 
miles in the last 24 hours. Last night went 13 knots an hour under bare 
poles; parted with the " London," "Adriatic " and " Brook Watson " in 
the gale. 

Fri. 7th A sail seen this morning; they began to clear the ship, but 
the vessel proved to be the " Hope," of New London ; these are the first 
American colours I have seen. A calm after one o'clock; wind S.S.W. 
this evening. 

Sat. 8th The ship in soundings on the Great Sole Bank, off the Eng- 
lish coast. At eight the wind changed and blew fresh from the N.W. 
Some ships seen. The cabin was begun to be cleared, but this having 
happened two or three times, and no further ill consequences ensued, I 
now see this preparation with indifference, which had before inspired me 
with s<o much terror. I had continued drawing as long as tihey left a 
table in the -room. The ships were soon discovered to be India-men. In 
the evening we passed another, to whom we spoke. She was from 
Jamaica; had parted from her convoy in a dreadful gale of wind four 
days since, in which her top sails were split. We ran nine knots an 
hour under bare poles. 

Note. Great Sole Bank lies in latitude 49 23' north, longitude 
10 16', and continues 30 miles northeast by east. It is 7 miles long 
by 7 miles wide and lies 120 miles southwest of the Fastnet Light and 
130 miles west of the Scilly Islands Lights. Its greatest depth is 
70 fathoms. 

Sun. 9th We spoke to a West India vessel, called " The Lioness," aim 
took her under convoy. She parted company from 130 sail in the late 
gale. A fair wind to-day, and we ran eight knots an hour. I went on 
deck to-night to see the lead heav'd and the ship lay to. It was a terrific 
sight when ahe turned her side to the wind. The waves seemed as if 
they would overwhelm the ship, and the noise was frightful. 



Mon. 10th Passed the Islands of Scilly this morning; three or four sail 
seen; we spoke to one under Danish colours; the Land's End seen at one 

Tues. llth We stood close for Berry Head, on south coast of Devon, 
intending to go on shore at Tor Bay. This landing would have been more 
convenient for Gen. Simcoe, as he desired to go to Exeter. But the wind 
freshened so much it was impossible to get on board the fishing boats, 
which we saw at a little distance. Two hours sooner it might have been 
done, but we lay to for two or three hours in the morning to press men 
out of the India-men, and since that the wind has risen. Sophia wishes 
to be on shore, but Francis, never having been sick, thinks it a pity to 
quit the ship he is so fond of, and leave Beau and Bell, the captain's 
dogs, who are his constant playfellows. He is determined to be a sailor. 

Wed. 12th A fine day and fair wind, but we lay to so long for the 
convoy that we did not pass Dover till late. We anchored in the Downs, 
off the coast of Kent, at eight o'clock. It is difficult to go on shore here 
if the weather is not very calm, notwithstanding the extreme skilfulness of 
the Deal boatmen. We passed Beachy Head, where the cliffs are white, 
and Hastings, a brick town, this morning. In the afternoon the 
"Diamond" and "Melampus," frigates, passed us. It was a very fine sight 
to see those large frigates cut thro' the waves with so much swiftness, and 
they are handsomer objects than a line of battleships, which are heavier; 
they were painted black and yellow, with white figure-heads. A pretty, 
light, small vessel followed them, supposed to be Russian built. 

Thurs. 13th We anchored very near a large Indiaman. I was waked 
in the night by hearing a sailor call out that we should be aboard the 
Indiaman, and having heard of such accidents in the Downs, I did not 
like the alarm. 

This morning I was much pleased with seeing the number of vessels 
in the Downs. The " Ville de Paris " got under weigh and passed close 
to us, but being under jury masts she looked extremely heavy and clumsy 
and of an immense size. I liked the frigates better. A wet morning; 
we landed at one o'clock. Capts. Ballard, Gower and some officers of the 
" Pearl " dined with us at the inn at Deal. 

We took a friendly leave of men in whom we were much interested, 
having lived so much in their company for seven weeks; they both offered 
their best services for Francis. From my experience of people, I am as 
anxious he should be a sailor as he is to be one. Francis came downstairs 
in the inn backwards, as he used to descend the ladder on board the 
" Pearl." I felt it a great happiness to find the rooms steady, and not 
roll like the ship. 

Fri. 14th Genl. Grinfield came to breakfast with us, and invited us 
to dine at Dover with Mrs. Grinfield, which place we set out for after 
breakfast, and drove eleven miles thro' a bleak, barren country, and when 
I came to the hill at Dover I was amazingly struck with the grandeur of 
the scene, the grand appearance of the castle on those very high cliffs, 
part of the building in good and habitable preservation, the rest in ruins; 
a grand site and a building adapted to it. The bold cliffs, the town and 
beach beneath, form a charming picture, and the horizon of the sea was 
terminated by the fleet, which sailed yesterday, the "Ville de Paris" 
towering above the rest; we sailed round her before we came on shore, 
but a large frigate, such as the " Diamond," is a finer sight to my taste. 
The fresh east wind has probably sent them back. 

We walked round the works, which are enlarging about the castle. 
Capt. Bruyere, of the Engineers, went with us; he has been long in 
Canada, to which country he was much attached, therefore I was delighted 
to talk with him. 

We noticed the Roman brick very visible in one of the towers which 
is in ruins. We distinguished the coast of France, a part of which looks 
like Beachy Head. I was shown the church at Calais and the entrance 



of Boulogne harbour. Saw the brass cannon given to Queen Elizabeth 
by the Dutch; it is 24 feet long, beautifully carved with figures of Brit- 
annia and the "God of the Scheldt." We went thro' the communication 
lately cut underground thro' the hill from the castle to the town; it is 
a handsome stone staircase of twelve hundred steps; at the bottom of 
every two or three hundred feet it is lighted by a passage and window 
at the extremity of the rock; we descended with a lanthorn; it cost 700. 
I was much pleased with Capt. Bruyere, for he talked with delight of 
Canada. He married a sister of Mrs. Selby's, of Montreal. 

It was extremely cold walking on the hill. We spent some hours very 
pleasantly with Mrs. Grinfield, and at seven at night set off for Canter- 
bury. A very violent rain this morning. Canterbury is fifteen miles 
from Dover. We arrived in the dark, very much fatigued. 

NOTE. William Grinfield, colonel of the 8th Regiment of Foot, 
16th May, 1787, became major-general, 13th June, 1793, and lieu- 
tenant-general, January, 1798. 

Captain Bruyere of the Royal Engineers was one of the military 
Land Board at Niagara in 1791. He died of exposure in the War of 
1812. Mrs. Selby, wife of Dr. George Selby, of Montreal, was for- 
merly Miss Dunbar, daughter of Major Dunbar. Dr. Selby, who 
was born in England and educated at the College of St. Omer, came 
to Canada about 1781. He died in 1835. 

Sat. 15th Damp, raw weather. Went to see the cathedral, which 1 
greatly admired; the style of building is peculiarly grand and simple, 
and the ascent to the choir by steps has a grand effect. There is a monu- 
ment of Edward, the Black Prince, in brass, in great preservation. The 
armour, helmet and gloves he wore at Cressy are hung over it. 

A head of Dean Watson carved in stone, done in Italy, is a fine piece 
of sculpture, and there are many pieces of stone work curiously executed; 
there is a great deal of painted glass; a good picture of a Pope, but it has 
been shot thro' during the civil wars in Cromwell's time. 

Thomas a Becket's tomb is plain. The stone around is deeply worn 
by having been knelt upon, as is said. There is a good monument of 
Henry IV. and his Queen. The ship called the " Great Harry," with four 
masts, built in Henry V.'s reign, is represented in stone. This cathedral 
has the advantage of Salisbury in not having been modernized. 

The country from Canterbury to Dartford (18 miles below London 
on the Thames) is woody and beautiful; some views of the Medway and 

The weather is damp, raw and unpleasant. I could not but observe, 
as we passed many houses, that those mansions appeared very comfortable 
habitations, in which people might live very happily, but it could not be 
supposed they could ever be induced to go out of them in such a damp 
climate, for the fields looked so cold, so damp, so cheerless, so uncomfort- 
able from the want of our bright Canadian sun that the effect was 
striking, and the contrast very unfavourable to the English climate. We 
slept at Dartford. 

Sun. 16th A beautiful country from Dartford to London. On the 
road I passed a remarkable fine Cedar of Lebanon. Arrived at the hotel 
in Cork Street, London, at ten o'clock. 



Mrs. Simcoe's sojourn in Canada was always regarded by her 
with pleasurable recollections. She had made many friends in the 
land across the sea. Her husband had had the honor of establishing 
the first Provincial Government when Upper Canada was marked 
upon the map as the western Province of the old. Province of Canada. 

Nor did she forget the kindness and courtesy that had been so 
gracefully accorded to both herself and her husband, from the day 
in October, 1791, when they landed at Quebec, till that day in Sep- 
tember, 1796, when they were homeward bound from the same port. 
True, she had two of her children with her, but there were four others 
at home. She longed to see them, for although their daily lives were 
recorded by monthly letters from Mrs. Hunt, yet her desire for her 
little ones gave her hours of depression. Then she remembered with 
tears the green knoll in the military burying ground at York that 
covered the little one, the first Katherine, who, born at Navy Hall, 
Niagara, in January, 1793, died and was buried at York (Toronto) 
in April, 1794. 

When the "Pearl" anchored in the Downs, within sight of the 
white cliffs of England, Mrs. Simcoe realized that she was not far 
from the home of her childhood. She spent a few hours at Deal, a 
day with friends in Dover and Canterbury, a couple of days in Lon- 
don, and then proceeded southwest by coach to Exeter. 

Glad was the welcome at Wolford. A letter written from Quebec 
in July had informed Mrs. Hunt that probably at the end of August 
the General and his wife would sail for England. Then a second 
letter in August said that they would sail about the end of the 
first week in September so as to arrive in England about the middle 
of October; and almost within a day of the promised time did the 
family carriage and pair, which had been sent down to Exeter to 
meet the home-comers, drive up to the door of Wolford. 

Never was there a happier meeting. Mrs. Hunt and her daughter 
were as eager to see them as were the children, who waited eagerly 
for their father and mother and for the brother and sister whom they 
had not seen for five long years. The delight was mutual. The 
old home looked bright and cheerful on that October afternoon, 
and the day closed with worship read by the master surrounded by 
his household. The countryside knew of the General's return and 
the County families, glad to renew their friendships, were not long in 
calling at Wolford. 

The old home life was quietly resumed. Much of the General's 
energy was thrown into the improvement of his estate, for but little 
along that line had been done during the years of his absence. The 



family were early risers, always up with the lark. The General was 
usually around with Mr. Scadding as early as six o'clock in the 
morning, and Mrs. Simcoe and one of her daughters frequently took 
a five-mile ride before breakfast. 

Eliza Simcoe was now a girl of twelve years of age, while her 
sister, Charlotte, was eleven. Both girls showed extraordinary interest 
in their studies. They were lovable children, and as their governess 
said "excellent examples in every way" for Henrietta and Caroline 
and Sophia, who were nine, eight and seven years respectively. 

Then the little ones from Canada were a welcome addition to the 
family circle which had been broken for five years. Prancis Gwillim 
was a sturdy little fellow of five years, who in his own esteem was 
most important, for he had "talked to the Indians," and his sister, 
Sophia, who was two years his senior, did not forget to tell those who 
came her way that she too had shared the honor of being introduced 
to the "great red Chief Brant" when he came to see her father at 
Navy Hall. 

In December of 1796, the General determined to accept the ap- 
pointment of Commander-in-Chief at San Domingo. The announce- 
ment came as a shock to Mrs. Simcoe, who felt that her husband was 
not a robust man and the climate of the "West Indies would not 
improve his health. 

This was emphasized in a letter that the General wrote to the 
authorities at the end of the year, asking an assurance from the 
Government that it would provide for his family in case he should 
"perish in the mission which he was about to proceed upon." He 
had pointed out that twice in his life he had been " obliged to quit 
a Southern climate even without contagion to preserve life " and asked 
for the consideration of his claim. 

That it was acceded to is shown by a letter written on December 
6th, 1796, to the Honorable William Pitt, thanking him for giving 
the guarantee that in case of death his family would be provided for. 

In January arrangements were made for his departure for San 
Domingo in the following month ; and his new and arduous duties 
commenced when in March of 1797, he landed at Port au Prince. 
The climate of San Domingo was not propitious; for the scourge 
of yellow fever had played havoc not only with the inhabitants, but 
with many men in the British forces. But the General, as is shown 
in his biography, did much in a short time to re-establish the British 
character in an island that was rank with revolution and insurrec- 
tion, and returned to England in September of 1797 to secure a force 
sufficient to make paramount the authority of British arms. 

His reception at Wolford was a welcome long to be remembered. 
Mrs. Simcoe was delighted to see her husband again in the family 
home. She was anxious ' that his health, which had not been 
improved by residence in a West Indian clime, should be thoroughly 
recuperated by the balmy air of Devon and the regular life at Wolford, 
and it came about as she had wished. 



Just two years had passed when another son was born at Wolford, 
in July, 1798 John Cornwall., the second son of the household. 

Wolford was a centre from which all sorts of enjoyment radiated. 
In the years that followed, the calling days were more like miniature 
court receptions, and a score of carriages of county people at the one 
time was not an unusual sight in front of Wolford Lodge. 

A letter written in 1800 by a Devon lady says, "The drawing-room 
at Wolford on a reception day is most enjoyable, for it is filled 
with well-dressed men and women, for the county people always liked 
the Simcoes." Another letter states that "going to Wolford was like 
going to Court/' 

Though small in stature, Mrs. Simcoe was proud and somewhat 
autocratic in manner, most dignified, and commanding respect. Her 
daughters recognized these characteristics in their mother. They had 
been early taught that absolute obedience was a pre-requisite and that 
what the father and mother ordered was a law unto all concerned. 
Even on entering a room if their mother was present they would 
not dare, so states a Wolford chronicler, who knew Mrs. Simcoe, "to 
sit down without permission." 

In October, 1798, Major-General Simcoe was gazetted a lieuten- 
ant-general and in 1801 was appointed to the command of the garri- 
son at Plymouth in the absence of the Governor and of Lieutenant- 
General Grenville. This new charge took him away from Wolford, but 
as he returned frequently his wife, anxious that he should have every 
opportunity of building up his health, did not look with disfavor 
on this new appointment. 

In the year 1800 a third son was born, Henry Addington, and 
for him Mrs. Simcoe had always a particular affection. The after- 
life of this pattern among men bore silent testimony to the tender 
care and upbringing by a Christian mother. This gifted son was 
born at Plymouth, where the Governor and his wife had been resident 
during December of 1799 until February of 1800. 

Family responsibilities again increased in 1803, when the second 
Katherine was born at Wolford, and in 1804 Anne was born. She 
always declared that she remembered her father, although she was less 
than three years of age when he passed away. 

But from 1800 until 1806, the daily routine of Mrs. Simcoe's 
life was not very varied. She occasionally visited London and was 
generally accompanied by one of her elder daughters. A favorite 
residence in town was at 53 Welbeck Street, fashionable lodgings 
patronized by leading Devon families when visiting town. 

The General's position as commander of the Western Military 
District, which consisted of Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall, 
brought many people to Wolford. The threatened invasion of Britain 
by France had given special importance ' to his District, and all 
orders were issued from Wolford. 

As John Bailey, an old servant who wrote an account of the 
General and his family, says in his narrative, "there were often ten 
or fifteen carriages there in a day, as all the head gentry in Devon-. 



shire visited Wolford and so many officers came on duty for orders. 
I have known three or four Lords staying at Wolford at one time." 

The activities of the day at Wolford always opened with family 
prayer, at which all the household were present. The general read 
the service. "It was somewhat imposing," as a visitor of a century 
ago remarked, "to see the maid-servants headed by the housekeeper, 
and the men-servants, headed by the butler seventeen in all file 
into the dining-room morn and eve and hear the master or the mis- 
tress of the house read and comment on the chapters selected for 
daily worship." To-day the daily routine is the same just as it 
was a hundred years ago when the general and his wife read the 
Holy Writings and knelt at God's altar with their household. 

It is a matter of surprise that the General did not seem to 
know of the condition of his health when he was appointed in July 
of 1806 as commander-in-chief in India. If he did, he said nothing 
to his wife about it. The General had hardly accepted the position 
of commander-in-chief in India when orders came from Downing 
Street for him to proceed to Portugal, to act with the Earl of Bosslyn 
and the Earl of St. Vincent on a special mission to the Court of 
Lisbon; for the British Government had been informed of the in- 
tention of France to invade Portugal. 

This caused Mrs. Simcoe to delay her preparations for India. 
The General had sailed for Portugal and had arrived at Lisbon on 
the 26th of August, 1806. Here he was taken ill, but he was not 
thought to be in a serious condition until the third week in Sep- 
tember, when he was ordered to return to England by his physicians. 

Mrs. Simcoe in the meantime proceeded about the end of Sep- 
tember to London to purchase her outfit for her voyage to the East. 
She was accompanied by her daughter Eliza. But they had hardly 
got settled in London when a letter came from Exeter, stating that 
the General had returned from Portugal and was seriously ill at 
Archdeacon Moore's house in the Cathedral Close at Exeter. A 
hurried departure was made and in less than twenty-four hours by 
coach the mother and her daughter had covered the distance between 
London and Exeter, arriving at the Archdeacon's house a day or so 
before the General's death. 

The story of the journey from Lisbon, his landing at Topsham, 
his arrival and death at Exeter and his burial when the shades of 
evening had fallen at the chapel at Wolford, will be told in another 
volume. It was as a bolt out of the blue for Mrs. Simcoe and her 
family. The daughters Eliza, Charlotte, Henrietta, Caroline and 
Sophia, were old enough to give some comfort to their widowed mother, 
and cheering too was the declaration of Francis Gwillim, then fifteen, 
that it would always be his aim to take pattern from the life of his 
father. John Cornwall, the second son, born in 1798, had died in 
infancy. The other surviving son, Henry Addington, was but five 
years of age as he stood with his sisters and held the hand of Kath- 
erine, his four-year-old sister, at the burial in the twilight of that 
November evening at Wolford. 



The death of General Simcoe brought to Mrs. Simcoe many 
expressions of sympathy. Those high in position, military and civil, 
paid to her their sad tributes for the great loss she had sustained. The 
rich and poor knew that in the passing away of the General they had 
all lost a kindly and generous friend. 

The old-time visitors who had spent pleasant days and weeks at 
Woll'ord manifested in their letters of sympathy the deep regard 
in which they had held the General and how much grief they felt 
for the widowed mother and her children. 

But deep and genuine as was the sympathy, it did not lessen the 
sorrow at Wolford. From what I have been able to learn from those 
who knew Mrs. Simcoe, the death of her husband marked a great 
change in her life. 

She had the younger children to bring up and educate, and occu- 
pied her time in looking after the welfare of her family. Her deep 
interest in those who lived on her estate was constant. She was 
continuous in good works and her endeavors in that direction earned 
for her the respect, regard and love of all those who lived in the 
country surrounding Wolford. 

Francis Gwillim, whose ambition had been to follow in the 
path of his late father and enter the army, was educated with that 
intent, and secured a lieutenancy in the 27th Regiment of Foot in 
1811, when he was in his twenty-first year. 

His regiment was ordered to the Continent under the Viscount 
Wellington, but the service of young Simcoe was not a lengthened 
one; for he was killed in April, 1812, at the siege of Badajoz, and 
was buried upon the field of battle. 

For some years Mrs. Simcoe did not journey far from Wolford. 
Once or twice she visited her birthplace, " Old Court," near Whit- 
church, in Herefordshire ; but from about 1825 her favorite touring 
spot was North Wale?, which she generally visited once a year. 

Sometimes her daughter Caroline accompanied her, and in -all 
these excursions she was attended by her faithful servant, John 
Bailey, whose narrative gives so many incidents and experiences in 
travelling with his mistress. 

After her son, the Rev. Henry Addington, had reached manhood's 
estate and married and had purchased the ancient manor of Penheale 
in Cornwall, Mrs. Simcoe paid him regular visits : but the house 
was not large, the guest chambers were few, so that Mrs. Simcoe 
spent her day with her son and stayed at Launceston, four miles from 
Penheale, every night. 



His first wife was Anne, daughter of Rev. Edward Palmer of 
Moseley, County Worcester. After her death he married Emily, 
daughter of Rev. Horace Mann of Mawgan, County Cornwall. A 
daughter by this second mar- 
riage is Emily, known as 
Mother Emily Clare, Superior 
of the Wantage Sisters Mission, 
Poonah, India. 

Penheale Manor is men- 
tioned in the Doomsday Book. 
It was improved by Mrs. Sim- 
coe about 1830. The dwelling 
was in two distinct divisions 
with a courtyard, dividing two 
parallel wings, which were, in 
_ fact, two houses of different 

rCEV. -H.. A. olMCUJcj. n ^ ^ . 

periods and of architecture. It 
is probable that at the time of Mrs. Simcoe's visits only one part of 
the house was in use. But after the improvements the Rev. Henry 
Addington Simcoe used both parts. He had a printing press in the 
part they called "across." 



(From a Picture in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

Mr. John Henry Vowler-Simcoe, eldest son of the late J. N. 
Vowler of Parnacott, Cornwall, who married Mary Northcote, second 



daughter of the Rev. Henry A. Simcoe, has assumed by Royal License 
the additional surname and arms of Simcoe, and succeeded on the 
death of his uncle, Mr. Samuel Simcoe, to Penheale Manor, Corn- 

John Bailey's description of the tours with Mrs. Simcoe and her 
daughters in North Wales would do credit to the pages of a modern 
travel book. His drive of forty-two miles when Miss Harriet desired 
to go from Beddgelert, on the borders of Carnarvonshire, to Bala in 
Merionethshire, and his return on foot, shows how devoted he was to 
his mistress and her family. 

Cheltenham in Gloucestershire was another favorite place of Mrs. 
Simcoe and her daughters. It was the only place where she made 
lengthened stay from Wolford. Bath was a popular resort in the 
thirties and forties and the daughters of the family always favored 

(From a Drawing by Mi*s Harriet Simcoe.) 

it. Eliza, the eldest daughter, and Caroline, the third daughter, 
resided there about 1852, and both died there. 

Mrs. Simcoe had strong opinions upon the marriage question. 
She herself had not hesitated to enter matrimony when she was 
sixteen years of age, but when it came to a question as to the mar- 
riage of any of her daughters, for some reason or other she always 
opposed it. It must be remembered that all the daughters were 
clever, prepossessing and well-educated women. 

One suitor who pressed his claim without success was the late 
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland of Devonshire, a man of admirable char- 
acter; and two members of the nobility from other counties shared 
a similar fate. Mrs. Simcoe was obdurate. Her word was law, and 
her daughters, rather than incur her displeasure, accepted the situa- 
tion, and all, with one exception, died unmarried. Some years after 
Mrs. Simcoe's death Anne married a Mr. Alford, who resided in 
Herefordshire, but left no issue. 



The three daughters, Eliza, Caroline and Anne, were not only 
proficient in domestic economy, but they inherited a good deal of the 
commonsense that was a feature in the character of both their father 
and mother. In parish work they were indefatigable. Each daugh- 
ter had her own parish one that of Dunkeswell Abbey, another 
Luppit and the third that of Dunkeswell. Every parish had its 
schoolhouse and its teachers, and many of the generations that sur- 
round Wolford to-day, although their lives have fallen into the sere 
and yellow leaf of old age, remember most gratefully what "the young 
ladies" did for them when the primer and the slate pencil were 
essentials in their early training. 


(From a Picture in the J. Ross Robertson collection.) 

" Holv Trinity," Dunkeswell Abbey 'Church, was built by Mrs. 
and the Misses Simcoe in 1842. It is in the Early English style, and 
with the burial ground occupies the site of the ancient abbey, which 
was founded by Lord de Brewer in 1201 for Cistercian monks, who 
were endowed with the manor and other lands. Only a fragment of 
the Abbey now remains. The interior of the 'church is very hand- 
some, with several stained glass windows and columns, the capitals 
of which were carved by the Misses Simcoe. The altars are of carved 
stone by these ladies. 



The Rev. Henry Addington Simcoe, of Penheale Manor, the heir 
to the estate, made frequent visits to Wolford. For him his mother 
had a most affectionate regard. His loving disposition, his exemplary 
character and his earnestness in carrying on Christian work in Eglos- 
kerry, were most gratifying to her. During the last years of his 
mother's life his delight was to spend a few days at Wolford, when 
parish work would permit his absence, and when her end came he 
was with her. As John Bailey in his quaint way writes, " So her last 
day came and she died in a good old age full of days, riches and 

During the last years of her life Mrs. Simcoe did not make any 
prolonged tours. She had always favored Cheltenham, but in 1848-9 
she preferred Sidmouth on the South Devon coast, thirteen miles 
from Wolford, and these trips were not prolonged ones. At Wolford 
during the last summer of her life, when the weather was fine, an 
hour's drive on the estate and its neighborhood refreshed her. 

In the autumn of 1849 her strength began to fail. If weather 
permitted she enjoyed an hour in a wheel chair guided by the faith- 
ful Bailey, but as the old year passed out and the new year entered, 
her family began to see that that day which never changes must 
soon come to her who had sixty-eight years before stood at the altar 
in Buckerall Parish Church. 

On the 17th of January, 1850, at the age of eighty-four years, 
twenty-four of which were in married life and forty-four in widow- 
hood, Elizabeth Posthuma Simcoe passed away. 

The announcement of her death was not unexpected in the county. 
It brought many messages of sympathy from the large circle of 
family friends and expressions of grief and sadness from the ten- 
antry on the estate, and from the people of the parish, all of whom 
had the deepest regard and respect for the family of Simcoe. The 
funeral was attended by the leading families of the county. 

The clergy of the neighboring parishes, the tenantry on the estate, 
the laborers from the farms and the household servants, formed in 
line as the coffin, carried from the main entrance of Wolford, fol- 
lowed by the seven surviving children, Eliza, Caroline, Sophia, 
Henry, Katherine, Charlotte and Anne, was borne through the 
garden walks to the private chapel. 

The impressive service for the dead was read by the Rev. Mr. 
Muller, the Vicar of Dunkeswell, the clergyman who had been most 
attentive to Mrs. Simcoe during her last illness, after which the silent 
gathering re-formed and followed the coffin to the east end of the 
chapel, where in a grave close by that of her husband the body 
was buried. 

Mrs. Simcoe was a genuine Christian. She took a deep interest 
in all matters pertaining to religion and endeavored to practise in 
her daily life the works that are characteristic of a Christian woman. 
She constantly thought not of her own happiness but of the happiness 



of others, and the deep regret in the country-side at her passing 
away justified the expression that she was indeed much loved as the 
Lady of the Manor. 

Her daughter, Anne, in writing to the present Mrs. Simcoe, 
shortly after her mother's death, said: 

"A prominent factor in my mother's character was humility 
humility before God and man. Her retrospect of life would only have 
led her more gratefully to rest all on Christ, feeling she owed all 
to Him. As she says, ' I could not offer a prayer or praise that would 
be accepted but through Jesus Christ our Lord. May I feel daily 
more and more trust in this Saviour, and may Hs quicken and sup- 
port me at the hour of death and on my approach to death.' And 
again, 'Strengthen me, Lord, for my dying hour; may the strength 
of the Lord be my support in that hour of trial.' 

"But for inability now to fathom the unpacked boxes of books, 
I should like to have given some extracts shewing still more strongly 
her feelings on the approach of death, and how entirely she merged 
all feeling of self-reliance on her Saviour, and how completely she 
renounced all goodness and righteousness but His, in whom was all 
her hope." 

After the death of Mrs. Simcoe, the daughters continued to 
reside there for a few months, after which Eliza, Caroline, Sophia 
and Katherine took up their residence at Bath. Charlotte went to 
Leamington and Anne remained at Wolford. 

The Kev. Henry Addington Simcoe, the only surviving son of 
General Simcoe, inherited Wolford, but never lived there. He let 
it from 1851-66. 

The Eev. Henry Addington Simcoe died in November, 1868; 
and as his eldest son, Henry Walcot, died in 1848, Captain John K. 

Simcoe, his second son, in- 
herited Wolford. He died in 

1891, without issue. His 

widow, who resides to-day at 

Wolford, is the only one of, 

the name related to this 

family, living. 

In 1867, when Captain 

John Kennaway Simcoe, 

E.N., the second son of the 

CAPT. J. K. SIMCOE. Eev ' J*eniy Addington Sim-* 
coe of Penheale, married Miss 
Mary Jackson, second daughter of Colonel Basil Jackson, of Glew- 
stone Court, Herefordshire, and an officer of the late Eoyal Staff 
Corps, Wolford once more -had a Simcoe as the master of its house- 
hold, for after his marriage Captain Simcoe rented the estate from 
his father for one year. At the time of his marriage, Captain Sim- 
coe retired from the Navy and settled down as a country gentleman, 
generous in his hospitality, with a large circle of friends. Misst 



Eliza Simcoe had previously left 30,000 for the upkeep of Wolford. 
The estate on the death of Mrs. Simcoe, widow of Captain John 
K. Simcoe, parses into the possession of Mr. Arthur Linton, who is 
descended from the Rev. H. A. Simcoe's eldest daughter, Anne Eliza, 
who married Sedley Bastard Marke, of Woodhill. Their daughter, 
Olive Ann, married Rev. George Linton, Vicar of Corsham in Wilt- 
shire. Their eldest son, Arthur Henry Linton, is heir of the late 
Captain John Kennaway Simcoe, and will succeed to the estate. A 
condition of the inheritance is that he has to take the name and arms 
of Simcoe. 

24 369 


Sunday, the twenty-seventh of January, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and fifty, was a day that was never forgotten during the life- 
time of the children of Mrs. Simcoe and of the parishioners who made 
up the congregation in the parish church of Dunkeswell, when loving 
testimony was paid to the life and works of her who had so recently 
passed away. Every family in the parish was represented, in fact 

(From a Drawing by Afrs. Simcoe.) 

every parishioner was present. It was on the occasion when the 
Rev. John Blackmore, A.M., the rector of Culmstock in Devon, an 
old and esteemed friend of the family, preached a sermon entitled "The 
Christian in Life and Death," on the death of Mrs. Simcoe. It was an 
appreciation well deserved and most acceptable to so many not only 
to those in her family circle but to the people of the parish, who 
were devoted in their esteem for the late Lady of the Manor. 

The sermon was (subsequently) privately printed at the Penheale 
Press, Launceston, by Mrs. Simcoe's only surviving son, the Rev. 
Henry Addington Simcoe. 



The text was: 

"Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth; yea, 
saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works 
do follow them." Rev. xiv., 13. 

The preacher said: 

" I feel, and doubtless you will feel with me, that the occasion of my 
standing in this holy place to-day is one of a deeply solemn and affect- 
ing character, the death the departure rather of a friend esteemed, 
revered, beloved most justly esteemed, most justly revered, most justly 
beloved by us all. Well indeed may we mourn the loss of such a^ friend. 
But it is our privilege, through the grace and mercy of God, 'not to 
mourn as those without hope'; oh, no; we think of the departed, we look 
back at the piety of her life, and see the humble Christian living ' m the 
Lord'- we look at the peacefulness of her death, and see the trusting 


(From a Drairiny by Mita Harriet Simeoe.) 

Christian dying 'in the Lord'; and we look at the volume of God's 
unerring Word, and we hear 'a voice from heaven' proclaiming, 'Blessed 
are the dead which die in the Lord.' ' Blessed are the dead which die 
in the Lord!' Oh, brethren, it is at such seasons as this that the heart 
feels the unspeakable preciousness of such a message from heaven. 
When the thoughts have been dwelling with some departed one in the 
sufferings of sickness, the solitude of the coffin, the silence of the grave, 
with what a sweetness and power of consolation does this ' voice of the 
Spirit ' break upon the soul. ' Blessed are the dead which die in the 
Lord; even so, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours' 
their labours in the Christian warfare, their labours of faith and love 
' and their works do follow them ' widening the reality of their faith 



and the sincerity of their love. Here is comfort, instruction, encour- 
agement for us all; comfort respecting the dear friend whom we lament, 
in the assurance that 'our loss is her eternal gain,' that from sojourning 
with us in the flesh she has passed to a blessedness such as mortal ' eye 
hath not seen, nor ear heard, nor heart conceived '; instruction and encour- 
agement respecting ourselves still left for awhile pilgrims in this earthly 
wilderness, instruction as showing how we may attain the same heavenly 
blessedness, and encouragement in the certainty that we shall attain it 
if we seek it rightly ' in the Lord.' 

" And may the power of the Spirit apply this Word of the Spirit 
effectually to each of us for comfort, instruction and encouragement! 
May the Almighty Spirit be to each of us, as He was to our 'blessed' 
friend, a Spirit of light and life and holiness and, peace! 'Awake, awake, 
and arm of the Lord, put on' put forth 'thy strength'; if there be souls 
here spiritually ' dead in trespasses and sins,' by Thy life-giving energy 
' raise them from the death of sin to the life of righteousness,' and those 
whom Thou hast thus raised vouchsafe to strengthen, establish, sanctify 
more and more; and grant that we may all know, in our own eternal 
experience, how 'blessed are the dead which die in the Lord.' 

'"In the Lord.' How much is implied in these three words! baptism 
and the great change, and the living faith, and the mighty blessings signi- 
fied and sealed by Christian baptism. We find the expression used in the 
New Testament Scriptures to denote the Christian's union with Christ as 
signified and sealed by baptism. Thus Christians are spoken of as ' bap- 
tized into Christ,' the word ' into ' denoting their entering and being 
admitted into that state, being used in connection with baptism, and 
Christians so baptized are spoken of afterwards as being ' in Christ,' ' in 
the Lord.' But the expression implies also the reality through the 
inworking power of the Holy Ghost the reality of that ' death unto sin 
and new birth unto righteousness' of which the baptismal rite is the 
figure, the reality of that cleansing by the blood and Spirit of Christ, of 
which the application of the water is the sign; the reality of that faith 
in Christ, as the Son of God, the Prophet, Priest and King of His people, 
of which baptism is the profession, the real acting out of that living 
faith in Christ through which the believer cleaveth to Christ and followeth 
Christ 'in newness of life,' according to His Word; that faith through 
which ' the inner man,' receiving ' nourishment ' from Christ, bringeth 
forth 'the fruits of the Spirit' of Christ, even as the branch in the vine, 
receiving living sap from the vine, produces the fruits of the vine. Thus 
was our departed friend ' in the Lord,' baptized with water, and with 
the Holy Spirit, having not only the sign, but also ' the thing signified,' 
showing not only the possession, but also the possession and the power of 
true faith. And thus, living ' in the Lord,' she died ' in the Lord,' and ' in 
the Lord ' she ' liveth for evermore.' 

" In thus speaking of the departed I speak not to her praise, but to 
the praise of that 'grace of God' by which she was what she was; praise 
while living she would have disclaimed and deprecated; praise when 
dead she needeth not; in the sight of God and in the memory of man 
' her works do follow her.' And oh, how utterly less than nothing must 
be all praise or dispraise from man when the blessed spirit has heard 
from the adorable Redeemer, the everlasting Judge, ' Well done, good and 
faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.' 

"But I would direct your attention to a few particulars respecting 
her, the consideration of which may tend, with God's blessing, to promote 
an object which lay near her heart while she lived, and which, if the 
spirits above can take any interest in things below, she would now desire 
most especially to have promoted, namely, the welfare the spiritual and 
eternal welfare of her fellow-creatures. And for this purpose 1 shall 
speak not of her powers of mind, or soundness of judgment, or decision 



of character (natural endowments given perhaps in the same measure 
but to few), but rather of those 'fruits of the Spirit' to which, through 
the same Divine Spirit, all Christians should aspire, and in seeking, 
cherishing and manifesting which we are all called to ' follow her good 
example.' The subject indeed is large, important, holy and glorious; 
and I feel myself utterly unequal to it, unable to do anything like justice 
to it; but I would desire to look humbly to Him whose ' strength is made 
perfect in the weakness of man,' and who alone can work in any of us 
that ' power of godliness ' which we are privileged to contemplate in 
remembering our honoured friend. 

"You know that the grand leading feature in her character was 
religion true, practical godliness. In the ordering of her affairs, the 
management of her household, the employment of her means, the habits 
of her daily life, might be seen the guiding, governing influence of 
religion; there was evidently a higher principle and a nobler object than 
merely temporal things could supply, evidently a looking to something 
beyond the applause of man, the gratification of sense, the possessions of 
earth; a looking to things spiritual, invisible, eternal; a regard for the 
will, the favour, approval and glory of God in Christ Jesus, flowing forth 
in works of piety towards God, and of benevolence and beneficence to 
men, ' adorning the doctrine of the Saviour,' and the church of which 
she was a faithful member. I believe that the finest type, the highest 
exemplification, of the Christian character is to be found in the true, 
sound, consistent member of the Protestant Church of England, and such 
was our revered friend, a true Church of England woman and, as such, a 
true Christian in principle and in practice, in faith and in works. Her 
works, her practice, you all know, approve, admire; trace them to their 
sources, the principles from which they sprung; and let us remember, it 
is only as we have the same principles that we can have the like char- 
acter on earth, the like blessedness in heaven. These principles, then, 
in her case were those religious principles which are called evangelical. 
On this point we have her own testimony. I am privileged to hold here 
a statement, written by herself more than thirty years ago, by which 
' tho' dead she yet speaketh ' for our instruction and profit; and a most 
valuable testimony it is, not only to the fundamental importance of those 
scriptural truths which the world so often despises, but also to the sound- 
ness of her own faith and the unquestionable certainty of her present and 
eternal blessedness. Hear her words: 'Now while my senses are perfect, 
I will declare that I trust and expect to die in those evangelical prin- 
ciples which form the happiness of my life, and I trust and hope will do 
of my death.' Observe this remarkable declaration made, as from a 
special regard to God's glory, ' while her senses ' all her powers of mind 
and judgment 'were perfect'; intellectual faculties there were of a high 
order, the tastes of an elegant, cultivated and accomplished mind, ample 
means for their gratification, the possession of earthly affluence, the 
enjoyment of domestic life, the affection of dutiful children, the attach- 
ment of numerous friends, the respect and esteem of all the neighbour- 
hood, the consciousness of a life spent in the paths of honour, virtue, 
integrity and usefulness; yet none of these things are spoken of as 
especially constituting her happiness, but those religious principles which 
are called evangelical. Nor are we left in doubt as to what she meant 
by 'evangelical principles'; her own statement is in substance this: 'By 
evangelical principles I mean a humiliating estimate of our moral con- 
dition as radically corrupt, and of ourselves unable even to think a good 
thought; a condition also that the death of Christ is an all-sufficient 
sacrifice and atonement for our sins, whereby those who believe in Him 
are saved from the curse of God's broken law, and have His righteous- 
ness imputed to them; and a conviction that by the power of the Holy 
Spirit we are alone enabled to feel any good desires, or to do those works 



which are the evidences to ourselves that our calling is sure, and that 
we have been blessed by divine grace with a living faith.' These ' evan- 
gelical principles,' comprehending (be it remembered) a deep, heartfelt 
conviction of three great truths, namely, our utterly corrupt and lost state 
by nature, justification through the atoning sacrifice and perfect 
righteousness of Christ, and sanctification by the regenerating power of 
the Holy Ghost these are the very principles revealed in Holy Scripture, 
maintained in the Articles and Homilies of our reformed Church, and 
inwrought into the substance of all our Church services. Wherefore? 
Doubtless that by God's blessing they might be inwrought in all our 
liearts, and become the substantial elements of our character. God grant 
they may be so more and more! The following language of our dear 
friend, respecting the individual she was then addressing, just expresses 
what, I am sure, would have been her desire for us all: 'I earnestly pray 
that the power of God may (for no other power can) make you to taste 
of these principles.' 

" And now observe the effects, the actual manifested influence, of 
these principles in our departed friend, whose heart and mind were 
impressed with them and made, in her own expressive language, ' to taste 
of them.' You know her habitual happy cheerfulness of mind, her happy 
freedom from carking care and disquieting anxieties. Mark, then, the 
source and support of that happiness. You remember her own words, 
that her ' evangelical principles formed the happiness of her life, and 
her hope and trust were that they would form the happiness of her 
death.' Nor was that a vain hope, that trust was not disappointed; those 
divine principles, which dissipated the dark clouds and let in the full, 
cheerful sunshine on her pathway of life, shed a bright and beautiful 
radiance along 'the dark valley of the shadow of death'; 'the Lord,' her 
well-known and beloved ' Shepherd,' who for many a year with unfailing 
care had ' fed her in the green pasture and led her forth beside the waters 
of comfort,' He was still with her, and gave her to know and feel the 
truth of those words which she had often uttered with the lips in this 
place, and which we have heard again this morning 

' I pass the gloomy vale of death, 

From fear and danger free, 
For there His aiding rod and staff 
Defend and comfort me.' 

But observe her testimony further on this point :' Before these principles 
were, by the blessing of God, impressed on my mind, I thought of death 
with terror, and was never composed in my mind respecting either tem- 
poral or eternal concerns.' 

" There may possibly be persons here who make light of what are 
called ' evangelical principles,' speaking of them perhaps, as I have heard 
them spoken of, with a sort of scornful contempt as indicating weakness 
of mind. Consider this remarkable testimony. You know something of 
the mind which gave it a mind distinguished by superior acuteness, 
clearness, strength, solidity, soundness, soberness yet, according to its 
own deliberate and unquestionable testimony, 'until these evangelical 
principles were, by God's blessing, impressed on it,' that mind was ' never 
composed respecting either temporal or eternal concerns, and never 
thought of death but with secret feelings of terror.' And that was per- 
fectly natural and reasonable; such were reasonably the feelings of the 
human heart knowing something of its sinfulness and of the holiness and 
justice of the Almighty Judge. And if you think at all seriously of your 
sins, and of the infinite holiness and justice of Him who is coming to be 
your Judge, such would be your feelings. I am speaking perhaps to some 
whose feelings are such; disquieted midst the uncertainties of life, 



shrinking with secret dread from the prospect of death. The time was 
when our 'blessed' friend felt even so; but she found relief, deliverance, 
from such tormenting fears, and composure, peace, happiness, were her 
portion in life and in death. How? From the power of those religious 
principles which are called evangelical. And it is only from the influence 
of the same principles that you can find the like deliverance, the like ' rest 
for your own soul.' 

" We read in the 13th Chapter of the Book of Numbers that among 
the Israelites in the wilderness of Paran were exhibited a large, magnifi- 
cent cluster of rich grapes, and beautiful pomegranates and figs; but they 
did not grow in that wilderness; a Caleb and Joshua had been in the 
promised land, and plucked them in the valley of Eschol, and brought 
them to stimulate and cheer and encourage their brethren in the wilder- 
ness with such earnests of the goodness of that land: so the happiness, 
cheerfulness and peace which adorned our dear friend's earthly course 
were not of earthly origin; they sprung, not from the natural stock of 
mental endowments or moral virtue, but from the spiritual root of evan- 
gelical principles; her faith had laid hold on the Saviour, and through 
Him had penetrated the land of promise and gathered of the heavenly 
fruits, and showed them as beautiful specimens of the richness and blessed- 
ness of that inheritance. Wherefore? That we might be stimulated and 
cheered and encouraged to ' press toward the prize of our high calling 
in Christ,' to seek and cherish a ' like precious faith with her,' that we 
also might be ' filled with peace and joy in believing.' Oh, seek that 
faith; seek the living power of those 'evangelical principles' of the 
blessedness of which we have seen such delightful evidence; seek more 
and more, from the teaching of God's Word and Spirit, a humbling con- 
viction of your utterly corrupt, lost and helpless state through sin, a 
realizing knowledge of the fulness and freeness of salvation ' by grace 
through faith in Christ,' and an experimental acquaintance with the 
enlightening, renewing, sanctifying power of 'the Spirit of life in Christ 

" If you are a stranger to these things, if your ' mind has not been 
impressed,' if your heart has not been made in any measure ' to taste of 
these principles,' what hope have you? What peace, what happiness in 
prospect of death, judgment and eternity? I may possibly be speaking 
to some who know nothing practically of these principles, living just as 
they might have lived if Christ had never died for them, having, it may 
be, 'the form of godliness, but denying the power thereof; while some 
perhaps are altogether careless, thoughtless, indifferent, worldly; and 
some perhaps outwardly and openly ungodly oh, as a minister of that 
Saviour who hath loved you and given Himself for your redemption, let 
me speak a word to you, and may the Holy Spirit enable me to speak 'a 
word in season'; may the Spirit carry the word with power to the heart, 
to the soul, to the conscience, that there may be an awakening, an alarm, 
a conviction of danger, a fleeing to the Saviour, a ' laying hold upon the 
hope set before us in Christ.' You know that you have a soul, an immortal 
soul, which must either be saved or lost; you know that you must live 
forever in the perfection of happiness, or in the perfection of agony; and 
doubtless you sometimes think of this when some friend or neighbour 
dies, when you see the grave open, or hear the bell tolling for the funeral 
of another, then perhaps the thought arises that you also must die, that 
your turn will come, that the hour is drawing near how near you cannot 
tell when death will lay his hand on you, when your limbs will become 
cold, motionless, stiff in death, your heart cease to beat, your breath cease 
to be drawn, your ears be closed, your eyes dimmed and darkened in death; 
when your body will be wrapped in the shroud, nailed up in the coffin, 
buried in the grave, and your soul will have returned to God, the Judge of 
all. And then come thoughts of the resurrection day and the final judg- 



ment day, the outbursting of the divine glory in the heavens, the appearing 
of the Lord Jesus in the clouds, ' revealed in flaming fire,' and the showing 
of the heavenly host and the ' trump of the archangel,' and above all the 
mighty voice of the Lord Himself penetrating the depths of earth and 
sea; and the opening of the graves, and the rising of the dead the rising 
of your body reunited to the soul, and yourself standing before 'the 
great white throne,' and ' the books opened,' and ' every secret thing 
brought to light," and the eye of the Judge fixed on you, and the sentence 
of the Judge pronounced on you, and your eternal portion declared, 
assigned, entered on where? With the saved or lost? With the blessed 
or the damned? Oh, when such thoughts arise, when such solemn events 
are present to your mind, do you not feel that the one thing, the one great 
object which above all others most deeply concerns you, is to escape the 
damnation of hell, to attain the blessedness of heaven? Shall it be so? 



the J. Ross Robertson Collecti 

Then, ' by the blessing of God,' must your ' mind be impressed with,' your 
heart 'made to taste of,' these great 'evangelical' truths; then, as a 
humbled, guilty, penitent sinner must you flee to Christ for refuge, and 
find forgiveness and acceptance through His atoning blood and perfect 
righteousness, and become ' a new creature ' in Him, renewed, sanctified 
by the Spirit of life in Him. So our departed friend fled to Him, sought 
Him, was found of Him, and blessed with salvation by Him. And He is 
willing to be found of you and to bless you, if only you seek Him and 
come to Him with humble, believing, praying, submissive hearts. Hear 
His own gracious words (Matt. 11: 28), 'Come unto me, all ye that labour 
and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest; take my yoke upon you and 
learn of me, and ye shall find rest for your souls.' And again He says 
(John 6; 37), 'Him that cometh unto me I will in no wise cast out.' Oh, 
be persuaded, be encouraged to come to the Saviour while He thus invites 
you, while He yet 'waits to be gracious.' Oh, 'be wise, consider your 



latter end, and seek the Lord while He may be found,' that your latter 
end may be like hers whose death, you know, was full of peace, and whose 
resurrection will be full of glory. 

" Let me remind you further that ' those evangelical principles which 
formed the happiness of her life ' and ' of her death,' separated our friend 
from the vain pursuits, pleasures and amusements of the world. You 
know that she walked not in such ways; not because she had naturally 
no taste for such things, not because as a Christian she cut herself off 
from all pleasure, but because her principles raised her to higher and 
greater and better pleasures; her faith laid hold on nobler and loftier 
objects, and found delight in them. The toys of childhood delight the 
child; but the man, as the apostle expresses it, 'puts away childish 
things,' not because he has no pleasures, but because he has other and 
higher pleasures; so the toys of the world may delight ' the children of the 
world,' but the Christian, realizing in faith the great truths of the Gospel, 
leaves such things, because he finds delight in other and heavenly things; 
as St. Paul tells us (Rom. 8: 5), ' They that are after the flesh do mind the 
things of the flesh, but they that are after the Spirit the things of the 
Spirit.' Hear our Christian friend's testimony. Referring to the great 
truths of the Gospel, she says: 'If an individual really believed these 
things he could not pass so much of his time in the anxieties and dis- 
quietudes ' (and doubtless she would have added, the vanities) ' of earthly 
things, and spend comparatively so little thought upon the things of 
eternity.' In faith her ' thoughts ' dwelt much ' on the things of eternity,' 
not with feelings of doubt, disquietude and dread, but with an assured 
hope and expectation of a blessed inheritance there through that Saviour 
whose love she knew, and whom she loved, and that, be it remembered, 
not from any natural superiority or amiableness of disposition, but from 
the influence of the divine Spirit. Hear her again: 'Until a right spirit 
be implanted in us, which worketh by love, that we should love Him who 
died for us, we shall not delight in piety, but perform works of piety 
from duty rather than from pleasure; until we feel a love of Christ and 
communion with God through Him, what delight can we feel in the expec- 
tation of meeting our God?' This is an important and precious passage; 
it opens to us the source and substance of her especial pleasure and 
delight in ' piety and the works of piety, in communion with God, and in 
the expectation of meeting her God'; and that from 'a right spirit im- 
planted ' not inborn, observe her language, but ' implanted,' produced 
by the power of the Holy Ghost in connection with the ' evangelical ' 
truths before referred to. Now consider how blessed must have been her 
state of mind; and think not. that religion true, evangelical religion 
would make you gloomy and melancholy, and cut you off from all enjoy- 
ment of pleasure; it would separate you from vain pleasures, but only to 
give you other pleasures, better, higher, purer, permanent, substantial, 
eternal. Oh, seek to have that right spirit implanted, sustained, 
strengthened, more and more in you, that you may ' delight yourself in 
the Lord ' and in the ways of the Lord, and when called to ' meet God ' 
you may ' rejoice and be glad in Him ' as your God and Father in Christ 

" Nor were these the only effects of ' evangelical truth ' in that 
'blessed' disciple of whom I am now speaking; her faith was that 'which 
worketh by love,' and it showed its reality and power in a readiness 'to 
every good work.' Her good works need not be spoken of by me in this 
place, they are known to you all, felt and remembered by you all; you 
know that wherever among yourselves or your neighbours might be suffer- 
ing or sorrow, want or woe, there was a kind friend (and, thanks to the 
Giver of all good, her mantle descends, her spirit rests on others who 
bear her honoured name), a friend whose heart was ever touched with 
compassion, whose hand was ever open to help and relieve. Nor were 
her labours of love confined to the neighbourhood; by various means, 



through private individuals and public societies, her bounty flowed forth 
to our country, our colonies, and to the heathen world, contributing to 
lessen the mass of human misery, and to bring Jews and Gentiles to the 
knowledge and love and service of her Saviour. 

" Time would fail me to speak of the manifold fruits which clustered 
richly and beautifully on the faith of this devoted follower of Christ; but 
I would just advert to her great humility. Year after year she grew in 
grace, in holiness, in the enjoyment of the power and peace of true 
religion; and that was accompanied and widened by growing humility, a 
sure accompaniment of a real work of grace in the heart; there was not 
the ' stand by, for I am holier than thou,' nor ' my tower is so strong 
that I shall never be moved,' but a humbling remembrance of her own 
continual weakness, arising from an enlightened knowledge of her heart's 
deceitfulness and proneness to unbelief. As the divine light showed her 
more and more of her God, her Redeemer, and her Sanctifier, it showed 
her more and more her own sinfulness in the sight of God, her constant 
need of the Saviour's cleansing blood, and of the Holy Spirit's renewing 
and upholding power. And so it will be with the true Christian; as he 
advances in holiness, he will become more and more sensible of his own 
unholiness. You may have observed in a room that where a beam of 
sunlight shines with peculiar brightness little particles of dust, before 
invisible, are seen floating in the air; the light does not cause them to 
be there, but shows that they are where all before seemed pure. So, as 
the light of truth and holiness shines more and more brightly in the 
heart, evils will be discerned which were not perceived before; and, view- 
ing and examining himself in that light, the Christian will be kept lowly 
on his knees at the foot of the Cross. So it was with our departed friend. 
Hear her words once more: 'Those who most thoroughly examine their 
own hearts best know the difficulty and extent of belief ' (the true work- 
ing realizing faith in God's word), 'how prone man is to do otherwise' 
(otherwise than act out Christian faith in all its various bearings and 
applications), 'how deceitful is our heart in this case.' And doubtless the 
following language expressed her own experience, for the great enemy 
would not have left such a servant of God untried: 'Satan uses every 
means to shake our faith in Christ, knowing it to be our only source of 
happiness here, and that the stronger our faith is the freer we are from 
his yoke and influence.' How true is this! The Christian's spiritual life, 
strength, holiness, happiness, depend on his ' faith in Christ.' And she 
adds: 'Let our daily prayer be Lord, I believe; help Thou mine un- 
belief.' There spake her humility and her faith, looking in prayer to 
the Lord as able to help her unbelief and to keep her from falling. And 
observe where was her strength, her help, her defence, only ' in the Lord.' 
The corruption, deceitfulness, unbelief of her heart .she knew, and who 
can tell the manifold struggles and conflicts of her protracted Christian 
warfare? But she knew with the Psalmist, 'Unto whom to lift up her 
eyes for help,' and with the Psalmist she found that ' the Lord Himself 
was her keeper, her helper, her defender.' She found that ' as the hills 
stood about Jerusalem, even so standeth the Lord round about His people 
for evermore.' But observe how she found this help from the Lord in 
the faithful use of appointed means, seeking the blessing of the Lord in 
the ordinances of the Lord as they are observed and ministered in our 
branch of His Church. For with all her growing in grace and godliness 
(and well will it be for us if we grow up, in our measure, towards the 
fulness of her stature in Christ!), with all her spiritual growth, this 
eminent Christian never grew above the Church of England, as many seem 
in the imagination of their minds to suppose respecting themselves; a 
spirit of true piety kept her in a state of true humility, manifesting the 
feelings expressed by those words of the Psalmist which we have heard 
this morning, ' I was glad when they said unto me, let us go into the 
house of the Lord.' You know how regularly, constantly, devoutly she 



used to come here ' into the house of the Lord,' how, when her own 
strength failed, she used the help of others' strength to come ' into the 
house of the Lord,' the weakness of the body presenting an emblem of 
the humility of the soul leaning on the arm of the Lord Jesus, and ' rest- 
ing on the arm of that Beloved One coming up more and more from the 
wilderness ' of corrupt nature, and drawing nearer and nearer to the 
heavenly temple. And oh, that all partook of and manifested the same 
spirit of humble dependence on the Lord's help, diligently seeking the 
Lord's blessing in the ordinances of the Lord's house! But alas! how 
many neglect these things! How many, permitted to enjoy full bodily 
strength, pervert that strength to other purposes, and use it not in coming 
regularly ' to the house of the Lord,' while others make a measure of 
weakness which might be assisted an excuse for staying away from ' the 
house and the ordinances of the Lord!' No wonder if in such cases the 
soul be left unfed, unstrengthened, to sink, and languish and die. Beware, 
that it be not so with any of you; seek food, nourishment, strength for 
your souls where our devout friend sought and found it, in the ordinances 
of the Lord's house, and that not only from the sermon, but also from and 
through the prayeis. The preaching of the word she highly valued, and 
so likewise the prayers; as a humble disciple not only, with Mary, 'sitting 
at Jesus' feet to hear His word,' but also, with the leper, ' kneeling before 
Him to supplicate His mercy, power and blessing, both in the holy sacra- 
ment of His Supper, and in the Sunday prayers with the congregation; 
and thus her lamp was fed and kept brightly burning with oil from the 
sanctuary. The prayers of our Church indeed she specially loved, not 
with a blind, bigoted attachment, but with an intelligent, enlightened 
regard, knowing them to be sound, scriptural, spiritual, suited to the soul's 
wants, and, when rightly used, profitable to the soul's welfare. In the use 
of them she found good for her soul, and a great stay to her sinking 
spirit midst the increasing infirmities of the flesh; and the testimony of 
one who was with her to the last is ' that amidst restlessness and pain and 
decay the Church prayers would arrest her attention and be fervently 
joined in ' those tried and well-known helps in the daytime of life, still 
ministering help at eventide when the night of death came on. 

" And now she ' joins in prayer ' no longer, such helps and stays she 
needs no more; upheld, sustained unto the end of her course, comforted 
with abundant peace, and finally strengthened unto complete and glorious 
victory, her happy spirit hath escaped from ' the burden of the flesh ' 
this prison-house of clay, gladly escaped ' like a bird from the fowler.' 
The fetters are all broken, and the emancipated spirit has taken its flight 
up to realms of bliss and blessedness beyond the reach of our present 
faculties, whither we can now only follow her in thought, in faith, in 
thanksgiving and praise. Human imagination cannot fully conceive, 
human tongue cannot describe, the blessedness ' of the spirits of the just 
made perfect ' to attempt doing so would be only to mar its glory and 
dim its splendour. Even the language of inspiration, with all its mag- 
nificent grandeur and sublimity, fails us here; even the beloved John, 
'who lay in Jesus' bosom,' says, 'we know not what we shall be'; even 
the favoured Paul, who was ' caught up to the third heaven,' tells us that 
the words which he heard in paradise were ' unutterable words,' the very 
expresssion of the joys of the blessed spirits surpassing the power of 
human utterance! Yet it is good to think of that blessedness, though we 
are lost in utter inability to comprehend it; it is good in believing thought 
to muse upon it, to have the mind raised to the contemplation of it; 
good to know and remember that blessedness unspeakable, unalloyed, un- 
interrupted, unfailing, unending, eternal, only to be increased and per- 
fected at the resurrection in the union of the glorified body with the 
glorified soul blessed with the entire fulness of blessedness in the presence 
of God for evermore; such is the blessedness in which our faith can con- 



template, and rejoice to contemplate, our esteemed, revered, beloved and 
blessed friend! All, be it remembered, through Christ, the Saviour of 
sinners; all from the love, the free and undeserved love, of God in Christ 
Jesus. That love it was which, in its eternal counsels, gave the everlast- 
ing Son for this 'blessed' one's redemption; that love sought her in her 
natural state of alienation, awakened her to a sense of her sinfulness, 
led her to the knowledge of the Saviour, and enabled her in faith to lay 
hold on the hope set before her in Christ, and to find pardon and peace 
through His blood and righteousness, and strength and holiness in the 
spirit of life in Him; that love watched over her, guided, defended, sus- 
tained, upheld, comforted her in all her weakness, wants, difficulties, 
dangers, trials, tribulations, sufferings and sorrows; it 'led her all her 
journey through, safe to her journey's end,' and when she reached ' the 
verge of Jordan,' that love was there, like the ark with the Israelites of 
old, and its everlasting arms clave asunder the dark waters and bore her 
spirit through triumphant to join the company of the blessed gone before. 
"And who will follow? who will follow? Oh, may I, may you, follow 
her as she followed the Saviour, follow her in ' faith and patience ' here to 
'the inheritance of the promises' hereafter; may we receive the truth in 
the love and the power of the truth as she received it, and live the truth 
in the humble and faithful practice of the truth as she lived ' in the Lord.' 
Oh, come, let us follow, in Christ, ' the way' towards the heavenly Canaan; 
if you have not yet entered on the heavenward path, oh, enter now; away 
with your carelessness, your worldliness, your ungodliness; whatever it 
be that is keeping you from the Saviour, cast it from you, and in humble 
penitence and prayer and faith come to Christ, and set your face heaven- 
ward, and follow on to know and serve the Lord; and if you have 
through grace entered on that ' narrow ' but blessed way, press forward, 
be stimulated, cheered, encouraged to press forward with renewed vigour 
and watchfulness and hope; the 'blessed' friend who has gone before 
beckons and calls you on, she points to the love and power that were 
all-sufficient for her, as all-sufficient for you. Oh, brethren, come; the 
same divine, unfailing love invites, awaits, encourages us; the love of the 
Father bids us come, the love of the Saviour will receive us, the love of 
the Sanctifier, ' the Holy Ghost the Comforter,' will help us. Oh, then 
come; in faith and prayer and humble submission flee to this redeeming 
love, cleave to it, trust to it, follow its heavenward guidance, depend on 
its unfailing promises, and though difficulties and dangers, and tribula- 
tions and trials, and enemies from within and without stand in the way, 
'who shall separate us from the love of Christ?' Oh, if we have any- 
thing of the apostle's faith, as our departed friend had, we may take up 
the apostle's triumphant language and say, ' I am persuaded that neither 
death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things 
present, nor things to come, nor height nor depth, nor any other creature, 
shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus 
our Lord.' And to Him, with our lips now and in our lives day by day, 
in our words and works, our faith and practice, let us humbly ascribe 
all honour and praise and power and glory for ever and ever." 



Mrs. Simcoe's will was proved on the 19th of March, 1850. It 
was originally made in 1840, and her son, the Rev. H. A. Simcoe, and 
the Rev. John Clarke were appointed executors. 

The first codicil is dated the 30th of March, 1841, and makes a 
new disposition of the land at Dunkeswell Abbey, in the parish of 

The second codicil is dated the 9th of October, 1843, anu adds the 
name of the late Honourable Sir J. T. Coleridge, afterwards Lord 
Coleridge, as an executor in conjunction with her son, Rev. H. A. 
Simcoe, and Rev. John Clarke. 

The third codicil is dated the ?th of January, 1848, two years 
before her death. The Rev. John Clarke having died, she appointed 
Francis George Coleridge, son of Sir J. T. Coleridge, to act in con- 
junction with the Rev. H. A. Simcoe and Sir J. T. Coleridge as 

The copy of the will is extracted from the Principal Registry of 
the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division of the High Court of 
Justice in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 

I, ELIZABETH POSTHUMA SIMCOE of Wolford Lodge in the 
county of Devon widow do make publish and declare this to be my last 
will and testament in writing in manner and form following that is 
to say in conformity to the wish of my late deceased husband John 
Graves Simcoe expressed in his will and pursuant to and in exercise 
and execution of the several powers and authorities to me given or in 
me vested either under all or any of the several Indentures of Settlement 
executed by us or by my late aunt Margaret Graves widow or under 
any other deed settlement will or writing whatsoever or me in any other 
manner thereto in anywise enabling I do by this my last will and 
testament in writing by me executed in the presence of and attested 
by the credible persons whose names are hereto subscribed as witnesses 
attesting my execution hereof give devise bequeath direct limit appoint 
and dispose of all and every sum and sums of money in whomsoever 
vested and whether invested or standing in any of the public stocks or 
funds or on mortgage or any other securities or whether arising or 
produced by or from the sale of any tenement lands or hereditaments in 
such settlement deed will or writing comprised or by any other means 
whereof I have any power of disposal unto and amongst my several 
daughters by my said husband in manner and in the parts and proportions 
following that is to say unto my daughters Eliza Charlotte Henrietta 
Maria Caroline and Sophia Jemima so much of the said trust monies 



respectively as will amount unto and raise the sum of five thousand 
pounds for each of them and to my two youngest daughters Katherine 
and Ann (the latter of whom was born after the date and execution 
of my said husband's Will) so much of the said trust monies respec- 
tively as will amount unto and raise the sum of six thousand pounds for 
each of them and which said last mentioned sums I do appoint to them 
my said two youngest daughters Katherine and Ann to the intent that 
all my said daughters may be provided for in equal degree they my said 
daughters Eliza Charlotte Henrietta Maria Caroline Sophia Jemima 
having received legacies under the will of my late Aunt Margaret 
Graves widow and being entitled to other legacies payable at my death 
from my late Aunt Sophia Gwillim out of my Herefordshire property 
but inasmuch as under my said husband's will the power hereinafter 
mentioned of charging the estate with the payment of any provision 
for any of my said daughters may be limited and restrained to the sum 
of five thousand pounds for any one of them I do by this my said will 
direct limit and appoint that my executors hereinafter named shall raise 
and levy two several sums of one thousand pounds each in part of and 
to make up the said sums of six thousand pounds for each of my said 
youngest daughters by and out of the monies which at my death shall 
be invested in the funds or on mortgage either in my name or in the 
names of the trustees named in the said Indentures of Settlement and 
shall pay and apply the same in discharge of so much of the said two 
sums of six thousand pounds and I do by this my said will further 
direct order limit and appoint that the several trustees in whose names 
such several trust monies are or may be vested shall call in such parts 
thereof as are in the public funds or are on mortgage and apply the 
same agreeably to the intent of this my will in and towards discharge 
of the legacies hereby by me given and in case such monies so in the 
public funds or on mortgage or other security may not be adequate to 
the making up of the whole of the said legacies and provision for my 
said several daughters I do by this my said will executed and attested 
as aforesaid pursuant to and in exercise of the power and authority 
given for that purpose to me in and by the will of my said late husband 
and of all and every other power and powers me hereunto in any wise 
enabling subject and charge the residuary real estate by his said will 
given and devised to and with the payment to my said several daughters 
of such proportion of the respective sums of money hereby given or 
appointed to them as such trust money shall fall short or be deficient 
to make up for the portions or fortunes of my several daughters as 
aforesaid and I do by this my said will appoint and charge that such 
deficiency shall be made good to my said daughters respectively out 
of such residuary real estate I give to my said daughter Eliza my prints 
pictures plate books china linen wine horses cows carts carriages house- 
hold goods and other furniture bank notes cash in Biddulph's Bank and 
lastly in pursuance and in execution and exercise of all and every power 
and powers either under my said husband's will or under or by virtue 
of any settlement or settlements or in any other manner whatsoever 
vested in me I do by this my said will by me executed and attested 
as aforesaid give devise bequeath direct order limit appoint and dispose 
of all and singular my mesuages tenements farms buildings closes lands 
hereditaments and all the rest residue and remainder of my real and 
personal estate monies securities for money goods and effects what- 
soever wheresoever not hereinbefore given and bequeathed and of which 
I have any power of disposal subject to my debts and funeral expenses 



and also subject to and charged and chargeable with the payment of 
the said several portions or fortunes to my said several daughters herein- 
before given appointed or provided for them or intended so to be or 
such part or parts thereof as the trust monies hereinbefore mentioned 
shall fall short of paying and which I will and direct shall in every event 
be fully paid and satisfied and also all and every sum and sums of 
money trust estate and effects whatsoever in and by the said Indentures 
of Settlement or either of them or by my said husband's Will or in any 
other manner settled and not by me disposed of as aforesaid unto the 
use of my son Henry Addington Simcoe his heirs executors administrators 
and assigns to and for his and their own absolute use and benefit and 
I do hereby make constitute and appoint my son the said Henry Addington 
Simcoe and the Revd John Clarke to be joint EXECUTORS of this my 
last will and testament hereby revoking all former and other wills by 
me heretofore made and ratifying and confirming this to be my last. 
IN WITNESS whereof 1 the said Elizabeth Posthuma Simcoe the testa- 
trix have to this my last will and testament set my hand and seal this 
eleventh day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 

hundred and forty ELIZABETH POSTHUMA SIMCOE (L S) - 

SIGNED and declared to be the last will and testament of the within 
named Elizabeth Posthuma Simcoe in her presence and at her request 
and in the presence of each other have subscribed our names witness 
thereto - - JAMES TEMPLE MANSEL Clerk Curate of Dunkeswell 
in the county of Devon JOHN BURKE Clerk Vicar of Kilalgan Co 
Galway Ireland. 

I, ELIZABETH POSTHUMA SIMCOE do hereby publish and declare 
this a CODICIL to my last will and testament dated the eleventh day 
of September 1840 hereto annexed I give devise and bequeath all my 
lands and estate whether freehold, or leasehold situated at Dunkeswell 
Abbey in the parish of Dunkeswell unto my daughters Eliza Simcoe and 
Caroline Simcoe their heirs executors administrators and assigns as 
joint tenants. And I do hereby revoke all and every devise and disposi- 
tion of my said lands and estate contained in my said will IN WITNESS 
whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this thirtieth day of 
March in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one 
- E P SIMCOE (L S) - - SIGNED published and declared by the 
said Elizabeth Posthuma Simcoe to be a codicil to her last will and 
testament in our presence who in her presence and in the presence of 
each other have subscribed our names as witnsses thereto - - PHILIP 

THIS IS A SECOND CODICIL to the last will and testament of 
me ELIZABETH POSTHUMA SIMCOE of Wolford Lodge in the county 
of Devon widow which will bears date the eleventh day of September in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and forty. Whereas I am desirous 
of naming the Honourable Sir John Taylor Coleridge Knight one of the 
Justices of Her Majesty's Court of Queen's Bench an EXECUTOR of my 
said will to act in the execution thereof in conjunction with my son 
Henry Addington Simcoe and the Reverend John Clarke the executors 
therein named I do therefore hereby appoint the said Sir John Taylor 
Coleridge one of the EXECUTORS of my said will and I direct that my 
said will shall be read and construed as if the name of the said Sir John 
Taylor Coleridge had been originally inserted therein together with the 
names of the said Henry Addington Simcoe and John Clarke and I 
confirm my said will and the codicil thereunto annexed except as afore- 
said IN WITNESS whereof I have hereunto set my hand this ninth 



day of October one thousand eight hundred and forty three E P 

SIMCOE SIGNED by the said Elizabeth Posthuma Simcoe as and for 

a codicil to her last will and testament in the presence of us present at 
the same time who in her presence and at her request have hereunto 

subscribed our names as witnesses J D COLERIDGE Exeter College 

Oxford FRAS GEO COLERIDGE Ottery >St Mary Solr 

THIS IS A THIRD CODICIL to the last will and testament of 
me ELIZABETH POSTHUMA SIMCOE of Wolford Lodge in the county 
of Devon widow which will bears date the eleventh day of September 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty Whereas the Reverend 
John Clarke one of the executors named in my said will hath lately 
departed this life I am desirous of appointing Francis George Coleridge 
of Ottery (Saint Mary in the county of Devon Gentleman an EXECUTOR 
of my said will to act in the execution of the trusts thereof in conjunction 
with my son Henry Addington Simcoe and the Honourable Sir John 
Taylor Coleridge respectively named as executors of my said will in and 
by my said will and one of the codicils thereto I do therefore by this 
third codicil to my said will appoint the said Francis George Coleridge 
one of my EXECUTORS and direct that my said will and codicils shall 
be read and construed as if the name of the said Francis George Coleridge 
had been originally inserted therein together with the executors therein 
named In all other respects I ratify and confirm my said will and the 
several codicils thereto IN WITNESS whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand this seventh day of January one thousand eight hundred and forty- 
eight E P SIMCOE : SIGNED by the said Elizabeth Posthuma 

Simcoe as and for a codicil to her last will and testament in the presence 
of us present at the same time who in her presence and at her request 
have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses CHARLES E BAND 

Proved (with three Codicils) 

19th March 1850 

Fos 24 

J J C 


In order that the will of Mrs. Simcoe may be intelligible to the 
reader, the following synopsis has been made. 

Testatrix in conformity to the wish of her husband, the late 
John Graves Simcoe, expressed in his will and pursuant to certain 
settlements executed by the testatrix and her husband or by her late 
aunt, Margaret Graves, or under any other deed, settlement, will or 
writing, devises and bequeathes : " All and every sum and sums of 
money in whomsoever vested and whether invested or standing in 
any of the public stocks or funds or on mortgage or any other securi- 
ties or whether arising or produced by or from the sale of any tene- 
ment, land or hereditaments in such settlement, deed, will or writing 
comprised or by any other means whereof I have any power of dis- 
posal to the following daughters: 




Charlotte So much of said trust 

Henrietta Maria moneys as will amo'unt to 


and raise 5,000 for each. 

Sophia Jemima 

to the two youngest daughters: 

Katherine. ] 

Ann (the latter born after I So much f the 

date and execution of will mo ^ s ^^ T un V 

of John Graves Simcoe). J and raise 6,000 for each. 

The testatrix explains her reason for giving the additional 1,000 
to her two youngest daughters is by reason of the fact that the six 
eldest daughters have received legacies under the will of the testatrix's 
late aunt, Margaret Graves, and will also be entitled to other legacies 
payable at the death of the testatrix from her late aunt, Sophia 
Gwillim, out of the testatrix's Herefordshire property. 

Under the will of John Graves Simcoe it is provided that Mrs. 
Simcoe was only to charge the residuary real estate of her husband 
with payment to her children of such sums as she might think 
proper; no sum exceeding 5,000 shall be payable to any one child. 

The testatrix directs her executors to raise the two several sums 
of 1,000 required to make up the said sums of 6,000 for each of the 
said two youngest daughters out of moneys which at the death of 
the testatrix shall be invested in funds or on mortgage either in her 
name or in the names of trustees named "in the said indenture 
of settlement." 

In case such moneys in public funds or on mortgage or other 
security are not adequate to make up the whole of the said legacies 
the testatrix charges her residuary real estate with the payment to 
her several daughters of such proportion of the respective sums given 
to them as shall fall short or be deficient to make up the full amount 
of the legacies bequeathed to her several daughters. 

The testatrix further directs that such deficiency shall be made 
good to her daughters respectively out of her residuary real estate. 

The testatrix gives to her daughter Eliza the following: "My 
prints, pictures, plate, books, china, linen, wine, horses, cows, carts, 
carriages, household goods and other furniture, bank notes, cash in 
Biddulph's Bank." 

The testatrix bequeathes all and singular her messuages, tene- 
ments, farms, buildings, close?, hereditaments and all the rest and 
residue of her real and personal estate, subject to the payment of her 
debts and funeral expenses and subject to the payment of the legacies 
to her several daughters above mentioned, unto her son, Henry 
Addington Simcoe. 

25 385 


The testatrix appoints her son, Henry Addington Simcoe, and the 
Rev. John Clarke joint executors of her will. 

By her first codicil the testatrix devises and bequeathes all her 
lands and real estate, whether freehold or leasehold, of Dunkeswell 
Abbey in the Parish of Dunkeswell to her daughters Eliza Simcoe 
and Caroline Simcoe as joint tenants. 

By a second codicil the testatrix appoints Sir John Taylor Cole- 
ridge, one of the Justices of her Majesty's Court of Queen's Bench, 
executor in conjunction with her son, Henry Addington Simcoe, 
and Rev. John Clarke. 

By a third codicil the testatrix appoints Francis George Cole- 
ridge of Ottery St. Mary in the County of Devon to be one of 
her executors to take the place of Reverend John Clarke, who has 
departed this life, and to act in conjunction with her son, Henry 
Addington Simcoe and Sir John Taylor Coleridge. 

Mr.- Walcot, a cousin of Mrs. Simcoe's, died in 1830. He resided 
in Oundle, Northamptonshire. At his death he bequeathed to Eliza, 
Charlotte, Henrietta, Caroline, Sophia, Katherine and Ann Simcoe 
2,000 each and to Mrs. Simcoe 100 and all his lands and houses in 
the counties of Norfolk, Huntingdon and Northampton. These 
"lands and houses" to be sold and divided "share and share" alike 
to the seven daughters of John Graves Simcoe. Mr. Walcot left 
his estate of Tichmarsh in Northampton to the Rev. Henry Addington 
Simcoe, the only surviving son of General Simcoe. 



There was no large accumulation of wealth in the Simcoe family. 
The ancestors of the General were not men endowed with much more 
than respectable competences. They were plain living, godly people, 
content with their lot, doing their duty in their respective spheres 
of life as Christian men and women. 

None of the Simcoes in Cheshire had estates, although some few 
of them were small land-holders. Those who lived in Northumberland 
and Durham were better off, for as rectors and vicars they were in 
the possession of "livings" that placed them in comfortable circum- 

Captain John Simcoe, the eon of a Northumberland vicar, had, 
through the thrift and saving of some of his ancestors, inherited 
enough money to enable him to wed; and this, with some thousands 
that his wife was endowed with and his naval pay, kept his home 
in Cotterstock in comparative comfort. 

So that after the death of Captain Simcoe his widow was in 
circumstances that permitted her to leave Cotterstock and take up 
house in Exeter, bring up and educate her two surviving sons, 
Percy, who was unfortunately drowned at the age of fourteen, and 
John Graves, the future Governor of Upper Canada. 

There is no trace of the disposition of the estate of Mrs. John 
Simcoe. Certain it is that it all came to General Simcoe, so that 
when he started life he had a few thousand pounds to his credit 
and the advantage of a good education. 

During the American campaign he drew liberally upon his own 
funds and was thus enabled to secure many necessaries essential to 
his comfort which would have been denied him had he to depend 
upon his army pay. 

His personal expenditure while in command of the Queen's 
Rangers was considerable, for he not only outfitted his men but, as 
the announcement in Rivington's N. Y. Gazette shows, he paid a 
premium for every recruit obtained in New York. 

Of course, after his marriage in 1782, he was in better circum- 
stances. His wife was an heiress in her own right, inheriting the 
wealth of the Gwillims, and it was her money that purchased Wolford 
in Devon. 

The welfare of the estate was an afribition with Mrs. Simcoe 
and large sums were disbursed by her in improvements. The dwelling 
was practically rebuilt, in fact what was left of the original build- 
ing, built by Peter Geneste, is now in the centre of the ground 
floor of the present mansion. 



Many thousands of pounds were expended by Mrs. Simcoe on the 
estate between the years 1782 and 1806; and the General also con- 
tributed a goodly share towards its upkeep. 

But there were many personal calls upon the General's income. 
In connection with the military commands in the Western District 
his private purse was liberally drawn upon. 

The Simcoe correspondence shows that he was anxious that his 
family should be provided for after his death. The urgent appeals 
he made to the Government of the day to grant him what was his 
due and his continued reference to this matter in his personal cor- 
respondence, justify the belief that he should have been recouped large 
amounts expended by him which could fairly be charged to Govern- 
ment account. 

When he accepted the post of Lieutenant-Governor of Upper 
Canada he had no idea that his private purse would have to be drawn 
upon to enable him to keep up his position in Canada as was befitting 
the representative of his sovereign. 

True, the income as Lieutenant-Governor was 2,000 per annum, 
with 'half fees on sales of lands and from the privilege and application 
of the Great Seal to divers private and public instruments, but while 
he received his pay and part of the fees, there was a large arrearage 
at the time of his death. 

When Simcoe left the Province all of his accounts were not 
adjusted and he had to leave the collection of the arrearage to his 
agent, Captain John McGill, who was the Commissary of Stores in his 

The General had also 4,77,0 acres of land in the Township of 
Yonge, the Johnstown District, and in other parts of the Province, 
including the Castle Frank property of 200 acres adjoining York. 
This latter property was registered in the name of his son Francis 
Gwillim Simcoe, who in April of 1812 fell at the siege of Badajoz. 

At intervals he received remittances on account and down to 
1802 it amounted to 1,760. John McGill in writing to the General 
said in reference to a payment of 873 made before 1800, he was 
instructed by Mr. Peter Russell to say that "it was not his 
fault that the sum was not more and that if the Attorney-General 
(Mr. White) had done his duty the sum for grants ought to have 
been from 1,000 to 2,000 annually, but why he was not made do 
his duty remains a mystery." 

A subsequent return made as late as March, 1806, shows that 
an amount of 255 was paid to the General, making in all 2,015. 

Mrs. Simcoe made repeated efforts to collect the arrearage, but 
records show that she did not receive many further payments. The 
lands owned by General Simcoe were sold in later years before Mrs. 
Simcoe's death and the amount received was duly transmitted to her. 
It is understood that this land brought about $2 an acre. 



Mrs. Simcoe was always interested in hearing of the progress of 
York, for she had many friends residing there, the friends of her 
younger days in 1792-6, when she lived at Niagara and York. 

In a letter dated April 1, 1819, Mr. McGill writes of York: 
"This place has increased greatly, both as to buildings and population 
since the war. You will hardly believe when I state that two acres 
and two-thirds (22-3), divided into fourteen house lots, was sold at 
auction a few days ago for eighteen hundred and fifty-five pounds, 
currency (Dollar, five shillings)." 

This was a great surprise, no doubt, to Mrs. Simcoe and is a 
greater surprise to the people of Toronto at the present time. There 
is no proof of the location of these lots, but they are said to have been 
near the corner of King and Yonge streets. If so, the market price 
to-day would be about $2,500,000 ; for land in that vicinity in 1910, 
one hundred feet in depth, sold for nearly $10,000 per foot frontage. 

Mr. Samuel Smith, who was the Administrator of the Government 
in Upper Canada in 1817 and in 1820, writes to Mrs. Simcoe on Oc- 
tober 29, 1824, stating that : "The Town of York is increasing fast, 
the principal street (King) is about a mile long and the houses for 
most of the way tolerably compact. The roads likewise are getting 
good so that stages, four-wheel carriages, go from Kingston to Mon- 
treal and occasionally from York to Niagara. There are several 
steamboats on the lake that ply in different directions, which makes 
travelling by water very expeditious," and Mr. Smith adds: "The 
Falls of Niagara has bec.ome a fashionable resort, as many as some 
hundreds of people are seen there at a time in the summer season." 

Mrs. Simcoe kept up her correspondence with Canadian friends 
until within a short period of her death. For the late Rev. Dr. 
Henry Scadding she had a profound regard ; his father had been the 
manager of Wolford and settled in Upper Canada during her hus- 
band's term as Lieutenant-Governor. 



Seldom, very seldom, do we have narratives written under the 
conditions in which John Bailey wrote these memoirs. As a rule 
servants and retainers, whether employed in the upper or lower duties 
of household work either within or without the walls of the family 
home, prefer to perform their allotted duties faithfully, without . 
indulging in any ambitions of a literary character. So that with the 
manifold duties that make up the daily routine of a household work 
it is a pleasant surprise to find a narrative from the pen of a man 
whose opportunities for education were probably limited to the mas- 
tering of the crude training presented by a primitive parish school in 
a Devon village. 

The writing may not be of a character or interest that would 
secure for it a place on library shelves. But, nevertheless, it dis- 
plays an ability worthy of those who claim a wider range of intelli- 
gence. Great opportunities were not, and could not, be within the 
reach of John Bailey, the writer of the unique story entitled "A few 
remarks on the lives of General and Mrs. Simcoe from 1802 to 1850.*' 

During a visit to Wolford in the summer of 1904 I walked to the 
village of Dunkeswell, two miles distant from Wolford, and had an 
interview with the son of John Bailey, whose story is here presented. 
The son, named William, lived in one of the cottages of the village, 
belonging to the estate, and received a pension from Mrs. Simcoe. He 
had a fairly good recollection of Mrs. Simcoe, the widow of the 
General ; for not only as a lad did he know her on the estate but he 
entered service at Wolford in 1850 some months prior to her decease. 
Of the Misses Simcoe, her daughters, his memory was excellent, and in 
his esteem they were all that women should be "good, kind ladies 
who looked after the welfare of everyone, man and woman, young 
and old, in Dunkeswell" so said William Bailey, who died in 1908, 
aged eighty-seven. 

Another cottager, John Corrick, who for nearly sixty years had 
been in the employ of the family on the home farm and as under 
gardener, also added his meed of praise to the many virtues of Mrs. 
Simcoe, the widow of the General. As for "the young ladies at 
Wolford" he was unstinted in good words for all that they had done 
to promote the prosperity and happiness not only of those employed 
on the estate, but also of the tenants of the various farms. 

He remembered Mrs. Simcoe and her daughters, for he saw them 
daily for many years, and added in an earnest tone that while all were 
" so good and charitable to everyone " yet Miss Anne was " terribly 
kind," an expression common in some parts of Devonshire, and used 



to illustrate perfection of character and the acme of charity. Cor- 
rick died in July, 1904, in his 78th year. Mrs. John Kennaway 
Simcoe, "The Lady of the Manor," and friends at Wolford attended 
the old man's funeral. As one of the family said, "He was a saint 
if ever there was one a dear old man, respected and loved by all, 
so good-natured, no one ever spoke a hard word of him.'* 

John Bailey was born in Awliscombe, four miles from Dunkeswell 
and two from Wolford, and as a lad of twelve he entered the service 
of the Simcoe family in 1802, as an attendant on the butler for 
one year, then he worked as a groom in the stable for four years, 
after which he was promoted to the position of footman and finally 
as coachman. 

He was a good-looking, bright lad of average height his son 
said about five feet, eight inches of a cheerful and obliging disposi- 
tion, always ready for the call of his butler, by whose grace he had 
received his position. He always had a most profound respect and 
reverence for the General, who on one occasion had declared that he 
was "a good lad/' 

After the death of the General in 1806, Bailey continued in Mrs. 
Siincoe's service for two years and in 1808 left Wolford. He con- 
cluded that a sea-faring life was better suited for him than household 
duties; but he tired of roaming over the ocean and in 1816 returned 
to his native heath and was again engaged by Mrs. Simcoe as footman, 
a position he held for twenty years and then he stepped into the 
coachman's seat and held the reins for another twelve years in all 
thirty-seven years of service. 

He lived during the last years of his service and his life, at the 
Percy Cottages at the foot of Percy Hill, which leads down from 
Wolford into Dunkeswell. These dwellings are still inhabited. 

Bailey married a tidy Devon maiden and had several children. 
All are now dead. 

Some years before Mrs. Simcoe's death John Bailey was some- 
what broken in health, and she bestowed a pension on him, which 
continued to be paid until the day of his death, 1st August, 1855. 

If ever a man was faithful to his trust it was John Bailey. His 
goodness of character seems to have been exceptional, and his loving 
attention to his employers and their interests add to the story he has 
written a diary in a general way of the life in the happy home at 
Wolford. Bailey's memoirs for so they may be justly called are 
worthy of men who occupied a higher sphere in the social scale. 

Bailey had received a fair education, was an excellent pupil at 
the village school, and so secured a large amount of general knowl- 
edge that served him in good stead after he had grown to manhood. 
It is most refreshing to read this man's manuscript, and in reading 
to remember that his heart and soul were full of more than the 
average of kindly thought for those who employed him. 

Not only was John Bailey faithful in his work as between master 
and servant, but he possessed many attributes that commended him to 



the Simcoe family. He was evidently an earnest Christian 
lie knew the Good Book from cover to cover. He had a sincere 
admiration for his mistress, whom he regarded a a model among 
womankind. His whole narrative abounds in admiration for her; 
and his devotion to the family seems to be that of one who endeavored 
not only to serve them in the duties assigned to him, but to lead the 
Christian life that was the distinguishing characteristic of those who 
lived at Wolford. 

I have given the narrative just as it came from the pen of its 
author, adding an occasional note in parenthesis, in the body of the 
text, explanatory of the location of the places mentioned. The MSS. 
is entitled and inscribed as "A Few Eemarks on the lives of General 
and Mrs. Simcoe, by John Bailey, from 1802 to 1850." This title 
is followed by a "preface" explaining in a way the nature of the 
text of the narrative. Bailey writes of the "first and second editions." 
The narrative is really in two parts. The first part includes the 
period from 1802-8, and is devoted to "Eemarks on the life of Mrs. 
Simcoe by John Bailey." The second part embraces the period 
from 1818-50 and this covers "the life of General and Mrs. Simcoe." 
The hiatus from 1809-17 is explained by the fact that Bailey was 
away at sea during that period. 

This preface, moreover, does not foreshadow, as a preface generally 
does, the interesting "remarks" concerning those whom he has under- 
taken to write about. It reads : 

Now in my first and second editions of the lives of General and 
Mrs. Simcoe, I have not altogether dwelt on their lives, but some other 
people also, and some other things, some things about religious things, 
and some things about myself and other people; but my chief subject 
is on the lives of General and Mrs. Simcoe. But all the particulars 
of the lives of General and Mrs. Simcoe, this is far beyond my knowledge, 
but I saw enough of them in my 37 years' service at Wolford Lodge to 
make out a small history of them, particularly of Mrs. Simcoe's life, as 
I have been so many years with her, and travelled so many thousands 
of miles with her. 




Now to speak of Mrs. Simcoe. In her lifetime very few have seen 
more of her ways than I myself, living in her service nearly forty 
years twelve years as coachman, twenty years as footman and five 
years when a boy. 

Now in Mrs. Simcoe's lifetime I may very well say she was as 
good a mistress as ever ruled a house; her works told that she fol- 
lowed the example of good old Joshua, who said, "As for me and my 
house, we will serve the Lord." Now we can firmly say that at Wol- 
ford Lodge not a family in England was kept more regular at family 
worship ; there was family prayer morning and evening, and some part 
of the Holy Scriptures read and explained to us. The Sabbath Day 
was kept holy, and it was Mrs. Simcoe's rule for all in her house 
who were able to go to church. She always showed the example her- 
self; nothing scarcely would keep her from church no, not even 
sickness, for I have known when she has been very unwell that she 
would endeavour to go to church. She would not lose the opportunity, 
if possible; she was like Mary, she had chosen that good part which 
shall not be taken from her, and it was seldom either wind or weather 
would keep her from church, nor the ladies (the daughters of Mrs. 
Simcoe), for I have known when the snow has been up level with 
the hedges and no horse or carriage able to go, the ladies and ser- 
vants all set off, the men in front one after another to tread down the 
snow, then the ladies and maid-servants in our tracks. "We had no 
cause to think that the deepness of the snow would prevent Mr. Clarke 
(the Rector of Clayhidon and Vicar of Dunkeswell) from coming to 
church, as I never remember him, not once, for the cause of bad 
weather to miss coming. 

Now there was once something very remarkable at the time of the 
service in Dunkeswell Church. The service was at one o'clock; the 
first lesson was 1 Kings xviii., and just as Mr. Clarke was reading the 
words in the 44th and 45th verses, "And it came to pass at the seventh 
time, that he said, Behold there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea, 
like a man's hand." Now it seems this cloud which ariseth out of the 
sea is the same thing which I have seen and been very near to, what 
we call a waterspout; if a ship runs into it it will sink her, it will 
break the spout and down the water will come. "And he said, Go 
up, say unto Ahab, Prepare thy chariot and get thee down, that the 
rain stop thee not. And it came to pass in the meanwhile that the 
heaven was black with clouds and wind, and there was a great rain." 
And just at that time it became so dark that we could scarcely see 



a word in our books, and soon the rain came down in torrents ; it was 
such heavy rain that when we returned to Wolford the house was 
overflowed with water, the gratings and gutters choked, the stable 
yard like a river, the water running in at the back door and down 
the passage to the front hall and drawing-room, which was covered 
with water; the two maids that were at home quite frightened, going 
about without stockings or shoes. It was a very remarkable thing, 
the first lesson giving us notice of the rain. We soon put away the 
carriage and horses, and ran into the house and got off the water. 

There is one thing more I shall just mention. I went with Mrs. 
Simcoe and Miss Caroline to attend a missionary meeting at Welling- 
ton (a market town in Somersetshire, at the foot of the Blackdown 
Hills). On our way home it came on to rain very much so that there 
was a flood. When we came to Millhayes (a farm in Hemyock 
pronounced Hem-y-ock in Devon, five miles from Wellington) the 
water was very deep. Mr. Manley, the tenant of the farm, said 
it was not safe to go through, as the main stream ran close to the 
road, and if I should chance to drive one foot out of the way we might 
get into it, and it was more than ten feet deep. Mrs. Simcoe asked 
me what was to be done. I told her we could first see the deepness 
of the water; so Mr. Manley sent someone through on one of his 
horses. The water was up to the horse's .side, so I told Mrs. Simcoe I 
would quite trust to our horses. I thought "Venture makes the mer- 
chant." Old William Selway, the coachman, was with us, so we 
jumped on the dickey and started off, but just as we got about half- 
way through poor old Selway was quite frightened ; he said the wheels 
were quite under the water, he could not see them. I told him not to 
say anything and not to be frightened, so I just gave the horses a flick 
with the whip. They gave a plunge or two in the water, and we were 
soon out of danger and got safe to land, and soon arrived home with- 
out any hurt. 

Mrs. Simcoe used often to go on a visit to her son, the Rev. Henry 
Addington Simcoe, at Penheale, in Cornwall, five miles from Launces- 
ton. I was there with her a great many times; she often took the 
favourite old black pony for the purpose of taking her morning and 
evening rides, which she very much enjoyed, particularly when the 
little children rode with her, one before and one behind; the pony 
would go so carefully with them. The poor old pony would take 
Mrs. Simcoe so carefully over plank bridges, and would go over rocks 
with her like a goat, so that she could venture and feel quite safe 
going over the rough rocks at Bude, on the north coast of Cornwall, 
and other places near Penheale. 

Mrs. Simcoe generally took two trips from home in a year, one to 
Penheale, and one up the country to different places, but her favourite 
places were North Wales, Godstone (in Surrey, nineteen miles from 
London), Herefordshire and Cheltenham. We often had to cross the 
old Passage near Bristol (the ferry across the Avon between Somer- 
setshire and 'Gloucestershire), so as to go from Somersetshire to Here- 



fordshire; and once when we came to Clifton (a suburb of Bristol) 
the news came that the vessel, in crossing the "old passage," was sunk 
full of passengers, and that all on board perished. I informed Miss 
Ann, as I thought Mrs. Simcoe would not go on; but Miss Ann told 
me not to say anything about it to Mrs. Simcoe, as it was not likely 
to be the steamer that was lost, as it does not cross the Passage on 
Sundays, so it must be a sailing vessel. 

Off we started for the "Old Passage," and there we were informed 
of all the particulars of the misfortune. As the steamer did not 
cross on Sundays, and a great many people were wanting to cross 
that day, as Monday was the 1st of September, and there were shooting 
parties wanting to cross the Passage on Sunday to be in readiness for 
Monday morning, and Monday being also Bristol Fair, there were a 
great many jobbers wanting to cross to purchase cattle at the Fair, 
so they all hired a sailing vessel to cross. Just as the vessel had 
started, four or five more jobbers came in great haste and begged the 
captain to take them, but he told them he could not take them, but 
would return as quickly as possible and cross again. These men 
seemed very sorry to have been one minute too late; they were watch- 
ing the vessel crossing, and just as she was about half-way across she 
gave a lee lurch, filled with water and went down, and everyone on 
board perished. There was one gentleman who had his carriage and 
horses and servants on board with him ; this gentleman was found, 
about eight days afterwards, on part of his own estate, a great many 
miles distant from the place where the vessel sank. 

They say there were many thousands of pounds went down in the 
vessel, which the dealers had with them to purchase stock at Bristol 
Fair. What a dreadful thing for so many of our fellow-creatures to 
be taken off so suddenly, and, worst of all, everyone on board was 
breaking God's Commandment on the Sabbath Day. 

We arrived at Whitchurch, which is a large village in Hereford- 
shire, on the River Wye. Mrs. Simcoe and the ladies stayed at Old 
Court, the former residence of Col. Gwillim and birthplace of Mrs. 
Simcoe, and I at the Crown Inn. I was speaking of the sad mis- 
fortune that had happened at the Old Passage (the ferry across the 
Avon between Somersetshire and Gloucestershire). The master of 
the inn was one of those that came to the Passage to cross, but was one 
minute too late. They told me he was then in bed, and he seemed to be 
quite a changed man, and he considered he was like a brand plucked 
out of the burning. There was a sermon preached at the Forest 
Church (in the Forest of Dean, an ancient royal forest between the 
estuary of the rivers Severn and Wye, in Gloucestershire) by Mr. 
Gurnsey, the minister, on the melancholy occasion. 

Mrs. Simcoe stayed at Whitchurch some time ; it had been her 
former home, and where most of her friends lay. Old Court is now 
a farmhouse, but formerly a grand place as the residence of Col. 
Gwillim. The house is something like Penheale. Whitchurch is a 
very beautiful place with a handsome little church quite close to the 



beautiful River Wye. I think I can venture to say that the River 
Wye is as fine a river as any in England. 

From Chepstow, the market town in Monmouthshire, to the town 
of Ross, in Herefordshire, is very fine. The beautiful Forest of Dean; 
the ruins of Chepstow Castle, built in the eleventh century; the pic- 
turesque ruins of Tintern Abbey, built in the eleventh century and 
rebuilt in the thirteenth; 'Goodrich Castle, Goodrich Court, and 
many other grand places are close by the River Wye. This river 
is more than a hundred and thirty miles in length, and is very 
fine and beautiful all the way. I have been with Mrs. and Miss Ann 
Simcoe on by the river to the mountain (of Plynlymmon, in North 
Wales) where it springs. It is seldom that Mrs. Simcoe stays in Here- 
fordshire long, only just to pay a short visit to her tenants at Old 
Court, on her late father's estate ; then we returned home, and seldom 
go from home in the winter. 

It is a most extraordinary and providential thing that so many 
thousand of miles as I have travelled with Mrs. Simcoe, not one 
misfortune or accident ever happened. Nor can we find out for what 
reason this great blessing was on us that we should always go out and 
come in with safety. I should say the reason was that on Mrs. 
Simcoe's leaving home on a journey, at family prayers the protection 
was put into the hands of the Almighty; and what can be safer than 
that? The 121st Psalm was also read before departure, trusting en- 
tirely to the Lord for protection on the journey. Mrs. Simcoe every 
day read, or had read to her, some part of the Holy Scripture, and in 
it she could plainly see the protection the Lord grants to His people, 
and there we can see it if we like to look at it. In the 13th chapter 
of Exodus, the 20th, 21st and 22nd verses, we can see the protection 
the Lord granted to them in their journey; and again, in the 2nd 
chapter of St. Matthew's gospel, in the 8th and 9th verses, what a 
prosperous journey to find what so many generations have been look- 
ing for so long. It was one of the first discoveries that ever was 
made, far greater than the discovery of all the gold mines of Peru 
or Mexico. They found the Saviour of the world. Look at the 24th 
chapter of St. Luke, verses 15, 30 and 31 ; then look at the 24th chap- 
ter of Genesis, verses 10 and 36, and there are many other places' where 
we can see that the Lord has prospered His people in their journeys; 
and so He prospers Mrs. Simcoe in all her journeys, so that she 
always went out and came in without any misfortune or accident 
happening. We know that when Mrs. Simcoe is going on a journey 
she does not rush into the carriage as a horse rushes into the battle, 
without thinking of the danger it is running into. No, she looks be- 
fore she leaps, and says, "Lord, hold Thou me up and I shall be 

Mrs. Simcoe certainly had a very great talent given 'her, and she 
greatly improved it; she certainly was of a good understanding and 
of good judgment, very quick and very clever. She was a very early 
riser, seldom in bed after five or six o'clock. In the summer she and 



her youngest daughter, Miss Ann, always take a ride at six o'clock 
in the morning before breakfast, and go four or five miles on the 
Black Down Hills, a rising ground on the borders of Devonshire and 
Somerset. Mrs. Simcoe was very fond of early riding. When she was 
young she has ridden from Wolford Lodge to Clovelly, a village on 
the North Devon coast between Bideford and Bude, on horseback, 
a distance of forty miles; and when she was on a journey she always 
started at six o'clock, and went fifteen or twenty miles before break- 
fast. Once she went to a watering-place, and a lady of the place 
asked one of the bathing women whether Mrs. Simcoe had arrived or 
not. She said she had not heard, but she had seen a lady at the other 
end of the beach that morning drawing at six o'clock, and if it was 
not Mrs. Simcoe she could not think who else it could be at that early 

General Simcoe, when living, followed the same plan of early ris- 
ing. He would very often be either out riding or walking at five or 
six o'clock in the morning with Mr. Scadding, planning about plant- 
ing the Plantations; and often General and Mrs. Simcoe would be 
out in the Canadian snow slides (sleighs) when the snow was deep. 
These snow slides do not go heavy and dead as anyone might suppose, 
but slip along on the snow, so that a pony could draw it, and General 
and Mrs. Simcoe often drove out so, and I formerly went with them. 
General Simcoe used to drive these snow slides himself; he brought 
them from Canada; the bottom is quite plain and flat, so they do not 
sink down into the snow, but slip along very easy. Now as General 
and Mrs. Simcoe were both so fond of being out early in the morning, 
it seems that Mr. H. A. Simcoe followed their example. I have many 
times, when he was visiting at Wolford, been with his hot water to 
call him at six o'clock, but when I came to his room he was up and 
gone walking, perhaps three or four miles. 

There is another thing in which Mr. Simcoe seems to follow the 
example of his father. We see the great improvement General Simcoe 
made in the parish of Dunkeswell, so there was the very same done by 
Mr. Simcoe in the parish of Egloskerry, in Cornwall. Very soon after 
Mr. Simcoe was at Penheale, I went there on a visit with Mrs. Simcoe. 
I may very well say that the road from Egloskerry to Penheale was 
not fit for a cart to go over, and I had to go over it every day in the 
carriage, and had trouble enough to keep out of the deep ruts, and as 
Penheale was at that time a farmhouse there were no spare bedrooms, 
so I had to go five miles with Mrs. Simcoe to Launceston every night. 
The hill at Launceston was at that time as steep as the side of a house, 
but our horses were strong and staunch. We stayed at Penheale by 
day and Launceston by night. 

Mrs. Simcoe is going to make great alterations at Penheale, and 
also at Egloskerry (five miles from Launceston). I was at Penheale 
with Mrs. Simcoe nine different times, and each time found it greatly 
improved, as Mr. Simcoe soon had all the house. The rooms at Pen- 
heale are certainly very beautiful, the fine wood-carved work I never 



saw the equal, the beautiful cornices and fine ceilings. The roads 
are now very good, and there is a nice lodge at the entrance of the 
house. The village of Egloskerry is very much improved by many 
new houses, and also a nice, large schoolroom, and there is a great im- 
provement in the church. It certainly looks very nice, particularly 
when lighted up, for it is something remarkable to see a country 
church lighted up for evening service, and quite crowded. 

Once I was -with Mrs. Simcoe on a visit near Egloskerry ; she was 
riding the black pony, and on our way back to Penheale, it being dark, 
we saw a very bright light on a Mil. She asked me what light I should 
think it was. I told her it was Tremaine Church (six miles from 
Launceston and three miles from Egloskerry), lighted up for Wednes- 
day evening service. Although we were a long distance from the 
church we could see the people in the church, and Mr. Simcoe in the 
pulpit, moving to and fro, as we supposed, preaching. (The parishes 
of Egloskerry and Tremaine are united.) 

Now to turn again to Mrs. Simcoe's travels. Her favourite place 
was North Wales ; the scenery there is most beautiful ; the inhabitants 
are very civil people; the lofty mountains, fine lakes and waterfalls 
present a most delightful appearance. 

There were two places in particular which Mrs. Simcoe very much 
admired. One was Snowdon, the other the Devil's Bridge (near a 
village in Cardiganshire, ten miles from Aberystwith), and the moun- 
tain Snowdon is certainly very grand from its great height, and the 
Devil's Bridge from its great depth. The Devil's Bridge is a very 
curious place. There is a very nice inn near it, and many people stay 
there to see the bridge and the waterfall. There are two bridges, one 
built over the other, and from the top bridge to the water measures 
110 feet. (The bridge spans the narrow gorge of the river Mynoch.) 
I went down to the water's edge with Miss Harriet and Miss Ann 
Simcoe, for the purpose of taking a sketch of the bridges ; it certainly 
is a very frightful place to behold when down by the water. 

We had a guide with us, and he told me that he had been down 
many a time with gentlemen, and that before they had got half-way 
down they would return, afraid to venture any further. I asked the 
guide what made them call the bridge by such a curious name. He 
told me it was supposed that this name of the Devil's Bridge, or " The 
Bridge of the Evil One," was given it because no one could remember 
when it was built, neither could they imagine for what purpose the 
under bridge was built, and some fancy it was never built by the 
hands of man, because they never could find any account or history of 
its erection. I fancy myself that it could be plainly seen that the top 
bridge was built for the purpose of bringing the road more to a level, 
and to make it more convenient for the passengers, for the under 
bridge was very low, and I daresay they did not think it worth while 
to destroy it, as it did not cause the least inconvenience. Mrs. Simcoe 
very much admired this bridge and the waterfall; so she also very 
much admired Snowdon. I was on the top of it with Miss Harriet 



and Miss Ann Simcoe, but unfortunately there was a fog. There is 
a pillar erected on the top built of large, rough stones, and on it there 
is fixed a high staff. With great difficulty I climbed up the staff, 
merely for curiosity. The pillar is for a sea-mark. When clear, some 
parts of Ireland are visible from it. 

Beddgelert was another place Mrs. Simcoe was very fond of. 
Whilst Mrs. Simcoe was there, Miss Harriet wished to go to Bala 
(in Merionethshire, Wales), and I was to go with her; so a fly was 
ordered, and we went to Capel Curig, fourteen miles, then to Cerni- 
ogge, both in Carnarvonshire, fifteen miles; then to Bala (in Merion- 
ethshire), thirteen miles, where we stopped two hours for the horses 
to rest ; all these are in North Wales. Miss Harriet Simcoe remained 
there. Miss Simcoe then went to Aberhirnaut, a beautiful spot a few 
miles from Bala, where Mr. H. Richardson and his wife, who was a 
Miss Shu'ldham, of Deerpark, near Honiton, were residing. I was to 
return with the fly to Cerniogge, and to take the first coach to 
Beddgelert (at the foot of Snowdon, on the borders of Car- 
narvonshire and Merionethshire), but there was no coach going 
there until the next day at twelve o'clock, and as I thought 
Mrs. Simcoe would want me, I started off on foot. It was 
then eleven o'clock at night. I had to pass by a forest which 
seemed to be very lonesome and dismal, but I was very much 
amused by the nightingales and night crows singing so beautifully, 
and it sounded so remarkably well in the middle of the night, and I 
had also the grand sound of the waterfalls, which were a great way 
off ; they could be heard ten or fifteen miles distant roaring down from 
the mountains. The road that I was travelling on was one of the 
largest and finest in England from London to Holyhead and Dublin : 
although so many travel upon it, I did not meet or see man or woman 
except the Holyhead mail, which passed at two o'clock, although the 
stage is fifteen miles. I arrived at Capel Curig, and stopped to rest 
a little while; then off I started again another stage, fourteen miles. 

About four or five miles this side of Beddgelert, the village near 
Snowdon, there is a fine view of Snowdon and other mountains, which 
I thought Mrs. Simcoe would like to see, to take a sketch of them. 
Beddgelert is a large village, in a green basin shut in by mountains 
and high precipices. It gets its name from the story of Llewellyn, 
who came here during the hunting season with his child and his grey- 
hound, Gelert. The child, left unprotected in a hut, was attacked by 
a wolf. On Lewellyn's return he met Gelert wagging his tail, but 
covered with blood. Alarmed, and thinking that the dog had injured 
the child, the impetuous prince slew the hound. He entered the hut, 
to find the dead body of a wolf lying near his sleeping child, disclos- 
ing to him his fatal mistake and the fidelity of Gelert. In grief for 
his dog the prince erected a tomb and called the spot Beddgelert, from 
Bedd, the grave, and Gelert, the dog. 

Although I had walked twenty-nine miles during the night I did 
not feel tired, so I informed Mrs. Simcoe of the fine scenery that I had 



passed through. She said she should like to go to see it, but I was to 
rest myself for a little while. I did not tell Mrs. Simcoe that I had 
been travelling all night, as I thought it might disappoint her of the 
ride, as she might think it too much for me ; so I got two ponies, one 
for Mrs. Simcoe and one for Miss Ann Simcoe, and after I had rested 1 
a little while I informed Mrs. Simcoe that they were ready. So off 
we started and got to the place. Mrs. Simcoe was quite delighted 
with the scenery, and stopped there a long time drawing and taking 
the sketch of it. Then we returned, very much pleased, and although 
my walk was forty miles I did not feel tired, but quite delighted. 

Close to Beddgelert there is a fine mountain called Moel Hebog, 
which Miss Ann Simcoe had a wish to go to the top of, and wished 
me to go with her. So off we started ; we had four or five miles to get 
to the top by winding round it. There was a fog, but it made it look 
a great deal finer, as the fog would clear off, then suddenly the whole 
bottom would look beautiful. The village and church of Beddgelert 
looked remarkably fine. There is a very deep precipice I should 
think eight or nine hundred feet deep which looked rather frightful. 
Miss Ann Simcoe seemed to be very much pleased with her walk, so 
we went down the mountain and informed Mrs. Simcoe what a pleas- 
ant walk we had 'had. We left the delightful village of Beddgelert for 
Capel Curig Inn, and stopped there a few days. 

There is a mountain near the inn, which Miss Ann Simcoe wished 
very much to go to .the top of, so Mrs. Simcoe consented for her to go 
and me to go with her. This mountain very much reminded me of the 
mountain of Trincutte, one of the Nicobar Islands, off the Malay 
Peninsula in the Indian Ocean, which the officers of our ship went up. 
The distance straight to the top of it was about two miles, but they 
had to go thirty to get to the top, which took them two days. So Miss 
Ann Simcoe and I had to go many miles to get to the top of this 
mountain. It is most beautiful on the top, and it was a fine clear 
day, so that we could see a great distance. We could see the Sugar 
Loaf mountain, near Abergavenny, in Monmouthshire, quite plainly, 
although sixty miles off, and thirteen lakes Bala Lake, twenty-five 
miles distant, quite plain. 

After stopping on the mountain for some time viewing the fine 
sights, we returned to the inn, and then made our departure from 
North Wales for Herefordshire, going through Oswestry (a market 
town in Shropshire, fifteen miles from Shrewsbury), the town of 
Shropshire, Ludlow (a town twenty-five miles from Shrewsbury), 
Leominster and Hereford (the capital of Herefordshire), where we 
attended the cathedral services. Then on to Whitchurch, where we 
stayed a fortnight. The cholera was raging very bad in Devonshire, 
and also at Bristol, and in all England, but there was not a single 
ease in North Wales. 

Mrs. Simcoe enjoyed herself very much at Old Court, riding on a 
pony nearly every day, viewing the fine scenery. Then we left Whit- 
church for home, went as far as the town of Ross and stopped the 



night. Mrs. Simcoe wished for me to go by the first coach to get 
home as quickly as I possibly could, as she had not sent any letter to 
say she was coming home ; so I started by the first coach, and arrived 
at Taunton, in Somersetshire, about nine at night. There was no 
coach for Honiton, so I walked off for Wolford, then ten o'clock at 
night. My journey seemed to me rather dismal. I had not got the 
beautiful singing nightingales to amuse me as I had in North Wales. 
I cannot say I saw no one on my way from Taunton to Wolford 
Lodge, for I fell in with company which I did not very much like 
a party of poachers by the Blackdown Plantation, between Wolford 
and Taunton, and about ten miles from Honiton; but they made off, 
and I got to Wolford quite safe, and arrived about three o'clock in 
the morning, after a walk of fourteen miles and a ride of one hundred. 

Next day Mrs. and Miss Ann Simcoe arrived, and I never recol- 
lect Mrs. Simcoe having been so much pleased with a journey before 
as this to North Wales; the fine sights and those high mountains, 
which she used to say she had a great deal sooner go to see than any 
of the fine buildings or places in London one was the work of man 
that can be destroyed by man again, the same as Jerusalem and the 
fine temple; this was built by man, and again all destroyed by man; 
but the fine mountains of North Wales cannot be destroyed by man. 
They are like the hills round Jerusalem, that stand fast forever. 

Mrs. Simcoe generally went to Cheltenham (a watering-place in 
Gloucestershire, on the Chelten arm of the Severn) once a year in 
the season. It is wonderful to see the great improvements there are 
in Cheltenham. The first time I went there with Mrs. Simcoe was 
in 1824. At that time there was only one church, but in 1841, the 
last time I was there with Mrs. and Miss Simcoe and Miss Ann 
Simcoe, there were five large, beautiful churches, and the old church 
greatly enlarged, with a large new gallery erected all round the 
church, and also greatly improved; and it was delightful to see the 
fine, large congregations that attend there, and more delightful to 
see so many attend the Sacrament. They came at eight o'clock; 
sometimes there would be six or eight hundred attend, and again as 
many at the forenoon service. It was wonderful to see how many 
attended the evening service at six o'clock every seat and aisle and 
gallery quite full. A large congregation is the proof of a good 
preacher, which was the case at the old church, as Mr. Close is sup- 
posed to be as good a preacher as there is in England. He was called 
Dean Close, and was a great friend of Mrs. Simcoe, and lived at 
Cheltenham. At the other churches in Cheltenham there are very 
good preachers. 

It is wonderful to see the great improvements that have been 
made in Cheltenham since the first time I was there with Mrs. Simcoe 
in 1824-^so many fine new streets, squares and terraces, having been 
built, and also two very beautiful spas and bath houses, and very fine 
hotels and inns. It was formerly the saying that Leamington (on the 
river Learn, in Warwickshire) "was the place for the remedy of the 
26 401 


body, and Cheltenham for the remedy of the soul, but I think that 
Cheltenham is the place where we may get a remedy for our souls 
and bodies ; as the bread and wine so often administered to us in the 
Sacrament, which is the sure remedy for the soul, so the Cheltenham 
waters are a remedy for the body; but so many thousands of people 
get so much benefit by drinking the waters. I think Cheltenham is 
as fine a place as any in England, both for spiritual and temporal 
things. It is, as we may say, a heaven on earth, for what can be more 
like heaven than being in a heavenly place. By such places as this 
England receives all its blessing, as the Lord saith, " Him that 
honoureth me, will I honour." Every time that I was at Chelten- 
ham with Mrs. Simcoe, which was many times, it was quite a bles- 
sing to be there, to see the large congregations that attend on the 
Sabbath Day at all the churches to praise and glorify the God that 
made the heavens and the earth and all that in them is. 

Mrs. Simcoe generally stayed at Cheltenham five or six weeks, 
and then returned home, generally a great deal better, both in tem- 
poral and spiritual things. 



As Mrs. Simcoe advanced in years, as we might expect, her 
strength failed, and at the latter end of her life she did not go far 
from home. Sidmouth was the furthest place, and she would only 
stay a short time. At home she generally took a small drive, every day 
when it was fine, and sometimes she went out in the wheel chair, 
which she very much enjoyed. The last time she was ever out she 
rook two drives in one day, but she was very unwell ; she then took 
to her bed. She was often visited by Mr. Muller, vicar of Dunkes- 
well, and also by Mr. H. A. Simcoe, her son; they both gave a very 
good account of the state of her soul. She was pressing towards 
the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ 
Jesus, nothing doubting but that He who had begun a good work in 
her would perform it until the day of Jesus Christ. God is faithful 
that hath promised, and therefore she rests assured that He will 
remember her work of faith and labour of love, and patience of hope 
in our Lord Jesus Christ. happy time for those blessed souls who 
have fought the good fight and kept the faith. We feel assured that 
Mrs. Simcoe is one of this number; although the lamp of life is 
nearly extinguished, yet another life is sprung up the light of God's 
Holy Spirit, and that will be a light even when walking through the 
valley of the shadow of death. It will not be death to the believer, 
only the shadow of it, so she need fear no evil, but may say with the 
Psalmist, " For thou art with me, thy rod and thy staff they comfort 
me." What could she fear, whose soul is anchored upon the Rock 
of Ages, who has the God of Jacob for her help, whose hope is in the 
Lord her God ? She knows that she is in the hands of a most gracious 
and merciful God, and now that her days are almost at an end I 
think that I can firmly say that Mrs. Simcoe, now at her last hour, 
can look back upon a life well spent, and can say with Hezekiah. 
" Remember now, Lord, I beseech thee, how I have walked before 
thee in truth, and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is 
good in thy. sight." What a happy death. What comfort it must be, 
not only to the dying person, but to the living friends and relations 
present; and now she may say, as good old Joshua said, "Behold, 
this day I am going the way of all the earth." 

So her last day came, and she died in a good old age, full of days, 
riches and honour. Mrs. Simcoe departed this life at Wolford Lodge, 
January 17th, 1850, after forty-four years of widowhood. Her death 
will be lamented by many, and she will be missed by many, both at 
home and abroad, by the poor and the afflicted, and by the heathen 



in different countries abroad. She promoted the societies for sending 
to them Bibles, and missionaries to instruct them. 

Now at Mrs. Simcoe's funeral all her six children attended, and 
all the clergy of the neighbourhood, and the tenantry, household ser- 
vants and workmen. A beautiful escutcheon was placed over the 
front door, done by Mr. Ward, of Honiton. The body was taken 
from the front door, and the whole funeral procession went off from 
the front door, and went slowly round the front of the house and up 
the garden walks. I thought to myself how many journeys and to 
how many different places I had been with Mrs. Simcoe, and now 
going one more for the last to her grave; what a hard stroke! The 
funeral service was read by Mr. Muller in the chapel. The body was 
then taken to the grave close to General Simcoe's. When it was let 
down into the grave I thought what a wonderful thing it was that 
I should have been present at General Simcoe's funeral, then only 
a boy of fifteen years of age, and now an old man of sixty to be 
present at Mrs. Simcoe's funeral forty-four years afterwards. She 
was the mother of eleven children nine living when General Simcoe 
died. What a striking thing, what a charge to be left with such a 
family, and she at that time only little more than forty years of age ! 
One would scarcely think it to be true, but such was the case. 

General Simcoe's funeral was one of the largest that was ever 
known in Devonshire, he then being Commander-in-Chief of all the 
Western District. So by reason of that a very large body of troops 
attended the funeral, Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery, many thou- 
sands. As the procession left Exeter, a long train of carriages fol- 
lowed and the streets were lined with troops with arms reversed, so 
the procession left the city of Exeter for Wolford Lodge. Artillery 
were stationed with their guns at Straightway Head (near Escot, in 
Devon, owned by Sir John Kennaway), and Fenny Bridges (a hamlet 
belonging to the parish of Feniton, four miles from Honiton), and 
fired as the procession passed on. The East Devon Yeomanry Cavalry 
were stationed at the battery on St. Gyres Hill, close to Wolford. 
This regiment was raised by General Simcoe. The second troop was 
the Dunkeswell troop, chiefly General Simcoe's tenants. As the funeral 
procession passed through Honiton the shops were closed and the 
streets were lined with troops with arms reversed. Part of the 3rd 
Begiment of Dragoon Guards was in advance of the procession, and 
one thing looked very striking, one of the Dragoons led General 
Simcoe's charger, a favourite horse, with the General's arms on it. 
So the procession arrived at Wolford Lodge Chapel attended by thou- 
sands of people. The church field was crowded. The Luppitt Com- 
pany of Artillery (Volunteers raised in Luppitt village by General 
Simcoe to oppose the expected invasion by Napoleon) was there with 
the guns, which were fired when the body was put in the grave, which 
shook the very house of Wolford. 

But what a difference it will be when this body shall rise again at 
the resurrection. What a difference there will be between the sound 



of the great guns and the sound of the mighty trumpet, when the 
powers of Heaven shall be shaken; and what a difference there will 
be between the tribe of people that was in the church field (although 
that was a great number) and the tribe it will be when all the people 
that ever were born into this world, from Adam to this time, shall be 
assembled, when all who are in their graves shall rise again. And 
what another great difference there will be to those who have served 
the Lord, and to those who have served Him not. And what a differ- 
ence there will be to those on the right hand, and to those on the left. 
And what a difference there will be in the places to which they are to 
go. To those on the right hand it will be said, " Come, ye blessed 
of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foun- 
dation of the World," but to those who have not served the Lord it 
will be said, "Depart, ye cursed." All of us now living have the 
choice, and if we wish to be like those on the right hand, we must 
follow the advice of good old Joshua, who said, " As for me and my 
house, we will serve the Lord." 

Mrs. Simcoe was one who followed that advice in her house. See 
what a blessing it was to her to have such a happy death as she seems 
to have 'had, how she met her death without fear or amazement. She is 
gone, I hope, to a happy place, where the wicked cease from troubling, 
and where the weary are at rest. She is gone, and her works do follow 
her. The talent that she had given her was improved. 

General Simcoe, like his wife, had talent and improved it. He 
was a very useful man in the world ; by that he got to such high rank. 
How soon he reached the rank of General. See what good he did in 
Canada. When he went there as Governor there were no provisions 
but what were sent to them from England. But what a great change 
there was soon after; instead of our sending provisions to them they 
sent them to us, and he made great improvements there while Gov- 
ernor, and see, again, how much he did here in England. What 
danger the country was then in. The French were then preparing a 
very large expedition to invade England, and Devonshire was the place 
where it was the intention of Bonaparte to land, very likely at Tor 
Bay. The whole of the west of England was put under the care 
of General Simcoe; he was Commander-in-Chief. He raised a very 
large body of troops, and every man who was able in the West of 
England had something to do or perform if the enemy should Iari8. 
All the carpenters were ready with their saws and axes to cut down 
the trees and lay them across the roads to prevent the enemy from 
passing; furze ricks put on the hills to set fire to them if the enemy 
did land, to alarm the country. There were camps at different places. 
It was supposed that Tor Bay, on the east coast of Devonshire, would 
certainly be Bonaparte's landing place, and to London his route, so 
that the great road from Exeter to London was General Simcoe's chief 
care, to prevent the enemy from passing that way; he had a large 
camp on Woodbury Common, six miles from Exeter, of many thou- 
sand troops, and also a very strong battery on St. Cyres's Hill, where 



there was plenty of room to work 200 great guns. I should think it 
'impossible for an army to pass the bottom through Honiton, as the 
guns on that battery would very well carry balls as far as Fenny 

So great were the preparations made by General Simcoe in this 
part of the country that he left not a stone unturned, all the soldiers 
that were under his command in the four counties of Dorsetshire, 
Devonshire, Somersetshire and Cornwall were well trained, as the 
General often had sham fights. There was one very grand one; there 
were four thousand soldiers present, and, I should think, ten thousand 
lookers-on. The battle began at Fenny Bridges; the Militia and 
Regulars were the French, and the Volunteers, Yeomanry Cavalry 
and Volunteer Artillery with their cannon were to be the English. 
So the French retreated to Hembury Fort, owned by Admiral Graves, 
and on the lawns there was a very sharp attack. It was so sharp that 
there was great fear the soldiers would get in earnest, so orders were 
given for the Regulars to retreat to Hembury Fort Hill, the site of an 
ancient Roman camp and fort, the property of Admiral Graves, where 
the battle ended, and the English gained a complete victory. Hem- 
bury Fort, three miles from Wolford, was like a large fair with stands. 
The "French" encamped on Hembury Fort Hill for the night; the 
"tents looked very grand on the hill. After they were pitched, the 
evening gun was fired , at nine o'clock for all the soldiers to be in 
their tents. I was present and witnessed the whole of it. A few inci- 
dents happened. One young lad was very near being killed; he was 
close to the muzzle of a cannon when it was fired and the charge 
(but it was only powder) went to his head and face, so he was blinded. 
'Great praise was due to the officers and soldiers for their soldierlike 
manner in the sham fight. 

General Simcoe had another very large sham fight soon after this 
'at Totnes (in Devonshire, eight miles from Torquay). He generally 
had some regular regiments at the sham fights to instruct the Volun- 
teers and Militia, so by this means General Simcoe trained the Volun- 
. leers to become good soldiers, and fit for an army .to meet the French 
when they landed. At Wolford Lodge, General Simcoe was just about 
the middle of the Western District, so when there he was at his post, 
,and despatches were sent to him every day from the headquarters at 
Plymouth. There were, three dragoons at the half-way house, sta- 
tioned there to bring the despatches which came from Exeter and 
Plymouth. One of the dragoons came over to Wolford with des- 
patches at 12 o'clock at night. He came by Buckerall, four miles 
from Honiton, and up the Grange road, a private road from' Wql fora 1